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THE 


AMERICAN    CYCLOPAEDIA 


VOL.  XIII. 
PALESTINE-PRINTING. 


THE 


AMERICAN  CYCLOPEDIA: 


fopito  §irtwmt% 


OF 


GENERAL   KNOWLEDGE 


EDITED  BY 

GEORGE  RIPLEY  and  CHARLES  A.  DANA. 


VOLUME  XIII. 
PALESTINE-PRINTING. 


NEW    YORK: 
D.    APPLETON    AND    COMPANY 

549  AND  551  BROADWAY. 

LONDON:  16  LITTLE  BRITAIN. 
1875. 


ff& 


Entered,  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1861,  by  D.  APPLETON  AND  COMPANY,  in  the 
Clerk's  Office  of  the  District  Court  of  the  United  States  for  the  Southern  District  of  New  York. 

Entered,  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  18*75,  by  D.  APPLETON  AND  COMPANY,  in  the 
Office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington. 


Among  the  Contributors  to  the  Thirteenth  Volume  of  the  Revised  Edition  are 

the  following : 

H.  Clarke,  M.  D.,  Harvard  Univer- 


Jose  de  Armas  y  Cespedes,  Havana,  Cuba. 

Poey,  Felipe. 
Poet,  Andbes. 

Paul  Arpin,  late  Editor  of  the  Courrier  des 
Mats-  Unis. 

Palissy,  Bebnaed. 
Pascal,  Blaise. 

Hoffman  Atkinson. 

Pigeon  English. 

Henry  Carey  Baird,  Philadelphia. 

Political  Economy. 

S.  L.  M.  Barlow. 

Piquet. 

"WlLLARD  BARTLETT. 
Papua. 

Persia. 

Prof.  C.  W.  Bennett,  D.  D.,  Syracuse  Univer- 
sity. 

Peck,  George. 

Peck,  Jesse  Tbuesdell. 

Peirce,  Bradford  Kinney. 

Thomas  I.  Bigham,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

Julius  Bing. 

Parma, 

Pesth, 

Petrarch,  Francesco, 
f   Pisa, 

and  other  articles  in  biography,  geography,  and 

history. 

Commodore  George  S.  Blake,  IT.  S.  N\,  late 
Superintendent  of  the  U.  S.  Naval  Acad- 
emy, Annapolis,  Md. 

Paulding,  Hiram. 
Preble,  Edward. 

Francis  C.  Bowman. 

Pattl,  Adelina  Maria  Clorinda. 
Patti,  Carlotta. 
Phillips,  Adelaide. 

Rev.  Charles  H.  Brigham,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

Paulicians. 
Photius. 

Edward  L.  Burlingame,  Ph.  D. 

Periodical  Literature, 
Polar  Seas  (recent  explorations), 

and  other  articles  in  biography  and  history. 

Rev.  Charles  P.  Bush,  D.  D. 

Pabkeb,  Peter. 
Perkins,  Justin. 
Prime,  Samuel  Iren^us. 
Prime,  Edward  Dorb  Griffin. 
Peime,  William  Cowpeb. 

Prof.  H.  C.  Cameron,  D.  D.,  Princeton  Col- 
lege. 

Pbinceton  College,  N.  J. 

Robert  Carter. 

Palestine, 

Parkman,  Francis, 

Parthia, 

Penn,  William, 

Pierce,  Franklin, 

Poe,  Edgar  Allan, 

Prescott,  William  Hickling, 

and  other  articles  in  biography  and  history. 

John  D.  Champlin,  Jr. 

Palimpsest, 

Papyrus, 

Pension, 

PlANOFOBTE, 

Pobto  Rico, 

and  other  articles  in  geography  and  history. 


Prof.  E. 

sity. 

Panose  atine, 
Pepsin, 

and  other  articles  in  materia  medica. 

Hon.  T.  M.  Cooley,  LL.  D.,  Michigan  Univer- 
sity, Ann  Arbor. 

Pabliament  (in  part), 
Pabtnership  (in  part), 
Payment, 
Power, 

and  other  legal  articles. 

Prof.  J.  C.  Dalton,  M.  D. 

Pancbeas, 
Pabalysis, 
Physiology, 
Plica  Polonica, 

and  other  medical  and  physiological  articles. 

Rev.  H.  M.  Dexter,  D.  D.,  Editor  of  the 
"  Congregationalist,"  Boston,  Mass. 

Pond,  Enoch. 

Prof.  John  W.  Draper,  M.  D.,  University 
Medical  College,  New  York. 

Photography. 

Eaton  S.  Drone. 

Patents,  Law  of, 

Pennsylvania, 

Police, 

Post, 

and  other  articles. 

Capt.  C.  E.  Dutton,  U.  S.  Ordnance  Corps, 
Washington  Arsenal,  D.  C. 

Powell,  John  Wesley. 

Robert  T.  Edes,  M.  D.,  Harvard  University. 

Articles  in  materia  medica. 

W.  M.  Ferriss. 

Personal  Equation. 
Porisms. 

Prof.  G.  W.  Fisher,  D.  D.,  Yale  College. 

Porter,  Noah. 

Gen.  W.  B.  Franklin,  Superintendent  Colt's 
Patent  Firearms  Manufacturing  Company, 
Hartford,  Conn. 

Pistol. 

Prof.  E.  H.  Gillett,  D.  D.,  University  of  the 
City  of  New  York. 

Philosophy  (in  part). 
Presbyterianism. 

Prof.  B.  A.  Gould,  Director  of  the  National 
Observatory  of  the  Argentine  Republic  at 
Cordova. 

Peirce,  Benjamin. 

Lieutenant-Commander  Henry  H.  Gorringe, 
U.  S.  K,  Washington,  D.  0. 

Plata,  Eio  de  la. 

Alfred  H.  Guernsey. 

Petersburg,  Siege  of. 
Polk,  Leonidas. 
Pope,  John. 
Porter,  Fitz  John. 
Printing. 

John  R.  G.  Hassard. 

Paeby,  Sir  William  Edwaed. 
Pebez,  Antonio. 
Pope,  Alexandeb. 

J.  W.  Hawes. 

Philadelphia,  Pa., 
Poetland,  Maine, 
Portland,  Oregon, 
Pbince  Edwaed  Island, 

and  other  articles  in  American  geography. 


Yl 


CONTRIBUTORS  TO  THE  THIRTEENTH  VOLUME 


Prof.  Feedeeick  H.  Hedge,  D.  D.,  Harvard 
University. 

Paul,  Saint. 

M.  Heilpein.  # 

Poland. 

Poland,  Language  and  Litebatube  of. 

Chaeles  L.  Hogeboom,  M.  D. 

Palladium. 

Phosphorescence. 

Phosphorus. 

Platinum. 

Potassium. 

Pottery  and  Porcelain  (manufacture). 

W.  H.  Huntington,  Paris,  France. 

Paris. 

Rossitee  Johnson. 

Phillips,  "Wendell, 
Pollok,  Robert, 

and  other  articles  in  biography  and  geography. 

Prof.  C.  A.  Joy,  Ph.  D.,  Columbia  College, 
New  York. 

Paraffine, 
Picric  Acid, 
Potash, 

and  other  chemical  articles. 

Prof.  A.  C.  Kendeick,  D.  D.,  Rochester  Uni- 
versity. 

Plato. 

Prof.    S.  Kneeland,  M.  D.,   Mass.  Inst,  of 
Technology,  Boston. 

Parrot, 

Partridge, 

Philosophical  Anatomy, 

Planarians, 

Polyp, 

Porcupine, 

and  other  articles  in  zoology. 

Rev.  Samuel  Lockwood,  Ph.  D.,  Freehold,  N.  J. 

Peters,  Christian  Henry  Frederick. 

Prof.  Benjamin  W.  McCeeadt,  M.  D.,  Belle- 
vue  Hospital  Medical  College,  New  York. 

Plague. 

Pleurisy. 

Pneumonia. 

James  E.  Munson. 

Phonography. 

Rev.  Feanklin  Noble. 

PnELPS,  Austin, 

Phelps,  Elizabeth  Stuart  (two), 

Pisgah, 

and  other  articles  in  biography  and  geography. 

Feedeeick  Law  Olmsted. 

Pabk. 

Rev.  Beenaed  O'Reilly,  D.  D. 

Passaglia,  Cablo,  • 

Paul,  Popes, 
Pebeone,  Giovanni, 
Pius,  Popes, 

and  other  articles  in  ecclesiastical  history. 

Prof.  S.  F.  Peckham,  University  of  Minnesota. 

Peat. 

Petroleum. 

Petboleum  Pboduots. 

Count  L.  F.  de  Pouetales,  Museum  of  Com- 
parative Zoology,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

Polab  Seas  (geography). 

"William  C.  Peime. 

POTTEBY  AND  POBCELAIN  (history). 

Richaed  A.  Peoctoe,  A.  M.,  London. 

Paballax, 

Planet, 

Pbecession  of  the  Equinoxes, 
and  other  astronomical  articles. 

Prof.  A.  Rauschenbusch,  D.  D.,   Rochester 
Theological  Seminary. 

Peasants1  Wab. 


Prof.  C.  Y.  Riley,   State  Entomologist,   St. 
Louis,  Mo. 

Phylloxeea. 
Potato  Bug. 

Heney  M.  Robeet,  Major  of  Engineers,  U.  S. 
A.,  Milwaukee,  Wis. 

Pabliamentaby  Law  and  Pbivileges  (in  part). 

Prof.  Ogden  N.  Rood,  Ph.  D.,  Columbia  Col- 
lege, New  York. 

Pendulum,  Hoeizontal. 

F.  B.  Sanboen,  Concord,  Mass. 

Paupebism. 

Prof.  A.  J.  Schem. 

Pelagius, 
Pentateuch, 
Plymouth  Beethren, 

and  other  articles  in  biography  and  history. 

J.  W.  Scott. 

Postage  Stamps. 
J.  G.  Shea,  LL.  D. 

Pawnees, 
Pequots, 
pottawattamies, 

and  other  articles  on  American  Indians. 

William  Gilmoee  Simms,  LL.  D.,  Charleston, 

S.  C. 

Pickens,  Andrew. 
Pickens,  Feancis  W. 
Pinckney,  Family,  of. 

Prof.   J.   A.  Spencee,  D.  D.,  College  of  the 
City  of  New  York. 

Pearson,  John.  v 

Potter,  Alonzo. 
Potter,  Horatio. 

Rev.  William  L.  Symonds,  Portland,  Me. 

Philosophy  (in  part). 

Prof.  Geoege  Thuebee. 

Palm, 

Passion  Flower, 

Peach, 

Pine, 

Pitcher  Plants, 

Plant, 

and  other  botanical  articles. 

Prof.  G.  A.  F.  Van  Rhyn,  Ph.  D. 

Papuan  Race  and  Languages, 

Phoenicia, 

Phonetics, 

Pompeii, 

and  other  archaeological,  oriental,  and  philological 

articles. 
I.  DE  VEITELLE. 
Panama, 
Paraguay, 
Patagonia, 
Peru, 
Portugal, 
Portugal,  Language  and  Literature  of, 

and  other  geographical  articles. 

Major  W.  T.  Walthall,  Mobile,  Ala. 

PEN8AC0LA. 

Pensacola  Bay. 

Rev.  John  Weiss,  Milton,  Mass. 

Parker,  Theodore. 

S.  R.  Wells. 

Phrenology. 

C.  S.  Weyman. 

Peel,  Sir  Robert  (two). 
Peecival,  James  Gates. 
Portugal,  Wines  op. 

Prof.  W.  D.  Whitney,  LL.  D.,  Yale  College. 
New  Haven,  Conn. 

Pebsia,  Language  and  Literature  of. 

Gen.  James  Haeeison  Wilson. 

Parrott,  Robert  Parker. 


*7^ 


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PALEOTOTB 

English  Miles 
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THE 


AMERICAN    CYCLOPAEDIA 


PALESTINE 


PALESTINE  (Gr.  Jlafaurrivy,  derived  from  the 
Heb.  Pelesheth,  Philistia),  a  country  of 
western  Asia,  now  forming  a  part  of  the  Turk- 
ish empire,  bounded  N.  by  the  Lebanon  moun- 
tains, which  separate  it  from  Ccele-Syria,  E. 
and  S.  by  the  desert  which  separates  it  from 
Arabia  and  Egypt,  and  W.  by  the  Mediterra- 
nean. It  lies  between  lat.  30°  40'  and  33°  15' 
N.,  and  Ion.  33°  45'  and  36°  30'  E. ;  length 
about  200  m.,  average  breadth  60  m. ;  area, 
12,000  sq.  m. ;  pop.  estimated  at  300,000.  The 
name  Palestine  was  never  applied  by  the  an- 
cient Hebrews  to  anything  more  than  the 
southern  portion  of  the  coast  region,  as  synony- 
mous with  Philistia;  and  when  it  occurs  in 
the  English  translation  of  the  Bible  it  has  this 
sense.  The  earlier  Greek  usage  was  the  same ; 
but  under  the  Komans  it  became  the  general 
name  for  the  whole  country  of  the  Jews,  and 
Josephus  uses  it  in  both  the  early  and  the  later 
application.  Modern  Palestine  is  included  in 
the  vilayet  of  Syria,  and  contains  the  two  sub- 
pashalics  of  Acre  and  Jerusalem.  It  is  a  "  land 
of  hills  and  valleys."  It  is  remarkably  sepa- 
rated by  mountain  and  desert  from  other  coun- 
tries, and  its  seashore  is  without  any  good 
harbor.  The  ancient  harbor  of  Csesarea,  the 
principal  port  during  the  Eoman  dominion, 
was  entirely  artificial,  and  the  ruins  of  its  break- 
water are  now  only  a  dangerous  reef.  From 
Tyre,  which  is  K  of  Palestine  proper,  to  the 
borders  of  Egypt,  there  is  now  but  one  port, 
Jaffa,  and  this  only  allows  landing  by  boats 
under  favorable  circumstances.  From  the  coast 
on  the  west  the  land  rises  rapidly  to  a  moun- 
tainous height  in  the  centre,  and  declines  on 
the  other  side  to  the  low  level  of  the  desert, 
being  cleft  through  the  centre  N.  and  S.  by  the 
deep  valley  of  the  Jordan.  This  depression, 
called  by  the  Arabs  el-Ghor,  is  the  most  char- 
acteristic feature  of  the  physical  geography  of 
Palestine,  and  corresponds  with  the  valley  of 


the  Orontes  and  Leontes  in  Coele-Syria,  and 
with  the  wady  Arabah  in  Arabia  Petrsea.  The 
coast  level  varies  much  in  breadth,  being  in 
some  places  only  a  narrow  pass  between  the 
mountains  and  the  sea,  and  in  others  expand- 
ing into  plains  of  considerable  width.  The 
southern  portion  of  the  coast  level  is  termed 
in  the  Scriptures  the  plain  or  low  country 
(Heb.  Shefelah),  and  the  western  part  of  it  was 
the  abode  of  the  Philistines.  This  plain  is  very 
fertile,  and  is  covered  with  corn  fields.  N.  of 
it  is  a  plain  less  level  and  fertile,  the  Sharon 
of  the  Scriptures,  a  land  of  fine  pastures, 
which  under  the  Roman  empire  contained 
Csesarea,  the  Roman  capital  of  Palestine.  Be- 
yond Csesarea  the  plain  grows  narrower,  un- 
til it  is  terminated  by  Mt.  Carmel,  N.  of  which 
lies  the  plain  of  Acre,  about  15  m.  long  from 
N.  to  S.,  and  about  5  m.  in  average  breadth 
from  the  seashore  to  the  hills  on  the  east. 
Mt.  Carmel  is  a  ridge  about  10  m.  long  and 
1,500  ft.  high,  stretching  N.  by  W.,  and  ter- 
minating at  the  sea  in  a  high  promontory 
which  encloses  on  the  south  the  bay  of  Acre. 
North  of  Mt.  Carmel  are  the  Lebanon  moun- 
tains (in  the  wider  sense),  which  consist  of  two 
parallel  ranges  running  N.  into  Syria,  and  en- 
closing between  them  a  beautiful  and  fertile 
plain,  called  in  Scripture  the  valley  of  Leba- 
non, and  by  the  classic  writers  Coele-Syria,  the 
"  hollow  or  enclosed  Syria."  This  plain,  only 
the  extreme  southern  portion  of  which  is  in 
Palestine,  is  90  m.  long  and  from  10  to  20  m. 
broad,  except  at  the  S.  end,  where  it  is  nar- 
rower. The  western  range  of  these  mountains 
runs  nearly  parallel  to  the  sea,  into  which  it 
projects  several  promontories  ;  and  its  average 
elevation  is  about  7,000  ft.,  while  its  loftiest 
summits,  including  Jebel  Timarun  (10,533  ft. 
according  to  Burton)  and  Jebel  Makmel  (9,998 
ft.),  are  covered  with  perpetual  snow.  These 
summits  are  outside  of  Palestine,  as  is  the  nat- 


PALESTINE 


ural.  amphitheatre  in  which  grow  the  finest 
specimens  that  remain  of  the  famous  cedars 
that  once  covered  all  the  mountains  of  Leba- 
non. This  great  western  range  was  called  Li- 
banus  by  the  classic  writers,  and  to  the  eastern 
range  they  gave  the  name  of  Anti-Libanus.  In 
the  Scriptures  both  ranges  are  called  Lebanon. 
They  are  composed  of  masses  of  limestone  rock. 
The  general  elevation  of  Anti-Libanus  is  less 
than  that  of  Libanus,  but  at  its  southern  ex- 
tremity rises  the  conical  snow-clad  peak  of 
Hermon,  called  by  the  Arabs  Jebel  esh-Sheikh 
(the  chief),  or  eth-Thelj  (the  snowy),  to  the 
height  of  about  10,000  ft.,  rivalling  the  highest 
peaks  of  Libanus,  and  overlooking  all  Pales- 
tine. S.  of  Hermon  the  Anti-Libanus  sinks 
into  the  hills  of  Galilee,  which  rise  from  a 
table  land  elevated  about  1,000  ft.  above  the 
sea,  and  sloping  on  the  east  to  the  Jordan,  on 
the  west  to  the  plain  of  Acre,  and  on  the  south 
to  the  plain  of  Esdraelon.  The  last  named 
plain,  extending  from  the  sea  to  the  Jordan, 
is  often  mentioned  in  the  Scriptures  under  the 
names  of  Megiddo,  Jezreel,  and  others,  and 
was  the  great  battle  field  of  Jewish  history. 
It  is  traversed  by  ridges  known  as  the  moun- 
tains of  Gilboa  and  Little  Hermon.  On  its  N, 
E.  border  stands  Mt.  Tabor,  now  known  as 
Jebel  et-Tur,  the  traditional  scene  of  the  trans- 
figuration. Though  only  1,800  ft.  high,  it  is 
one  of  the  most  remarkable  and  interesting  of 
the  mountains  of  Palestine.  It  is  sometimes 
called  the  southern  termination  of  the  Lebanon 
range,  but  rises  abruptly  from  the  plain,  and 
is  entirely  insulated  except  on  the  west,  where 
a  narrow  ridge  joins  it  to  the  rocky  hills  about 
Nazareth.  It  is  densely  covered  with  trees 
and  shrubs,  except  a  small  tract  on  the  top. 
Its  isolated  summit  commands  a  panoramic 
view  of  the  principal  places  of  Samaria  and 
Galilee,  and  was  the  rendezvous  of  Barak  from 
which  he  rushed  down  to  the  defeat  of  Sisera. 
In  the  middle  ages  it  was  the  resort  of  many 
hermits.  It  is  now  covered  with  ruins  of  a 
fortress  of  Saracenic  architecture,  while  there 
are  also  remains  of  a  far  earlier  period.  S.  of 
the  plain  of  Esdraelon  stretches  an  unbroken 
tract  of  mountains,  about  30  m.  in  breadth, 
and  rising  in  height  toward  the  south  till  near 
Hebron  it  attains  an  elevation  of  3,000  ft. 
above  the  sea.  The  northern  part  of  this 
region  comprised  Samaria,  and  the  southern 
Judea.  The  principal  mountains  of  Samaria 
are  Ebal  and  Gerizim,  which  rise  to  the  height 
of  about  2,700  and  2,600  ft.  respectively  above 
the  sea,  the  former  N.  and  the  latter  S.  of  a 
narrow  valley  in  which  stands  the  town  of  Na- 
blus,  the  ancient  Shechem,  the  capital  of  the 
ten  tribes  after  their  secession  from  the  rest  of 
Israel. — The  hills  of  Judea  are  masses  of  bar- 
ren rock,  for  the  most  part  of  moderate  ap- 
parent elevation,  though  their  general  height 
above  the  sea  is  2,000  or  3,000  ft.  On  their  E. 
face  these  mountains  descend  abruptly  to  the 
great  valley  of  the  Jordan,  their  general  slope 
being  furrowed  by  steep  and  rugged  gorges, 


which  form  the  beds  of  winter  torrents.  The 
precipitous  descent  from  Jerusalem  to  Jericho 
is  famous  for  difficulty  and  danger,  and  is  an 
example  of  the  valleys  descending  to  the  Jor- 
dan through  all  its  length.  The  W.  slope  of 
the  hills  is  more  gradual  and  gentle,  but  still 
difficult  of  passage,  and  the  central  heights  of 
Palestine  are  a  series  of  natural  fastnesses  of 
great  strength ;  and  both  in  ancient  and  mod- 
ern times  armies  have  traversed  the  western 
plains  from  Egypt  to  Phoenicia  without  dis- 
turbing the  inhabitants  of  the  hill  country. 
The  Jordan  is  the  only  important  river  of 
Palestine.  Its  sources  are  mainly  on  the  south- 
ern and  western  declivity  of  Mt.  Hermon,  and 
after  a  short  course  its  head  streams  unite  and 
flow  into  Lake  Merom,  now  called  Lake  Huleh. 
After  quitting  this  the  river  is  sluggish  and 
turbid  for  a  short  distance,  till  it  passes  over 
a  rocky  bed  where  its  mud  is  deposited,  and 
then  rushes  on  through  a  narrow  volcanic  val- 
ley. About  13  m.  below  Lake  Huleh  it  enters 
the  lake  of  Gennesaret  or  Tiberias,  or  sea  of 
Galilee,  which  is  between  600  and  700  ft.  lower 
than  the  level  of  the  Mediterranean.  On  is- 
suing from  the  S.  end  of  this  lake  the  river 
enters  a  valley  from  5  to  10  m.  wide,  through 
which  its  course  is  so  winding  that  within  a 
space  of  60  m.  in  length  the  river  traverses  200 
m.  and  descends  27  rapids  through  the  ever 
deepening  valley,  until  it  finally  enters  the 
Dead  sea  at  a  depression  of  a  little  over  1,300 
ft.  below  the  level  of  the  Mediterranean,  after 
a  total  direct  course  from  N.  to  S.  of  120  m. 
At  the  mouth  the  river  is  180  yards  wide. 
Except  the  Jordan,  Palestine  has  no  streams 
considerable  enough  to  be  called  rivers ;  those 
so  called  in  its  history  are  mere  brooks  or 
torrents  which  become  dry  in  summer.  The 
Kishon,  now  Nahr  el-Mukutta,  which  enters 
the  bay  of  Acre  near  Mt.  Carmel,  flows  from 
Mt.  Tabor,  and  in  winter  and  spring  is  a  large 
stream,  while  during  the  rest  of  the  year  it 
has  water  only  in  the  last  7  m.  of  its  course. 
The  Kanah  enters  the  Mediterranean  between 
Caesarea  and  Jaffa.  The  Arnon,  often  men- 
tioned in  Scripture,  is  now  called  the  wady 
Modjeb ;  it  rises  near  the  S.  E.  border  of  the 
country,  and  flows  circuit ously  to  the  Dead 
sea.  The  Jabbok,  now  the  wady  Zurka,  N. 
of  the  Arnon,  flows  a  parallel  course  into  the 
Jordan.  The  brook  Kedron  flows  through  the 
valley  of  Jehoshaphat,  on  the  E.  side  of  Je- 
rusalem, to  the  Dead  sea,  but  is  merely  a  tor- 
rent and  not  a  constant  stream.  Springs  and 
fountains  of  remarkable  size,  however,  are 
found  in  different  parts  of  the  country.  The 
principal  lakes  are  the  Dead  sea  in  the  south 
and  the  lake  of  Gennesaret  in  the  north. — In 
many  parts  of  the  country,  and  especially  in 
the  valley  of  the  Jordan  and  the  vicinity  of 
the  Dead  sea,  there  are  indications  of  volcanic 
origin,  and  earthquakes  are  often  felt.  The 
mountains  are  mostly  of  oolitic  limestone  of  a 
light  gray  color.  Black  basalt  is  very  com- 
mon.    The  general  character  of  the  scenery  is 


PALESTINE 


stern  and  sombre.  "  Above  all  other  countries 
in  the  world,"  says  Dean  Stanley,  "  it  is  a  land 
of  ruins.  In  Judea  it  is  hardly  an  exaggera- 
tion to  say  that,  while  for  miles  and  miles 
there  is  no  appearance  of  present  life  or  habi- 
tation, except  the  occasional  goatherd  on  the 
hillside  or  gathering  of  women  at  the  wells, 
there  is  hardly  a  hilltop  of  the  many  within 
sight  which  is  not  covered  with  the  vestiges  of 
some  fortress  or  city  of  former  ages.  The  ruins 
we  now  see  are  of  the  most  distant  ages :  Sara- 
cenic, crusading,  Roman,  Grecian,  Jewish,  ex- 
tending perhaps  even  to  the  old  Oanaanitish 
remains  before  the  arrival  of  Joshua."  (See 
Bashan.) — Palestine  has  a  mild  and  steady  cli- 
mate, with  a  rainy  season  in  the  latter  part  of 
autumn,  winter  and  a  dry  and  almost  rainless 
season  constituting  the  rest  of  the  year.  The 
heat  of  summer  is  oppressive  in  the  low  lands, 
especially  in  the  deep  depression  of  the  Jordan 
valley,  but  not  among  the  hills ;  and  the  cold 
of  winter  is  not  sufficient  to  freeze  the  ground, 
though  snow  sometimes  falls  to  the  depth  of 
a  foot  at  Jerusalem.  Though  the  mountains 
have  an  exceedingly  barren  appearance,  the 
plains  and  valleys  are  remarkably  fertile.  The 
valley  S.  of  Bethlehem  is  irrigated  and  culti- 
vated with  care,  and  has  a  rich  and  beauti- 
ful appearance.  The  hill  country  of  the  south 
is  dryer  and  less  productive  than  that  of  the 
north.  In  ancient  times  even  the  mountains 
were  cultivated  by  means  of  terraces ;  but  in 
consequence  of  wars  and  the  depopulation  of 
the  country,  the  terraces  have  been  neglected 
and  broken  down,  and  the  soil  of  the  mountains 
swept  by  rains  and  torrents  into  the  valleys. 
On  some  of  the  hills,  however,  the  terraces 
have  been  rebuilt,  and  planted  with  olives, 
figs,  and  the  vine ;  but  the  greater  part  are 
either  bare  or  covered  with  a  rough  growth  of 
stunted  oak.  There  are  now  no  forests,  and 
most  of  the  trees  of  the  country  are  small. 
The  olive,  fig,  and  pomegranate  are  largely 
cultivated,  and  are  the  most  common  trees. 
Besides  these  are  the  terebinth  or  turpentine 
tree,  the  oak,  sycamore,  mulberry,  pine,  pis- 
tachio, laurel,  cypress,  myrtle,  almond,  apri- 
cot, walnut,  apple,  pear,  orange,  and  lemon. 
The  number  of  shrubs  and  wild  flowers  is  very 
great,  and  always  attracts  the  attention  of 
travellers ;  and  there  is  such  a  prevalence  of 
anemones,  wild  tulips,  poppies,  and  other  red 
flowers,  as  to  give  a  scarlet  color  to  the  land- 
scape. Palestine  has  always  been  famous  for 
its  grapes,  which  are  remarkable  alike  for  size 
and  flavor.  The  chief  agricultural  productions 
are  wheat,  barley,  maize,  and  rye.  Rice  is 
grown  on  the  marshy  borders  of  the  Jordan 
and  some  of  the  lakes.  Peas,  beans,  and  pota- 
toes are  cultivated,-  and  also  tobacco,  cotton, 
and  sugar  cane.  The  agriculture  is  of  a  rude 
and  negligent  character  ;  the  fields  are  seldom 
fenced,  the  few  divisions  being  by  dilapidated 
stone  walls,  or  by  irregular  hedges  of  the 
prickly  pear.  More  attention  is  paid  to  pas- 
toral pursuits,  and  flocks  of  sheep  and  goats 


are  very  numerous.  Cattle  are  few  and  poor. 
The  roads  being  impracticable  for  wheeled 
vehicles,  camels  are  the  principal  beasts  of 
burden.  Asses  and  mules  are  much  used  for 
riding,  and  fine  Arabian  horses  are  sometimes 
met  with.  The  chief  wild  animals  are  bears, 
wild  boars,  panthers,  hysenas,  jackals,  wolves, 
foxes,  and  gazelles.  Lions,  which  were  found 
here  in  ancient  times,  are  now  extinct.  Birds 
are  few  in  number,  though  there  are  many  dis- 
tinct species,  among  which  may  be  mentioned 
the  eagle,  vulture,  osprey,  kite,  hawk,  crow, 
owl,  cuckoo,  kingfisher,  woodpecker,  wood- 
cock, partridge,  quail,  stork,  heron,  pelican, 
swan,  goose,  and  duck.  Venomous  serpents 
are  unknown,  and  the  most  noxious  animals 
are  scorpions.  Mosquitoes  are  very  common, 
and  bees  are  extremely  plentiful,  depositing 
their  honey  in  hollow  trees  and  holes  in  the 
rocks.  Locusts  occasionally  appear  in  vast 
swarms  and  devour  every  species  of  vegeta- 
tion.— The  present  inhabitants  of  Palestine 
are  a  mixed  race  of  very  varied  origin.  The 
Mohammedans  are  the  dominant  and  most  nu- 
merous sect,  and  are  composed  of  a  few  Turks 
who  occupy  the  higher  government  situations, 
and  of  the  great  body  of  the  common  people, 
who  are  descended  from  mixed  Arab,  Greek, 
and  ancient  Syrian  ancestors,  the  last  element 
greatly  preponderating.  They  are  noble-look- 
ing, graceful,  and  courteous,  but  illiterate, 
fanatical,  and  indolent.  The  Christians  are 
almost  entirely  of  Syrian  race,  descendants  of 
those  who  occupied  the  country  when  it  was 
conquered  by  the  Saracens.  They  belong 
mostly  to  the  Greek  church,  of  which  there 
is  a  patriarch  at  Jerusalem,  who  has  ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction  over  the  whole  of  Syria. 
Under  him  are  eight  bishops,  whose  sees  are 
Nazareth,  Acre,  Lydda,  Gaza,  Sebaste,  Nablus, 
Philadelphia,  and  Petra.  There  are  also  a 
few  Maronites  and  Roman  Catholics  in  the 
large  towns,  and  in  Jerusalem  about  200  Ar- 
menians under  a  patriarch  of  their  own  faith. 
The  Jews,  mostly  from  Spain,  with  a  few 
from  Poland  and  Germany,  are  about  10,000 
in  number,  and  live  almost  exclusively  in  the 
towns  of  Jerusalem,  Hebron,  Tiberias,  and 
Safet.  The  population  is  less  than  one  tenth 
of  what  it  was  in  ancient  times. — Palestine 
was  first  known  as  Canaan.  But  this  name 
was  confined  to  the  country  between  the  Medi- 
terranean and  the  Jordan,  the  principal  region 
E.  of  that  river  being  called  the  land  of  Gilead. 
Palestine  was  subsequently  called  the  land  of 
promise,  the  land  of  Israel,  Judah,  Judea,  and 
the  Holy  Land.  The  term  Judea,  though  in 
later  periods  of  Jewish  history  frequently  ap- 
plied to  the  whole  country,  belonged,  strictly 
speaking,  only  to  the  southern  portion  of  it. 
In  the  earliest  times  in  which  Palestine  or 
Canaan  becomes  known  to  us,  it  was  divided 
among  various  tribes,  whom  the  Jews  called 
collectively  Canaanites.  The  precise  locality 
of  these  nations  is  not  in  every  case  distinctly 
known.    The  Kenites,  the  Kenizzites,  the  Kad- 


s 


PALESTINE 


monites,  and  a  part  of  the  Amorites  lived  E. 
of  the  Jordan ;  while  W.  of  that  river  dwelt 
the  Hittites,  the  Perizzites,  the  Jebusites,  and 
most  of  the  Amorites,  in  the  hill  country  of 
the  south ;  the  Oanaanites  proper,  in  the  mid- 
dle; the  Girgashites,  along  the  E.  border  of 
the  lake  of  Gennesaret ;  and  the  Hivites,  most- 
ly in  the  north  among  the  mountains  of  Leb- 
anon. The  southern  part  of  the  coast  was 
occupied  by  the  Philistines  and  the  northern 
by  the  Phoenicians.  After  the  conquest  of  Ca- 
naan by  the  Israelites  under  Moses  and  Joshua, 
the  land  was  distributed  among  the  tribes. 
Judah,  Simeon,  Benjamin,  and  Dan  occupied 
the  south;  Ephraim,  half  of  Manasseh,  and 
Issachar,  the  middle;  and  Zebulon,  Naphtali, 
and  Asber,  the  north.  Keuben,  Gad,  and  the 
other  half  of  Manasseh  were  settled  beyond 
the  Jordan.  After  the  division  into  two  king- 
doms by  the  secession  of  the  ten  tribes  (about 
975  B.  C),  the  boundary  line  between  them 
was  the  northern  limit  of  the  tribe  of  Benja- 
min. In  the  time  of  Christ  Palestine  was  sub- 
ject to  the  Romans,  and  the  country  W.  of  the 
Jordan  was  divided  into  the  provinces  of  Gali- 
lee, Samaria,  and  Judea.  Galilee  was  that  part 
of  Palestine  N.  of  the  plain  of  Esdraelon,  and 
was  divided  into  lower  or  southern  and  upper 
or  northern  Galilee.  Samaria  occupied  nearly 
the  middle  of  Palestine.  Judea  as  a  province 
corresponded  to  the  NV  and  W.  parts  of  the  an- 
cient kingdom  of  Judah ;  but  the  S.  E.  portion 
formed  a  part  of  the  territory  of  Idumaea.  On 
the  other  side  of  the  Jordan  the  country  was 
called  Peraea,  and  was  divided  into  eight  dis- 
tricts, viz. :  1,  Peraea  in  a  limited  sense,  which 
was  the  southernmost  district,  extending  from 
the  river  or  brook  Arnon  to  the  river  Jabbok ; 
2,  Gilead,  N".  of  the  Jabbok;  3,  Decapolis,  or 
the  district  of  ten  cities,  which,  as  nearly  as 
can  be  ascertained,  were  Scythopolis  or  Beth- 
shan  (which  however  was  on  the  W.  side  of 
the  Jordan),  Hippos,  Gadara,  Pella,  Philadel- 
phia or  Kabbah,  Dion,  Canatha,  Galasa  or  Ge- 
rasa,  Raphana,  and  perhaps  Damascus;  4,  Gau- 
lonitis,  extending  N".  E.  of  the  upper  Jordan 
and  of  the  lake  of  Gennesaret ;  5^  Batanea,  E. 
and  S.  E.  of  Gaulonitis;  6,  Auranitis,  with 
Ituraea,  jST.  E.  of  Batanea,  now  known  as  the 
desert  of  Hauran ;  7,  Trachonitis,  N.  of  Aura- 
nitis ;  8,  Abilene,  in  the  extreme  north,  among 
the  mountains  of  Anti-Libanus. — The  earlier 
part  of  the  history  of  Palestine  is  treated  in 
the  article  Hebrews.  The  country  remained 
subject  to  the  Roman  and  Byzantine  emperors 
for  more  than  six  centuries  after  Christ.  The 
Jews,  after  frequent  rebellions,  in  one  of  which, 
A.  D.  70,  Jerusalem  was  destroyed  by  Titus, 
were  mostly  driven  from  the  country  and  scat- 
tered as  slaves  or  exiles  over  the  world.  With 
the  spread  of  Christianity,  Palestine  became 
the  resort  of  vast  numbers  of  pilgrims,  and  Je- 
rusalem was  made  the  seat  of  a  patriarch.  The 
emperor  Oonstantine  and  his  mother  Helena 
erected  throughout  the  land  costly  memori- 
als of  Christian  faith,  marking  with  churches, 


chapels,  or  altars  every  spot  supposed  to  have 
been  the  scene  of  the  acts  of  the  Saviour. .  In 
614  the  Persians  under  Chosroes  II.  invaded 
Palestine,  and,  assisted  by  the  Jews  to  the 
number  of  26,000,  captured  Jerusalem.  It  was 
regained  by  Heraclius,  but  was  conquered  by 
the  Mohammedan  Arabs  in  637.  Eor  the  next 
two  centuries  the  country  was  the  scene  of 
civil  war  between  the  rival  factions  of  the 
Ommiyade,  the  Abbasside,  and  the  Fatimite 
caliphs.  From  the  middle  of  the  8th  century 
it  was  a  province  of  the  Abbasside  caliphs  of 
Bagdad  till  969,  when  it  fell  under  the  power 
of  the  Fatimite  rulers  of  Egypt.  In  1076-'7 
it  was  conquered  by  the  Seljuk  Turks,  but  in 
1096  it  was  regained  by  the  Egyptian  sultans, 
in  whose  possession  it  was  when  invaded  by  the 
crusaders  in  the  following  year.  The  crusaders 
made  Godfrey  of  Bouillon  ruler  of  Jerusalem, 
and  he  and  his  successors  reigned  in  Palestine 
till  Jerusalem  was  retaken  by  Sultan  Saladin  in 
1187,  and  the  Christian  kingdom  overthrown. 
Two  years  afterward  another  crusade  was  un- 
dertaken under  Philip,  king  of  France,  Richard 
I.  of  England,  and  the  emperor  Frederick  Bar- 
bar  ossa  of  Germany.  It  did  not  regain  Jerusa- 
lem, but  partially  restored  the  Christian  rule 
upon  the  coast.  Another  crusade  in  1216,  chief- 
ly of  Hungarians  and  Germans,  met  with  little 
more  success.  Still  another,  undertaken  by 
the  emperor  Frederick  II.  in  1228,  resulted  in 
the  recovery  of  Jerusalem,  and  the  Christian 
dominion  was  reestablished  over  a  considerable 
extent  of  territory;  but  after  various  vicissi- 
tudes of  fortune,  and  in  spite  of  repeated  suc- 
cors from  Europe,  it  finally  yielded  to  the  arms 
of  the  Egyptian  Mamelukes  in  1291.  The  sul- 
tans of  Egypt  held  it  till  1517,  when  it  was 
conquered  by  the  Turks,  in  whose  possession 
it  has  remained  till  the  present  time,  with  the 
exception  of  a  brief  occupation  in  1839-41  by 
the  forces  of  the  rebellious  pasha  of  Egypt, 
Mehemet  Ali. — Much  attention  has  been  given 
in  recent  times  to  the  careful  exploration  of 
Palestine,  with  important  results  in  the  identi- 
fication of  places  named  in  Scripture.  This 
began  with  the  work  of  Dr.  Edward  Robin- 
son, the  results  of  which  were  published  in  his 
"Biblical  Researches"  (3  vols.  8vo,  Boston, 
1841)  and  "  Later  Researches  "  (1856).  Among 
the  most  recent  explorations  have  been  those 
of  the  British  society  organized  in  1865  under 
the  name  of  the  "  Palestine  Exploration  Fund," 
the  reports  of  which  appear  in  the  work  of 
Captains  Wilson  and  Warren,  entitled  "The 
Recovery  of  Jerusalem"  (8vo,  London,  1871), 
and  in  quarterly  statements  issued  since  that 
work.  Among  the  results  of  the  English  ex- 
plorations have  been  the  trigonometrical  sur- 
vey of  a  great  part  of  Samaria  and  Judea,  the 
discovery  of  some  remarkable  Greek  inscrip- 
tions of  Christian  origin  within  the  Haram 
enclosure  at  Jerusalem,  and  the  identification 
of  a  great  number  of  Biblical  and  classical  sites, 
among  which  are  the  rock  Etam,  Alexandrium, 
Chozeba,  Maarath,  the  cliff  of  Ziz,  Ilareth, 


PALESTRINA 


PALEY 


9 


Ziph,  Maon,  the  hill  of  Hachilah,  the  Levitical 
city  of  Debir,  Ecbatana  (a  Roman  city  on  Mt. 
Oarmel),  Archelais,  Sycaminum,  Eshtaol,  Seneh 
(the  scene  of  Jonathan's  victory  and  the  site  of 
the  Philistine  camp),  the  rock  Oreb,  the  wine 
press  of  Zeeb,  the  altar  of  Ed,  the  high  place 
of  Gibeon,  the  city  of  Nob,  and  the  cave  of 
Adullam.  Among  the  latest  identifications  is 
Bethabara,  the  scene  of  the  baptizing  by  John, 
which  Lieut.  0.  E.  Conder  in  1875  fixed  at  the 
ford  known  as  Makhadet  Abara,  holding  that 
it  is  a  different  place  from  the  Bethabara  of 
the  book  of  Judges.  The  American  "Pales- 
tine Exploration  Society,"  organized  in  1871, 
sent  out  expeditions  in  1872  under  command 
of  Lieut.  Edgar  L.  Steever,  jr.,  and  in  1874 
under  Prof.  H.  M.  Paine.  This  society  has 
left  the  region  about  Jerusalem  to  the  British 
organization  already  in  the  field,  and  has  un- 
dertaken to  survey  the  region  E.  of  the  Jor- 
dan. It  has  published  the  results  of  its  work 
in  three  "Statements,"  issued  in  1871,  1873, 
and  1875.  The  report  of  1875  states  that  Mt. 
Pisgah  has  been  identified  with  the  S.  W.  sum- 
mit of  a  triple  mountain  called  by  the  Arabs 
Jebel  Siaghah,  about  10  m.  E.  of  the  N.  end  of 
the  Dead  sea.  (See  Pisgah.) — Among  the  most 
important  works  on  Palestine,  besides  those 
already  named,  are  those  of  Kitto,  "  Palestine  " 
(London,  1841);  Munk,  Palestine:  description 
geographique,  historique  et  archeologique  (Paris, 
1845;  German  ed.  by  M.  A.  Levy,  Breslau, 
1871);  Lynch,  "Official  Report  of  the  Expedi- 
tion to  the  Dead  Sea"  (8vo,  Philadelphia,  1849) ; 
Churchill,  "Mount  Lebanon"  (4  vols.  8vo, 
London,  1853-'62);  Stanley,  "Sinai  and  Pales- 
tine" (8vo,  1855);  Prime,  "Tent  Life  in  the 
Holy  Land  "  (12mo,  New  York,  1857) ;  Porter, 
"  Handbook  for  Travellers  in  Syria  and  Pales- 
tine "  (2  vols.,  London,  1858.;  2d  ed.,  1868); 
Thomson,  "  The  Land  and  the  Book  "  (2  vols. 
8vo,  New  York,  1859);  Tristram,  "Topogra- 
phy of  the  Holy  Land"  (8vo,  1872);  and  Rit- 
ter,  Die  Brdhunde,  vols,  xiv.-xvii.,  translated 
into  English  under  the  title  of  "  Comparative 
Geography  of  Palestine  and  the  Sinaitic  Pen- 
insula" (4  vols.  8vo,  Edinburgh,  1866). 

PALESTRLYA  (anc.  Prameste),  a  town  of  Ita- 
ly, in  the^  province  and  23  m.  E.  S.  E.  of  Rome ; 
pop.  about  6,000.  It  is  built  almost  entirely 
on  the  site  of  the  ancient  temple  of  Fortune, 
which  after  its  restoration  by  Sulla  occupied 
the  whole  lower  slope  of  the  hill,  more  than 
2,000  ft.  high,  with  a  citadel  on  the  summit, 
which  was  replaced  by  a  mediaeval  castle.  The 
only  notable  buildings  are  the  deserted  Bar- 
berini  palace  and  the  church  of  San  Rosario, 
with  tombs  of  the  Barberini  and  Colonna  fam- 
ilies, the  latter  preponderating  here  during  the 
middle  ages.     (See  Pe^eneste.) 

PALESTRMA,  Giovanni  Pietro  Aloisio  da,  an  Ital- 
ian composer,  born  in  Palestrina  in  1524,  died 
in  Rome,  Feb.  2, 1594.  In  1551,  having  gained 
some  distinction  as  a  composer,  he  was  admit- 
ted among  the  singers  of  the  pontifical  chapel, 
and  a  few  years  later  was  made  chapelmaster 


by  Pope  Julius  III.,  to  whom  he  had  dedi- 
cated four  masses  for  four  voices.  He  was 
the  first  upon  whom  this  title  was  conferred. 
In  1555  he  was  dismissed  from  office  by  Paul 
IV.  for  having  married,  and  for  several  years 
he  was  successively  chapelmaster  at  the  church- 
es of  St.  John  Lateran  and  Santa  Maria  Mag- 
giore.  In  1571  he  was  appointed  chapelmas- 
ter of  St.  Peter's,  and  shortly  after  maestro 
to  the  congregation  of  the  Oratory.  The  sub- 
ject of  improving  ecclesiastical  music  having 
been  referred  by  the  council  of  Trent  to  a 
committee,  a  discussion  arose  respecting  the 
secular  tunes  which  then  formed  the  principal 
themes  of  most  masses  and  psalms.  Palestri- 
na, being  called  upon  to  compose  a  work  in  a 
more  simple  and  devotional  style,  for  the  sake 
of  contrast,  produced  his  celebrated  "Mass  of 
Pope  Marcellus."  His  music,  consisting  chief- 
ly of  masses,  psalms,  motets,  and  madrigals, 
is  grave  and  learned.  A  Staoat  Mater,  and 
specimens  of  his  masses,  motets,  and  madri- 
gals, have  been  published  by  A.  E.  Choron, 
but  the  greater  part  of  his  works  are  to  be 
found  only  in  the  large  libraries  of  Europe. 
Some  of  his  masses  and  motets  are  still  em- 
ployed in  the  service  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
church,  and  three  of  his  motets  adapted  to 
versions  of  the  Psalms  are  in  use  in  the  Eng- 
lish cathedral  service. — See  Baini,  Memorie 
della  vita  e  delle  opere  di  Palestrina  (2  vols. 
4to,  Rome,  1828;  German,  Leipsic,  1834). 

PALEY.  I.  William,  an  English  theologian,  born 
in  Peterborough  in  July,  1743,  died  May  25, 
1805.  He  graduated  at  Christ's  college,  Cam- 
bridge, as  senior  wrangler,  in  1763,  and  after 
teaching  for  three  years  returned  to  his  college 
as  fellow,  became  a  tutor,  and  lectured  on  moraL 
philosophy  and  divinity.  In  1775  he  became 
rector  of  Musgrove  in  Westmoreland,  and  short- 
ly after  married.  After  other  preferments,  he 
was  made  in  1782  archdeacon  of  Carlisle.  In 
1785  appeared  his  "Principles  of  Moral  aftd 
Political  Economy,"  the  copyright  of  which 
brought  him  £1,000.  He  published  "Horse  Pau- 
linas "  in  1790,  and  "  Reasons  for  Contentment " 
in  1791.  In  1794  appeared  his  "View  of  the 
Evidences  of  Christianity,"  and  three  addition- 
al preferments  were  immediately  conferred  on 
him,  one.  of  them  worth  £1,000  per  annum. 
His  political  sentiments  prevented  his  prefer- 
ment to  a  bishopric.  In  1802  he  published  his 
"  Natural  Theology."  His  ethical  theory  denies 
the  existence  of  a  moral  sense  or  any  original 
moral  constitution  of  human  nature,  and  makes 
the  expectation  of  future  reward  or  punish- 
ment the  only  motive  of  virtuous  action.  Util- 
ity is  the  ground  of  obligation,  but  it  must  be 
determined  with  reference  to  remote  as  well 
as  direct  efforts,  to  eternity  as  well  as  time. 
Applying  this  principle  to  politics,  he  makes 
the  "  will  of  God  as  collected  from  expedien- 
cy "  the  ground  of  civil  obedience.  If  an  ille- 
gitimate government  has  become  peaceably  es- 
tablished so  that  it  advances  the  good  of  the 
subjects,  public  utility  requires  that  it  should 


10 


PALFFY 


PALGRAVE 


be  obeyed ;  but  if  a  legitimate  government  is 
injurious  to  the  public  welfare,  it  should  be 
overthrown.  He  affirms  that  the  "  divine  right 
of  kings  is  on  the  same  footing  with  the  divine 
right  of  •  constables,"  namely,  the  law  of  the 
land.  "  The  final  view,"  he  says,  "  of  all  natu- 
ral politics  is  to  produce  the  greatest  amount 
of  happiness."  Expediency  prevails  even  in 
his  view  of  religious  establishments,  no  one 
form  of  which,  he  contends,  is  a  part  of  Chris- 
tianity. The  authority  of  the  church  is  found- 
ed on  its  utility.  His  greatest  work  is  his 
"Natural  Theology,"  designed  to  demonstrate 
the  existence  and  perfections  of  God  from 
the  evidences  of  design  in  the  adaptations  of 
nature.  The  proof  is  entirely  a  posteriori,  no 
appeal  being  made  to  man's  moral  instincts  or 
a  priori  ideas.  An  annotated  edition  \>y  Lord 
Brougham  and  Sir  Charles  Bell  was  published 
in  1836  (2  vols.  8vo),  to  which  were  added  by 
'the  former  in  1839  "Dissertations  on  Subjects 
connected  with  Natural  Theology"  (2  vols.), 
and  a  "Discourse  of  Natural  Theology."  A 
complete  edition  of  his  works  was  edited  by 
his  son,  the  Eev.  Edmund  Paley  (4  vols.,  Lon- 
don, 1838).  The  best  biography  is  that  by 
Meadley  (1839).  II.  Frederick  Apthorp,  an  Eng- 
lish author,  grandson  of  the  preceding,  born 
at  Easingwold,  near  York,  in  1816.  He  grad- 
uated at  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  in 
1838,  continuing  his  residence  till  1846,  when 
he  became  a  Roman  Catholic.  He  is  now 
(1875)  classical  examiner  in  the  university  of 
London.  He  has  published  several  architec- 
tural and  ecclesiological  works,  the  most  im- 
portant of  which  are  a  "Manual  of  Gothic 
Mouldings"  (8vo,  London,  1845),  and  "A 
Manual  of  Gothic  Architecture  "  (1846).  He 
nas  edited  with  notes  iEschylus,  Euripides, 
Hesiod,  Ovid's  Fasti,  Propertius,  Theocritus, 
Homer's  Iliad,  and  other  works,  and  has  trans- 
lated into  English  the  plays  of  iEschylus  (1864) 
anAjbhe  odes  of  Pindar  (1869). 

PALFFY,  a  Hungarian  family  founded  by  Count 
Conrad  of  Altenburg,  ambassador  of  the  em- 
peror Conrad  II.  in  Hungary,  in  the  11th  cen- 
tury, whose  descendants  formed  in  the  fol- 
lowing century  the  houses  of  Konth  and 
Hedervar.  Paul  II.  of  the  former  branch  as- 
sumed the  name  Palfiy  (son  of  Paul),  to  which 
his  descendant  Paul  III.  added  that  of  Erdod, 
the  family  name  of  his  wife.  Nicholas  II., 
grandson  of  the  latter  (1550-1600),  gave  celeb- 
rity to  the  family  by  his  prowess  against  the 
Turks;  and  his  son  Stephen  II.  was  made  a 
count  in  1634.  Subsequently  there  were  other 
branches  of  the  house,  and  the  representative 
of  the  elder  branch,  Joseph  Francis  (1764- 
1827),  a  descendant  of  Nicholas  II.,  was  made 
a  prince  in  1807.  The  most  distinguished  sol- 
dier among  the  younger  branch  was  Count 
John  IV.  (1659-1751),  who  restored  peace  in 
Hungary  in  1711  by  the  treaty  of  Szatmar, 
and  was  appointed  governor  general  there  by 
Maria  Theresa  in  1741.  The  family  is  still 
prominent  in  Hungary. 


PilFFY,  Albert,  a  Hungarian  author,  born  in 
Gross wardein  in  1813.  He  studied  law,  but 
devoted  himself  to  literature  at  Pesth,  and 
after  the  revolution  of  March,  1848,  founded 
the  ultra-radical  journal  Marczius  tizenbto&ike 
("The  15th  of  March"),  which  promoted  the 
patriotic  excitement.  He  received  an  office 
from  the  revolutionary  authorities,  but  de- 
nounced them  as  too  conservative,  and  was 
imprisoned  for  a  time  in  1849.  He  afterward 
lived  abroad  till  1861,  when  he  returned  to 
Pesth.     He  has  published  several  novels. 

PALFREY,  John  Gorliam,  an  American  author, 
born  in  Boston,  May  2, 1796.  He  graduated  at 
Harvard  college  in  1815,  studied  theology,  and 
in  June,  1818,  was  ordained  minister  of  the 
Congregational  church  in  Brattle  square,  Bos- 
ton. From  1831  to  1839  he  was  professor  of 
sacred  literature  in  Harvard  university,  and 
from  1835  to  1842  was  editor  of  the  "  North 
American  Review."  In  1842  he  delivered  be- 
fore the  Lowell  institute  in  Boston  a  course  of 
lectures  on  the  "  Evidences  of  Christianity," 
which  were  afterward  published  (2  vols.,  1843). 
This  was  followed  by  "  Lectures  on  the  Jewish 
Scriptures  and  Antiquities"  (4 vols.,  1838-52). 
He  had  previously  published  "  Harmony  of  the 
Gospels "(1831),  "Sermons "(1834), and  "Aca- 
demical Lectures"  (1838),  besides  occasional 
sermons,  &c.  In  1842-3  he  was  a  member 
of  the  Massachusetts  legislature,  and  from  1844 
for  several  years  secretary  of  state  of  Massa- 
chusetts. In  1846  he  wrote  a  series  of  news- 
paper articles  on  "  The  Progress  of  the  Slave 
Power,"  which  were  collected  into  a  volume. 
He  was  elected  to  congress  as  a  whig  in  1846 ; 
but  having  in  December,  1847,  refused  on  anti- 
slavery  grounds  to  vote  for  Robert  C.  Win- 
throp  as  speaker,  he  was  defeated  at  the  next 
election  (1848),  after  an  animated  contest  in 
which  there  were  17  ballotings.  Meanwhile 
he  had  become  a  leader  of  the  freesoilers,  and 
in  1851  was  one  of  the  editors  of  the  "  Com- 
monwealth," the  chief  organ  of  that  party  in 
New  England.  He  was  also  the  unsuccessful 
candidate  of  the  party  for  governor  of  the  state. 
He  afterward  devoted  himself  to  literature,  but 
from  1861  to  1866  was  postmaster  at  Boston. 
In  1852  he  published  a  review  of  Lord  Mahon's 
"  History  of  England,"  and  in  1854  "  Remarks 
on  the  proposed  Constitutional  Amendments," 
and  "  The  Relation  between  Judaism  and  Chris- 
tianity." The  first  volume  of  his  "  History 
of  New  England"  was  published  in  1858,  the 
second  in  1860,  and  the  third  in  1865,  bring- 
ing it  down  to  1688. — His  daughter,  Sakaii 
Hammond,  under  the  nom  de  plume  of  E.  Fox- 
ton,  has  published  "  Premices,"  a  volume  of 
poems  (1855),  "Herman"  (1866),  and  "Agnes 
Wentworth"  (1869). 

PALGRAVE.  I.  Sir  Francis,  an  English  author, 
born  in  London  in  July,  1788,  died  at  Hamp- 
stead,  July  6,  1861.  He  belonged  to  a  Jewish 
family  named  Cohen,  which  name  he  exchanged 
for  that  of  Palgrave,  the  maiden  name  of  his 
wife's  mother.     He  studied  law,  and  was  man- 


PALGRAVE 


PALIMPSEST 


11 


aging  clerk  in  a  law  office  till  1822,  when  he 
was  employed  by  the  commissioners  of  rec- 
ords. He  had  edite4  a  collection  of  Anglo- 
Norman  chansons  in  1818,  but  first  became 
known  as  the  editor  of  the  "Parliamentary 
Writs,"  published  by  the  commissioners  of 
public  records  (4  vols,  fol.,  1827-'34).  He 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  the  Inner  Tem- 
ple in  1827.  In  1831  he  published  a  pamphlet 
on  "  Conciliatory  Reform,"  and  a  "  History  of 
England:  the  Anglo-Saxon  Period,"  in  Mur- 
ray's "  Family  Library."  About  the  same  time 
he  was  elected  fellow  of  the  royal  society  and 
of  the  society  of  antiquaries.  In  1832  he  was 
knighted  "for  his  general  services  and  his 
attention  to  constitutional  and  parliamentary 
literature."  His  "  Rise  and  Progress  of  the 
English  Commonwealth"  (2  vols.  4to,  1832)  is 
devoted  to  the  Anglo-Saxon  polity  and  man- 
ners, and  is  especially  valuable  to  the  student 
of  English  jurisprudence.  In  1833  he  was  ap- 
pointed by  the  king  one  of  20  commissioners 
to  inquire  into  the  existing  state  of  the  muni- 
cipal corporations  of  England  and  "Wales ;  but 
dissenting  from  the  report  of  the  majority  of 
the  commission,  he  presented  his  own  views 
in  a  "Protest"  (1835).  On  the  reconstruction 
of  the  record  office  in  1838  he  was  appointed 
deputy  keeper  of  her  majesty's  public  records, 
and  continued  in  this  office  till  his  death.  His 
other  works  are  :  Eotuli  Curim  Regis  (2  vols., 
1835) ;  "  Calendars  and  Inventories  of  the  Trea- 
sury of  the  Exchequer"  (3 vols.,  1836)  ;  "Doc- 
uments illustrating  the  History  of  Scotland" 
(1837) ;  "  Truths  and  Fictions  of  the  Middle 
Ages:  the  Merchant  and  the  Friar"  (1837); 
"  Essay  upon  the  Authority  of  the  King's  Coun- 
cil" (1844)  ;  and  "  History  of  Normandy  and 
England"  (4  vols.,  1851-'64).  He  also  wrote 
the  first  edition  of  Murray's  "  Handbook  to 
North  Italy,"  and  was  for  many  years  a  con- 
stant contributor  to  the  "  Quarterly  Review." 
II.  Francis  Tamer,  an  English  poet,  son  of  the 
preceding,  born  in  London,  Sept.  28,  1824.  He 
completed  his  education  at  Oxford,  and  was 
successively  vice  principal  of  a  normal  college, 
assistant  in  the  educational  department  of  the 
privy  council,  and  private  secretary  to  Earl 
Granville.  His  principal  works  are:  "Idyls 
and  Songs  "  (London,  1854)  ;  "  Essays  on  Art " 
(1866) ;  "  A  Life  of  Sir  Walter  Scott "  (1867)  ; 
"Hymns"  (1867;  enlarged  ed.,  1868);  and 
"Lyrical  Poems"  (1871).  HI.  William  Gifford, 
brother  of  the  preceding,  born  in  Westminster, 
Jan.  24,  1826.  He  graduated  at  Oxford  in 
1846,  and  in  1847  was  commissioned  as  second 
lieutenant  in  the  8th  Bombay  native  infantry. 
He  left  India  in  1853,  resigned  his  commis- 
sion, joined  the  Roman  Catholic  church,  and 
became  a  member  of  the  society  of  Jesus. 
After  his  novitiate  he  completed  his  theologi- 
cal studies  in  the  Jesuit  seminary  at  Laval,  was 
ordained  priest,  and  at  his  own  request  was 
sent  to  the  Jesuit  mission  in  Syria,  where  his 
intimate  knowledge  of  Arabic  gave  promise 
of  special  usefulness.     Wishing  to  extend  the 


field  of  missionary  enterprise  into  the  unex- 
plored countries  of  central  Arabia,  he  sub- 
mitted his  project  to  the  general  of  the  society 
and  the  propaganda,  who  gave  it  their  appro- 
bation, while  the  French  government,  as  the 
protector  of  the  Syrian  missions,  furnished  the 
necessary  funds.  He  set  out  from  Maan  on  the 
western  verge  of  the  Sherarat  desert  June  16, 
1862,  travelled  under  the  disguise  of  a  physi- 
cian through  the  territories  subject  to  the  Wa- 
habees,  escaped  from  their  capital,  Riyad,  with 
great  risk  to  his  life,  Nov.  24,  and  arrived  at 
Katif,  in  Hasa,  Dec.  22.  After  having  suf- 
fered shipwreck  on  the  coast  of  Oman,  he  re- 
turned to  Europe  through  Bagdad  and  Aleppo. 
He  left  the  society  of  Jesus  in  1864,  and  pub- 
lished "Personal  Narrative  of  a  Year's  Jour- 
ney through  Central  and  Eastern  Arabia "  (2 
vols.,  London,  1865),  receiving  for  it  the  gold 
medal  of  the  French  geographical  society.  In 
July,  1865,  Palgrave  was  sent  to  the  East  on 
a  special  mission  for  the  release  of  the  English 
and  other  prisoners  held  by  the  Abyssinian 
monarch  Theodore.  He  remained  in  Egypt 
till  June,  1866,  when  he  returned  to  England, 
and  was  appointed  consul  at  Sukhum-Kal6  July 
23,  and  at  Trebizond  May  20,  1867.  He  is  at 
present  (1875)  consul  at  St.  Thomas,  West  In- 
dies. In  1872  he  published  "  Essays  on  Eastern 
Questions  "  and  "  Hermann  Agha,"  and  in  1875 
"  Alkamah's  Cave,  a  Story  of  Nejd." 

PALIKAO,  Charles  Guillaume  Marie  ApoNinaire 
Antoine  Cousin-Montauban,  count  de,  a  French 
soldier,  born  in  Paris,  June  24,  1796.  In  early 
life  he  served  in  the  French  army  in  Spain,  and 
afterward  in  Algeria,  where  he  became  a  gen- 
eral of  division  in  1855.  In  1858-9  he  held 
various  commands  in  France,  and  in  1860  dis- 
tinguished himself  as  commander  in  China,  in 
conjunction  with  the  English  forces,  especial- 
ly at  Pa-li-kia-ho  (Sept.  21),  whence  his  title. 
The  spoliation  of  the  Chinese  summer  palace 
near  Peking  caused  the  legislative  body  to  dis- 
allow the  annuity  of  50,000  francs  which  had 
been  proposed  for  him  ;  but  it  was  discovered 
in  1872  that  the  emperor  had  appropriated 
600,000  francs?  from  the  Chinese  indemnity 
for  the  benefit  of  Palikao,  without  a  shadow 
of  authority.  In  August,  1870,  after  the  first 
reverses  of  the  French  arms,  he  succeeded 
Emile  Ollivier  as  prime  minister,  and  acted  at 
the  same  time  as  minister  of  war.  He  organ- 
ized a  large  force  at  Chalons,  formed  several 
new  army  corps,  placed  Trochu  in  command 
of  Paris,  published  fictitious  reports  of  victo- 
ries, and  was  held  in  a  great  measure  respon- 
sible for  the  disaster  of  Sedan,  after  which  he 
fled  to  Belgium.  In  December,  1871,  he  pub- 
lished a  vindication  of  his  administration. 

PALI  LANGUAGE.  See  India,  Races  and 
Languages  of,  vol.  ix.,  p.  216. 

PALIMPSEST  (Gr.  TzaVifitp-narog,  from  Miv, 
again,  and  iptfv,  to  rub),  a  parchment  which 
has  been  written  upon  twice  or  oftener,  the 
prior  writing  having  been  erased  and  the  sur- 
face prepared  for  the  new  by  rubbing.     The 


12 


PALIMPSEST 


PALISOT 


ancients  used  the  word  in  this  sense,  but  they 
also  applied  it  to  leaves  or  books  used  by  au- 
thors for  a  preliminary  writing  of  their  works, 
which  were  so  made  that  the  ink  could  be 
wiped  off  in  order  to  make  corrections  and  re- 
visions. After  the  conquest  of  Egypt  by  the 
Saracens,  western  Europe  was  cut  off  from  the 
papyrus  which  it  had  previously  drawn  from 
that  country,  and  the  supply  of  parchment 
being  limited,  recourse  was  had  to  the  erasure 
of  ancient  manuscripts.  This  practice,  which 
prevailed  in  the  West  from  the  7th  or  8th  cen- 
tury throughout  the  dark  ages,  and  in  the  East, 
which  was  not  deprived  of  papyrus  so  soon, 
from  about  the  11th  century,  was  long  sup- 
posed to  have  caused  the  destruction  of  a  vast 
amount  of  classical  literature,  sacrificed  by  the 
monkish  transcribers  to  the  needs  of  missals, 
antiphonaries,  and  other  religious  writings; 
but  it  has  resulted  rather,  through  the  de- 
ciphering of  the  expunged  works,  in  the  re- 
covery of  important  fragments  of  ancient  au- 
thors, many  of  which  would  otherwise  have 
been  lost  irrecoverably.  Two  processes  were 
used  by  the  mediaeval  scribes  in  the  preparation 
of  palimpsests,  in  the  first  of  which  the  writing 
was  washed  off  with  a  sponge  and  the  parch- 
ment smoothed  when  dry  by  rubbing  with 
pumice  stone ;  in  the  second  either  entire  lines 
were  scraped  off  with  a  sharp  blade,  or  each 
letter  was  erased  separately,  the  surface  being 
afterward  rubbed  smooth  with  pumice  stone 
or  with  a  polishing  tool.  The  success  of  the 
erasure  depended  materially  on  the  kind  of 
ink  with  which  the  writing  was  executed.  If 
vegetable,  it  was  easily  expunged,  as  it  did  not 
strike  into  the  body  of  the  skin ;  but  if  it  con- 
tained animal  or  mineral  matter,  it  was  im- 
possible to  remove  entirely  the  original  writing, 
traces  of  which  could  be  distinctly  seen  in 
many  cases  even  after  the  surface  had  been 
rubbed  off.  Most  of  the  ancient  manuscripts 
were  written  with  ink  composed  of  lampblack, 
gum,  and  vitriol,  which  so  penetrated  the  skin 
that  it  could  not  be  entirely  removed ;  for,  if 
invisible  to  the  eye,  its  presence  can  still  be 
detected  by  proper  chemical  treatment. — Vari- 
ous means  have  been  adopted  in  modern  times 
to  revive  the  erased  writings  of  palimpsests. 
Among  the  first  was  to  wash  the  parchment 
with  an  infusion  of  galls  and  to  expose  it  after- 
ward to  the  light.  This  process  frequently 
reproduced  the  ancient  characters  so  that  they 
could  easily  be  read ;  but  in  some  cases  it  black- 
ened the  entire  parchment  so  as  to  render 
illegible  both  the  old  and  the  later  writing.  In 
1787  Sir  Charles  Blagden  proposed  a  "new 
method  of  recovering  the  legibility  of  decayed 
writings,"  viz.,  to  dip  the  manuscript,  after  a 
careful  washing  in  water,  into  diluted  muriatic 
acid  and  afterward  into  a  solution  of  prussiate 
of  potash.  A  similar  treatment  was  proposed 
by  Prof.  Gioberti  of  the  university  of  Turin, 
and  a  preparation  founded  upon  it  received  the 
name  of  tinctura  Giobertina.  A  preparation 
of  sulphuretted  ammonia  has  also  been  used 


with  success.  "When  the  ink  contains  some 
animal  substance,  such  as  the  blood  of  the 
cuttle  fish  or  milk,  Prof.  Mone  recommends 
that  the  parchment  be  immersed  in  oil  in  a 
close  vessel  and  subjected  to  a  heat  of  400°  E. 
By  means  of  these  and  other  modes  of  treat- 
ment the  ancient  writing  of  many  palimpsests 
has  been  rendered  legible  enough  to  be  deci- 
phered by  experienced  palaeographers ;  and  in 
several  cases  two  writings  have  been  brought 
to  light  under  the  superficial  one. — Among  the 
earliest  to  make  observations  on  palimpsests 
was  Louis  Boivin,  who  in  1692  discovered 
under  the  Syriac  text  of  St.  Ephraem,  in  a 
manuscript  in  the  royal  library  at  Paris,  por- 
tions of  the  Greek  Bible  12  or  13  centuries  old. 
Montfaucon  also  called  attention  to  the  impor- 
tance of  palimpsest  manuscripts  in  his  Palceo- 
graphia  Grwca  (1708) ;  but  it  was  not  until  the 
last  half  of  the  18th  century  that  much  pro- 
gress began  to  be  made  in  their  decipherment. 
In  1762  F.  A.  Knittel  published  a  portion  of 
the  Epistle  to  the  Romans  in  the  Gothic  t^xt  of 
Ulfilas,  found  under  a  copy  of  the  Origines  of 
Isidorus  in  a,  manuscript  preserved  in  the  li- 
brary at  Wolfenbuttel ;  and  in  1773  P.  J.  Bruns 
recovered  and  published  a  part  of  the  91st  book 
of  Livy  from  a  palimpsest  in  the  Vatican.  But 
by  far  the  greatest  explorer  in  the  field  of  pa- 
limpsest literature  was  Cardinal  Angelo  Mai, 
who  published  from  1814  to  1853  many  in- 
valuable fragments  of  classic  authors  before 
reckoned  as  lost;  among  them  were  the  De 
Eepublica  of  Cicero  and  portions  of  the  his- 
tories of  Polybius,  Diodorus  Siculus,  Diony- 
sius  of  Halicarnassus,  Dion  Cassius,  Appian, 
and  Iamblichus.  His  success  gave  zest  to  the 
study,  and  through  the  labors  of  Niebuhr  and 
others  the  greater  part  of  the  Institutes  of 
Gaius  were  recovered  from  a  manuscript  at 
Verona  and  published  in  1820.  Other  inves- 
tigators who  have  rendered  important  service 
to  literature  in  this  department  are  Barrett, 
Blume,  Peyron,  G.  H.  Pertz  and  his  son  Karl 
Pertz,  Gaupp,  F.  J.  Mone  and  his  son  Fridegar 
Mone,  Cureton,  Hase,  Tregelles,  and  Tischen- 
dorf.     (See  Manuscript.) 

PALINIJRUM,  a  promontory  of  Lucania  in 
Italy,  on  the  Tyrrhenian  sea,  about  half  way 
between  Velia  and  Buxentum;  lat.  40°  N., 
long.  15°  15'  E.  It  derived  its  name  from  the 
tradition,  recorded  by  Virgil,  that  on  this  spot 
Palinurus  the  pilot  of  iEneas  was  buried.  Some 
ruins  of  ancient  buildings,  still  visible  on  the 
summit  of  the  headland,  are  popularly  known 
as  the  tomb  of  Palinurus.  Near  this  promon- 
tory, during  the  first  Punic  war,  253  B.  C.,  a  Ro- 
man fleet  under  the  consul  Cervilius  Caepio  and 
Sempronius  Blsosus  was  wrecked  and  150  ves- 
sels lost;  and  again  in  36  B.  C.  a  portion  of  the 
fleet  of  Octavius  was  lost  on  the  coast  between 
Velia  and  Palinurus  Portus,  a  harbor  formed 
by  the  cape,  and  now  called  Porto  di  Palinuro. 

PALISOT,  Ambroise  Marie  Francois  Joseph  Beau- 
vois  de,  a  French  naturalist,  born  in  Arras  in 
1752,  died  in  Paris,  Jan.  21,  1820.    He  sailed 


PALISSY 


PALLADIUM 


13 


for  the  coast  of  Guinea  in  1786,  and  was  the 
first  naturalist  to  explore  the  kingdom  of  Benin. 
His  health  having  broken  down,  he  went  in 
1788  to  Santo  Domingo,  and  in  1790  obtained 
a  place  in  the  colonial  council.  In  1791  he 
was  sent  on  an  unsuccessful  mission  to  Phila- 
delphia for  assistance  against  the  revolted  ne- 
groes of  Santo  Domingo,  and  on  his  return  to 
the  colony  in  June,  1793,  he  was  imprisoned  and 
barely  escaped  being  murdered  by  them.  He 
reached  Philadelphia  in  great  destitution,  and 
supported  himself  as  a  teacher  of  music  and 
languages;  but  the  French  charge  d'affaires 
enabled  him  to  make  a  botanical  excursion 
through  some  of  the  United  States.  Permitted 
to  return  to  France  in  1798,  after  having  been 
proscribed  during  the  revolution,  he  became  in 
1806  a  member  of  the  institute,  and  in  1815  of 
the  council  of  the  university.  Among  his  illus- 
trated works  are :  Flore  oV  Oware  et  de  Benin  (2 
vols.,  Paris,  1804-'21);  Insectes  recueillies  en 
Afrique  et  en  Amerique  (1 805-21)-;  and  Mus- 
cologie,  ou  traite  sur  les  mousses  (1822). 

PALISSY,  Bernard,  a  French  potter,  born  at 
Oapelle-Biron,  near  Agen,  about  1510,  died  in 
Paris  in  1590.  He  was  first  employed,  as  we 
learn  from  himself,  in  "portraiture  and  vitri- 
faction,"  which  probably  means  that  he  paint- 
ed on  glass ;  and  being  acquainted  with  geom- 
etry, he  was  occasionally  employed  in  survey- 
ing and  in  drawing  maps.  Having  seen  some 
ornamented  pottery  from  Nuremberg  as  some 
think,  or  as  others  suppose  from  Italy,  he  re- 
solved to  discover  the  method  of  enamelling 
which  had  been  brought  to  such  perfection  in 
the  latter  country.  Regardless  of  expense,  la- 
bor, disappointment,  and  hardship,  he  reduced 
himself  and  family  to  poverty  rather  than  give 
up  his  undertaking,  and  about  1555  succeeded 
after  16  years  of  exertion.  Having  in  the  mean 
time  become  a  Protestant,  he  was  imprisoned 
at  Bordeaux  during  the  reign  of  Henry  II. ; 
but  through  the  intervention  of  some  of  the 
nobility,  among  others  the  constable  de  Mont- 
morency, he  was  released,  and  appointed  "  ma- 
ker of  the  king's  rustic  potteries"  (rustiques 
Jigulines).  He  removed  to  Paris,  and  resided 
in  the  neighborhood  known  as  the  Tuileries. 
On  the  building  of  the  palace  of  the  Tuileries 
he  had  charge  of  the  decoration  of  the  gar- 
dens. This  post  saved  him  from  the  massacre 
of  St.  Bartholomew.  He  improved  his  dis- 
covery, and  manufactured  earthen  figures  and 
ornaments,  which  in  artistic  perfection  rival- 
led those  of  Faenza  or  Castel  Durante,  and 
were  generally  used  in  the  decoration  of  castles 
and  palaces.  His  other  works, "such  as  vases, 
jugs,  ewers,  and  salvers,  were  eagerly  sought 
for,  and  are  still  highly  valued.  Meanwhile  he 
was  engaged  in  scientific  pursuits,  and  it  has 
been  appropriately  said  that  he  was  to  chem- 
istry what  Lord  Bacon  was  to  philosophy,  and 
that  his  Traite  de  Vart  de  terre  is  the  Novum 
Organum  of  the  science.  In  his  other  treatises, 
De  la  marne,  De  la  nature  des  eaux  etfontaines, 
&c,  anticipating  modern  scientific  discoveries, 


he  expounded  a  method  of  taking  soundings, 
and  gave  the  theory  of  artesian  wells  and  strat- 
ifications. Toward  the  end  of  the  reign  of 
Henry  III.  he  was  again  involved  in  serious 
difficulties  on  account  of  his  religion.  Proba- 
bly through  the  enmity  of  the  leaguers,  he  was 
arrested  in  1588  and  confined  in  the  Bastile, 
where  he  died. — The  name  of  Palissy,  scarcely 
noticed  by  his  contemporaries  and  completely 
ignored  during  the  17th  century,  was  brought 
again  to  light  by  Fontenelle,  Buffon,  and  others, 
who  pointed  out  the  value  of  his  scientific  re- 
searches. Being  ignorant  of  Greek  and  Latin, 
he  wrote  altogether  in  French.  An  edition  of 
his  works  was  published  in  1777  by  Faujas  de 
St.  Fond  and  Gobet,  and  reprinted  in  part  in 
1844  by  A.  Cap  (Paris).  J.  Salles  has  written 
Etude  sur  la  vie  et  les  travaux  de  B.  Palissy 
(8vo,  Nimes,  1855),  and  his  life  has  also  been 
written  by  H.  Morley  (2  vols.,  London,  1852). 
Specimens  of  his  art  are  preserved  in  the  mu- 
seums of  the  Louvre,  of  Sevres,  of  the  hotel 
Cluny  in  Paris,  and  of  the  Favorite  near  Mu- 
nich. His  oven,  with  some  other  relics,  was 
discovered  in  1865  in  the  place  du  Carrousel. 

PALK  STRAIT.    See  Ceylon. 

PALL,  or  Palla.    See  Pallium. 

PALLADIO,  Andrea,  an  Italian  architect,  born 
in  Yicenza,  Nov.  30, 1518,  died  there  in  August, 
1580.  He  was  brought  into  notice  by  his  de- 
sign for  the  loggie  or  open  porticoes  surround- 
ing three  sides  of  the  palazzo  della  Ragione  at 
Vicenza,  after  which  he  was  for  many  years 
busily  employed  in  the  construction  of  private 
mansions,  developing  the  still  popular  Palladian 
style.  The  most  famous  is  the  Rotonda  Capra, 
known  as  Palladio's  villa,  just  outside  of  Vi- 
cenza. After  a  time  he  was  invited  to  Venice, 
where  he  designed  two  churches,  San  Giorgio 
Maggiore  and  II  Santissimo  Redentore,  as  well 
as  the  atrium  for  the  convent  della  Carita  and 
the  facade  of  San  Francesco  della  Vigna.  He 
also  designed  the  Palazzo  Barbaro  at  Maser  in 
the  Trevigiano,  and  a  palace  at  Montagnana  for 
Francesco  Pisano.  His  last  work  was  the  Tea- 
tro  Olimpico  at  Vicenza,  which  has  been  the 
subject  of  very  conflicting  criticisms ;  it  was 
not  finished  until  after  his  death.  He  wrote 
a  treatise  on  architecture  (fol.,  Venice,  1570), 
several  times  reprinted  in  costly  style. 

PALLADIUM,  in  Greek  legends,  a  wooden  im- 
age of  Pallas  or  Minerva,  thrown  down  to 
earth  by  Jupiter.  It  fell  in  the  neighborhood 
of  Troy,  where  Ilus  the  founder  of  that  city, 
who  had  just  prayed  for  favorable  omens,  re- 
garding it  in  that  light,  took  possession  of  it 
and  built  for  it  a  sanctuary.  It  was  a  tradition 
that  Troy  could  never  be  taken  while  this  im- 
age remained  in  the  city,  and  therefore  Ulysses 
and  Diomedes  were  commissioned  to  steal  it, 
and  succeeded.  There  are  numerous  other  ac- 
counts of  its  fate. 

PALLADIUM,  a  metal  of  the  platinum  group, 
discovered  by  Wollaston  in  1803.  It  is  some- 
times found  pure  in  small  quantities  in  the  form 
of  octahedrons,  mixed  with  grains  of  platinum 


14 


PALLADIUM 


PALLADIUS 


in  Brazilian  ore,  but  usually  as  an  alloy.  It 
exists  in  platinum  ore  from  the  Ural  and  Santo 
Domingo,  and  it  is  also  found,  mixed  with  gold 
and  selenide  of  lead,  in  the  Hartz,  and  in  aurif- 
erous ore  from  Zacotinga  and  Ooudonga  in  Bra- 
zil, mixed  with  specular  iron.  It  is  also  alloyed 
with  gold  and  silver  in  the  oro  pudre  of  Por- 
pez,  Brazil,  often  amounting  to  10  per  cent. 
It  is  extracted  from  platinum  ore  by  digesting 
this  in  nitro-muriatic  acid,  precipitating  the 
platinum  from  the  decanted  liquor  by  chloride 
of  ammonium,  and  the  palladium  from  the  fil- 
trate by  cyanide  of  mercury,  and  then  calcining 
the  cyanide  thus  obtained.  From  the  pallado- 
auriferous  ore  of  Brazil  it  is  extracted  by  fu- 
sing this  with  an  equal  weight  of  silver  and 
some  nitre,  which  reduces  the  baser  metals  and 
earthy  parts  to  slag.  The  alloy  is  cast  into 
bars  and  again  fused  in  black-lead  crucibles 
with  an  equal  weight  of  silver,  so  that  the  gold 
shall  amount  to  one  fourth  of  the  mixture. 
This  alloy  is  then  granulated  by  pouring  it  into 
water  through  a  sieve,  when  it  is  heated  with 
twice  its  weight  of  equal  quantities  of  nitric 
acid  and  water,  the  liquor  decanted,  and  the 
residue  boiled  with  pure  nitric  acid  in  quantity 
equal  to  two  thirds  the  weight  of  granules 
used.  From  these  nitric  acid  solutions  the  sil- 
ver is  precipitated  by  common  salt,  and  the 
palladium  and  copper  from  the  filtrate  by  zinc, 
in  wooden  vessels.  The  resulting  black  pow- 
der is  dissolved  in  nitric  acid,  the  solution 
supersaturated  with  ammonia,  and  the  filtrate 
from  this  saturated  with  hydrochloric  acid, 
which  precipitates  the  greater  part  of  the 
palladium  as  a  yellow  ammonio-protochloride, 
which  is  then  washed  in  cold  water  and  re- 
duced to  a  metallic  state  by  ignition.  The  re- 
mainder of  the  palladium  and  the  whole  of  the 
copper  may  be  precipitated  from  the  hydro- 
chloric acid  solution  by  iron. — The  symbol  of 
palladium  is  Pd:  its  atomic  weight,  106'5  ;  sp. 
gr.,  11-4  to  11*8.  It  is  the  most  fusible  of  all 
the  metals  of  the  platinum  group,  beginning 
to  fuse  in  the  forge,  and  easily  melting  before 
the  oxyhydrogen  blowpipe  at  2,480°.  Its  col- 
or is  intermediate  between  silver  and  platinum. 
"When  obtained  from  the  cyanide,  or  from  the 
ammonio-protochloride  by  ignition,  it  has  the 
form  of  a  spongy  gray  mass,  which  when  fine- 
ly divided  floats  on  water,  and  has  a  blood-red 
color  by  transmitted  light.  It  is  dimorphous, 
having  the  form  of  cubes  and  octahedrons,  and 
also  of  six-sided  tables,  with  cleavage  parallel 
to  the  terminal  faces.  It  is  about  as  hard  as 
platinum,  but  somewhat  less  ductile.  When 
heated  on  lime  to  the  melting  point  of  iridium, 
it  volatilizes  in  green  vapors,  which  condense 
to  a  bistre-colored  dust  of  metal  and  oxide.  It 
oxidizes  at  a  lower  temperature  than  silver,  and 
is  easily  oxidized  by  hydrated  alkalies.  Its  al- 
loys with  iron,  tin,  lead,  arsenic,  and  bismuth 
are  very  fusible  and  brittle.  With  twice  its 
weight  of  silver  it  forms  a  ductile  alloy  not  lia- 
ble to  tarnish,  and  well  adapted  for  the  con- 
struction of  small  weights.    Palladium  is  also 


used  for  the  construction  of  graduated  scales 
for  astronomical  instruments.  Its  alloy  with 
gold  is  hard,  and  remarkable  for  its  whiteness. 
With  mercury  it  forms  a  fluid  amalgam.  Pal- 
ladium has  the  remarkable  property  of  absorb- 
ing many  times  its  volume  of  hydrogen,  yield- 
ing it  again  at  a  high  temperature,  and  was 
employed  by  Graham  in  experiments  on  the 
occlusion  of  hydrogen.  Palladium  foil  heated 
for  three  hours  between  195°  and  106°  F.  ab- 
sorbed 643  volumes  of  hydrogen;  and  if  the 
metal  after  having  been  heated  to  redness  was 
allowed  to  cool  in  vacuo,  it  absorbed  at  com- 
mon temperatures  376  volumes  of  the  gas.  No 
alteration  was  produced  in  the  metallic  appear- 
ance of  the  foil.  Spongy  palladium  absorbed 
686  volumes  of  hydrogen,  but  no  oxygen  or 
nitrogen.  When  a  wire  of  the  metal  is  made 
the  negative  pole  of  a  voltaic  cell  decompo- 
sing water  acidulated  with  sulphuric  acid,  a 
still  greater  quantity  of  hydrogen  can  be  ab- 
sorbed, as  much  as  936  volumes  to  one  of  pal- 
ladium, the  metal  increasing  in  bulk  from  100 
to  nearly  105  volumes,  or  16  times  as  much  as 
if  heated  from  32°  to  212°.  When  the  galvanic 
current  is  reversed,  and  the  piece  of  palladium 
becomes  the  positive  pole,  the  hydrogen  is  rap- 
idly converted  into  water  by  union  with  the 
nascent  oxygen ;  and  by  applying  a  clamp  with 
a  movable  index,  the  expansion  and  contrac- 
tion of  the  metal  on  changing  the  current  can 
be  easily  observed. — Palladium,  like  platinum, 
forms  two  classes  of  compounds:  the  palla- 
dious  compounds,  in  which  it  is  bivalent,  and 
the  palladic,  in  which  it  is  quadrivalent.  The 
dichloride,  or  palladious  chloride,  PdCl2,  is  ob- 
tained by  the  action  of  nitro-muriatic  acid.  The 
tetrachloride  or  palladic  chloride  exists  only  in 
solution  and  in  combination  With  alkaline  chlo- 
rides. It  is  formed  by  digesting  the  dichloride 
in  nitro-muriatic  acid,  has  an  intense  brown 
color,  and  is  decomposed  by  evaporation.  Pal- 
ladious iodide  is  precipitated  from  the  chloride 
or  nitrate,  as  a  black  mass,  by  soluble  iodides. 
Palladium  salts  are  employed  for  the  quantita- 
tive analysis  of  iodine,  as  chlorine  and  bromine 
are  not  precipitated  by  them.  The  oxides  of 
palladium  are  the  monoxide,  or  palladious  oxide, 
PdO,  and  the  dioxide  or  palladic  oxide,  Pd02. 
The  latter  is  not  obtainable  in  a  separate  con- 
dition, but  exists  as  a  hydrated  palladic  oxide, 
which  obstinately  retains  a  portion  of  alkali 
when  precipitated  from  solutions  of  palladic 
chloride  by  the  action  of  alkalies.  There  are 
three  sulphides,  PdS,  PdS2,  and  Pd2S.  Palla- 
dious nitrate  has  the  form  of  rhombic  prisms, 
soluble  in  a  small  quantity  of  water,  but  decom- 
posing and  forming  a  basic  nitrate  in  a  large 
quantity.  The  other  salts  are  of  little  interest. 
PALLADIUS.  I.  Surnamed  Sophista  or  Iatro- 
sophista,  a  Greek  medical  writer,  of  whose  life 
nothing  is  known  except  that  he  must  have 
flourished  between  the  2d  and  9th  centuries. 
He  wrote  commentaries  on  the  works  of  Hip- 
pocrates "  On  Fractures  "  and  "  On  Epidem- 
ics," and  a  treatise  "  On  Fevers,"  all  of  which 


PALLAS 


PALLISER 


15 


are  extant.  II.  Rutilins  Taurus  iEmilianus,  a  Ro- 
man writer  on  agriculture,  who  lived  about  the 
middle  of  the  4th  century  A.  D.  His  treatise 
Be  Re  Rustica,  in  14  books,  was  very  popular 
in  the  middle  ages.  There  is  an  English  trans- 
lation by  Thomas  Owen  (London,  1803).  III. 
An  early  Christian  father,  born  probably  in 
Galatia  about  367.  At  the  age  of  20  he  set 
out  on  foot  to  visit  the  solitaries  of  Upper 
Egypt,  Libya,  Syria,  Palestine,  Mesopotamia, 
and  Italy.  In  400  he  was  appointed  bishop  of 
Helenopolis  in  Bithynia,  whence  he  was  trans- 
lated about  20  years  afterward  to  the  See  of 
Aspona  in  Galatia.  He  was  an  adherent  of 
Origen.  He  wrote  a  collection  of  biographi- 
cal notices  and  anecdotes,  generally  known  as 
"the  Lausiac  history,"  from  being  addressed 
to  Lausus,  a  chamberlain  at  the  imperial  court. 
It  was  imperfectly  edited  by  Meursius  (Ley- 
den,  1616).  A  better  edition  is  contained  in 
the  Auctarium  of  Fronto  Ducseus,  vol.  ii. 
(Paris,  1624). 

PALLAS.     See  Minerva. 

PALLAS,  Peter  Simon,  a  German  naturalist, 
born  in  Berlin,  Sept.  22, 1741,  died  there,  Sept. 
8,  1811.  He  studied  medicine,  but  afterward 
devoted  himself  to  natural  history,  and  after 
a  year's  residence  in  England  settled  at  the 
Hague.  In  1766  he  published  Elenchus  Zoophy- 
torum  and  Miscellanea  Zoologica,  and  in  1768 
became  professor  of  natural  history  in  the  im- 
perial academy  of  sciences  in  St.  Petersburg. 
The  same  year  he  joined  a  scientific  expedi- 
tion to  observe  the  transit  of  Venus  and  to  ex- 
plore the  countries  visited.  He  traversed  a 
considerable  part  of  southern  Russia,  the  Cau- 
casus, and  central  and  southern  Siberia,  pene- 
trating as  far  eastward  as  the  frontiers  of 
China,  and  returned  in  1774.  In  1777  he  was 
appointed  one  of  a  commission  to  draw  up  a 
map  of  Russia.  In  1795  he  went  to  the  south- 
ern part  of  the  Crimea  and  built  a  handsome 
seat,  in  which  he  resided  for  15  years  ;  and  in 
1810  he  removed  to  Berlin.  Among  his  most 
important  works  are  the  Spicilegia  Zoologica 
(2  vols.  4to,  Berlin,  1767-'80);  Reisen  durch 
verschiedene  Provinzen  des  russischen  Reichs  (3 
vols.  4to,  St.  Petersburg,  1771-6) ;  Novce  Species 
Quadrupedum  (4to,  Erlangen,  1778-9) ;  Samm- 
lungen  historischer  Nachrichten  uber  die  mon- 
golischen  Volkerschaften  (2  vols.  4to,  St.  Peters- 
burg, 1776-1802) ;  Nordische  Beitrage,  Neue 
nordische  Beitrage,  &c.  (7  vols.  8vo,  1781-96) ; 
Flora  Rossica  (2  vols,  fol.,  1784-'8),  never 
completed ;  Bemerlcungen  auf  einer  Reise 
durch  die  sudlichen  Statthalterschaften  des 
russischen  Reichs  in  den  Jahren  1793-4  (2  vols. 
4to,  Leipsic,  1799-1801 ;  English  translation, 
"  Travels  through  the  Southern  Provinces  of 
the  Russian  Empire,"  2  vols.  4to,  London, 
1812) ;  and  Zoographia  Rosso- Asiatica  (3  vols. 
4to,  St.  Petersburg,  1831).  He  assisted  in  pre- 
paring the  vocabulary  of  all  the  languages  of 
the  empire,  Linguarum  totius  Orbis  Vocabula- 
ria  (2  vols.  4to,  St.  Petersburg,  l786-'9 ;  2d 
ed.,  4  vols.,  1790-'91). 
vol.  xrn. — 2 


PALLAVICEVO,  Ferrante,  an  Italian  author, 
born  in  Parma  or  Piacenza  about  1615,  execu- 
ted at  Avignon,  March  5,  1644.  He  became  an 
Augustinian  friar,  and  at  first  was  reputed  one 
of  the  most  devout  and  learned  members  of  his 
convent ;  but  falling  in  love  with  a  fair  Vene- 
tian, he  plunged  into  a  career  of  licentious- 
ness, supporting  himself  for  some  time  by  wri- 
ting immoral  books.  He  afterward  went  to 
Germany  as  chaplain  to  the  duke  of  Amalfi, 
but  without  interrupting  his  debaucheries,  and 
on  his  return  put  secretly  to  press  at  Villafran- 
ca  a  satirical  work  entitled  II  corriere  svalli- 
giato,  to  which  the  secretary  of  the  Venetian 
republic  had  previously  refused  his  imprima- 
tur. The  transaction  being  discovered,  he  was 
thrown  into  prison,  but  obtained  his  liberty 
mainly  by  the  assistance  of  one  of  his  mistress- 
es. When  the  war  broke  out  between  Pope 
Urban  VIII.  and  the  duke  of  Parma,  he  wrote 
in  favor  of  the  duke,  using  the  most  violent 
expressions  against  the  pope  and  his  nephews 
the  Barberinis,  and  among  other  pamphlets 
published  II  divorzio  celeste,  in  which  he  inti- 
mated that  a  divorce  had  taken  place  between 
Christ  Ind  the  church.  Afraid  to  remain  in 
Italy,  he  resolved  to  visit  France ;  but  a  fel- 
low traveller  betrayed  him  into  the  hands  of 
the  papal  authorities  at  Avignon,  and  he  was 
tried,  condemned,  and  beheaded  for  apostasy 
and  treason.  His  Opere  permesse,  edited  by 
Brusoni  with  a  life  of  the  author  (4  vols. 
12mo),  appeared  at  Venice  in  1655,  and  his 
Opere  scelte  at  Geneva  in  1660.  - 

PALLAYICINO,  Sforza,  an  Italian  author,  born 
in  Rome,  Nov.  20,  1607,  died  there,  June  5, 
1667.  He  was  heir  to  a  marquisate,  but  took 
orders,  and  about  1637  became  a  Jesuit.  He 
was  made  cardinal  by  Pope  Alexander  VII. 
His  principal  work  is  Istoria  del  concilio  di 
Trento,  written  to  counteract  the  work  of  Pao- 
lo Sarpi  on  the  same  subject.  The  first  edi- 
tion (2  vols,  fol.,  Rome,  1656-'7)  is  the  best, 
and  it  has  been  frequently  reprinted.  Among 
his  other  works  are:  Vindicationes  Societatis 
Jesu  (Rome,  1649) ;  Oli  amertimenti  gram- 
maticali  (1661)  ;  and  Trattato  dello  stilo 
(1662).  The  manuscript  of  his  Arte  dellaper- 
fezione  cristiana  is  in  Parma. 

PALLISER,  Sir  WHliam,  a  British  inventor, 
born  in  Dublin,  June  18,  1830.  He  entered 
the  army  in  1855,  and  retired  from  it  as  major 
in  1871.  He  became  known  by  the  projectiles 
and  guns  which  bear  his  name,  the  former  used 
for  piercing  armor-plated  ships,  and  the  latter 
now  generally  introduced  in  the  army.  He 
improved  the  construction  and  rifling  of  can- 
non used  in  ironclads  and  on  fortifications. 
He  was  knighted  in  1873,  and  in  1875  received 
the  cross  of  commander  of  the  crown  of  Italy. 
— His  brother  John  (born  Jan.  29,  1817)  ex- 
plored western  America,  and  published  in  1853 
"Sporting  Adventures  in  the  Prairies."  He 
conducted  an  expedition  to  the  Indian  country 
in  1856-7,  and  was  employed  in  1857-60  in  de- 
termining the  British  boundary  line  from  Lake 


16 


PALLIUM 


PALM 


Superior  to  the  Pacific.  His  report  was  pub- 
lished among  the  parliamentary  papers  of  1861. 

PALLIUM,  or  Palla,  an  outer  garment  worn 
by  both  sexes  among  the  Greeks,  and  occasion- 
ally among  the  Romans.  It  was  a  square  or 
rectangular  piece  of  woollen,  linen,  or  cotton 
cloth,  varying  in  color,  texture,  and  ornament, 
and  was  sometimes  merely  wrapped  around 
the  body  without  regard  to  grace  or  appear- 
ance, sometimes  fastened  over  the  right  shoul- 
der with  a  brooch,  and  sometimes  thrown  over 
the  left  shoulder,  brought  across  the  back  and 
under  the  right  arm,  and  then  thrown  over  the 
left  shoulder  again.  The  women's  pallium  was 
generally  of  a  finer  texture  and  more  elaborate 
ornamentation  than  the  men's;  and  the  fops 
of  ancient  Athens  used  not  unfrequently  to 
array  themselves  in  this  effeminate  costume. 
The  pallium  among  the  Greeks  supplied  the 
place  of  the  toga  among  the  Romans. — Pal- 
lium is  also  the  name  of  an  ecclesiastical  orna- 
ment in  the  Roman  Catholic  church,  reserved 
to  archbishops  who  are  not  merely  titular, 
and  to  bishops  who  are  the  occupants  of  priv- 
ileged sees,  or  on  whom .  it  is  bestowed  as  a 
mark  of  special  distinction.  It  was  cmginally 
a  sort  of  mantle  or  cape,  but  at  present  it  con- 
sists only  of  a  white  woollen  band  about  2  in. 
wide,  which  is  worn  aroryid  the  shoulders  and 
crossed  in  front.  Crosses  are  worked  upon  it 
in  black,  and  ornaments  are  attached  to  the 
ends.  It  is  fastened  by  golden  pins.  The  pal- 
lium is  made  at  Rome  of  the  wool  shorn  from 
two*  lambs  which  the  sisterhood  of  Santa 
Agnese  on  the  via  Nomentana  offer  every  year 
on  their  patronal  feast  while  the  Agnus  Dei  is 
sung  at  mass.  It  is  sent  by  the  pope  to  every 
newly  appointed  archbishop,  and  is  considered 
the  distinctive  badge  of  the  metropolitan  dig- 
nity. The  origin  of  the  pallium  as  a  badge  of 
episcopal  preeminence  is  obscure.  The  first 
ecclesiastical  document  relating  to  it  is  a  con- 
stitution of  Pope  St.  Mark  (who  died  in  336) 
prescribing  that  the  bishop  of  Ostia  should 
wear  the  pallium  when  officiating  as  conse- 
crator  of  a  pope  elect.  The  most  ancient  ex- 
ample of  the  pallium  in  monumental  history 
is  from  the  sarcophagus  of  St.  Celsus,  arch- 
bishop of  Milan,  who  died  in  the  4th  century ; 
his  pallium  bears  a  single  cross.  A  mosaic  of 
the  8th  century  represents  St.  Peter  bestowing 
on  Pope  St.  Leo  a  pallium  with  one  cross,  and 
differing  but  little  in  shape  from  that  in  use  at 
present.  At  the  council  of  Lateran  in  1215 
Pope  Innocent  III.  decreed  it  to  be  a  mark  of 
the  plenitude  of  the  apostolic  power,  and  that 
no  archbishop  should  exercise  his  functions 
until  he  had  received  it. 

PALM  (Lat.  palma,  the  ancient  name  of  the 
date  tree),  the  general  name  of  plants  of  the 
palmacece  or  palm  family.  The  species  of  palms 
number  nearly  1,000,  which  are  distributed  in 
more  than  50  genera ;  as  in  other  large  fami- 
lies, there  is  great  diversity  among  the  gene- 
ra, and  these  are  grouped  according  to  their 
affinities  in  five  well  marked  tribes  or  sub- 


families. The  characters  of  the  family  in  which 
all  agree  may  be  briefly  stated.  The  palms  are 
all  perennial,  woody,  endogenous  (monocoty- 
ledonous);  the  primary  root  of  the  seedling 


Inflorescence  and  Fruit  of  Palm.— 1.  ""Spathe  and  portion  of 
spadix  of  Chamaerops.  2.  Staminate  flower.  3.  Pistil- 
late flower.    4.  Fruit.    5.  Seed.    6.  Seed  cut  vertically. 

decays  early,  but  secondary  roots  appear  at  the 
base  of  the  stem,  which  form  a  compact  mass, 
and  sometimes  so  raise  up  the  trunk  that  it 
seems  to  be  supported  upon  props,  as  in  areca 
lutescens,  p.  17.  The  stem,  sometimes  a  mere 
rootstock  not  rising  above  the  surface  of  the 
earth,  is  sometimes  short  and  swollen,  but  more 
frequently  tall,  slender,  and  erect,  in  some  spe- 
cies reaching  the  height  of  250  ft.;  in  the 
cane  palms  the  stem  is  so  weak  and  slender 
that  it  climbs  trees  and  is  over  300  ft.  long; 
while  a  diameter  of  3  ft.  is  reached  by  some, 
others  are  not  larger  than  a  small  reed;  the 
stem  is  generally  simple,  but  in  a  few  genera  is 
branched  in  a  forked  manner ;  in  two  or  three 
genera  the  stem  is 
swollen  near  the 
middle.  As  in  oth- 
er endogens,  a  cross 
section  of  a  palm 
stem  shows  no  con- 
centric circles  of 
wood,  but  a  mass  of 
pith  through  which 
bundles  of  woody 
fibre  are  irregular- 
ly distributed,  and 
these  are  more 
numerous  toward 
the  circumference 
than  in  the  cen- 
tre;  as  new  leaves 
are  formed  these 
woody  bundles  ex- 
tend from  them  down  through  the  central 
portion  of  the  stem,  and  finally  curving  out- 
ward lose  themselves  in  the  circumference. 
They  have  no  proper  bark,  but  the  exterior 


Palm  Stem  in  Section. 


PALM 


17 


portion  or  rind,  by  pressure  of  the  interior 
growth  and  by  an  induration  which  takes 
place,  similar  to  that  in  the  heart  wood  of  ex- 
ogenous stems,  becomes  excessively  hard,  and 
in  some  cases  almost  impossible  to  cut  with 
an  axe.  The  leaves  are  from  a  terminal  bud, 
the  petioles  sheathing  the  stem ;  after  the  de- 
cay of  the  leaf  the  sheathing  portion  of  the 
leaf  stalk  remains,  usually  as  a  fibrous  net- 
work ;  the  blade  of  the  leaf,  often  very  large,  is 
fan-shaped  or  pinnately  divided,  and  presents  a 
great  variety  of  elegant  forms ;  the  margins, 
often  depressed,  are  frequently  split  into  slen- 
der filaments.  The  flowers  are  very  small, 
rarely  perfect,  but  usually  monoecious  or  dioe- 
cious, and  in  axillary  clusters  upon  a  simple 
or  branched  spadix,  surrounded  by  a  herba- 
ceous or  almost  woody  spathe.  The  flowers  of 
chamcerops  excelsa  are  used  to  illustrate  the 
character  of  the  inflorescence  ;  in  this  the 
spathe  or  sheath  to  the  flowers  is  small  and 
sheath-like,  but  in  some  it  is  several  feet  long 
and  woody ;  within  the  sheath  is  shown  a  por- 
tion of  the  branching  spadix  or  stalk  to  the 
flower  cluster,  with  some  flowers  attached, 
while  separate  flowers  of  both  sexes  are  given 
at  one  side.  The  number  of  flowers  produced 
by  the  palms  is  astonishing ;  12,000  have  been 
counted  in  a  spathe  of  the  date,  and  207,000  in 
one  of  a  species  of  Alfonsia.  The  perianth  is 
double,  and  consists  of  a  calyx  of  three  distinct 
or  coherent  sepals,  within  which  is  a  similar 
corolla ;  stamens  three  to  six  ;  ovary  of  one  to 
three  more  or  less  united  carpels,  each  with  a 
solitary  ovule,  and  becoming  in  fruit  a  berry  or 
drupe,  often  with  a  fibrous  covering ;  seed  with 
a  cartilaginous  or  horny  albumen.  Palms  are 
mostly  tropical,  a  few  being  found  in  the  hot- 
ter portions  of  the  temperate  zones;  lat.  44°  N". 
and  38°  S.  are  the  extreme  distances  from  the 
equator  at  which  they  have  been  found,  and 
very  few  grow  in  these  localities;  one  species 
is  a  native  of  southern  Europe,  and  four  are  na- 
tives of  our  southern  states.  (See  Palmetto.) 
Great  heat  and  abundant  moisture  are  essential 
to  their  growth,  and  hence  they  are  rare  in  the 
arid  regions  of  the  tropics;  they  are  not  numer- 
ous in  Africa,  but  are  abundant  in  India  and 
tropical  America.  The  palms  rank  in  usefulness 
next  to  the  grasses,  there  being  scarcely  a  spe- 
cies which  cannot  be  utilized  in  some  manner : 
the  wood  serves  to  build  houses,  and  the  leaves 
to  thatch  them ;  almost  all  yield  useful  fibres, 
which  may  be  used  as  textile  material  or  for 
paper ;  mats,  baskets,  and  numerous  utensils 
are  made  from  the  leaves ;  besides  their  various 
edible  fruits,  they  yield  food  in  the  form  of 
starch,  sugar,  and  oil,  and  in  their  undeveloped 
leaves ;  several  produce  alcoholic  drinks  by  the 
fermentation  of  their  sap. — In  order  to  notice 
the  many  useful  products  of  the  family,  it  will 
be  convenient  to  group  the  genera  in  their  sev- 
eral tribes  or  subfamilies.  1.  The  areca  tribe 
(arecinece)  consists  of  trees  or  shrubs  with  pin- 
nate or  bi-pinnate  leaves,  the  pinnules  with 
curved  margins  ;  the  spathe,  which  is  seldom 


wanting,  is  generally  of  several  leaves,  rarely 
monophyllous ;  the  deeply  three-lobed  fruit 
is  a  berry  or  a  drupe.  The  betel-nut  palm 
(areca  catechu),  also  known  as  areca-nut  and 


Fruit  and  Nut  of  Betel  Palm,  entire  and  in  section. 

catechu  palm,  and  called  pinang  by  the  Malays, 
is  a  large  tree  growing  in  India,  Ceylon,  and 
the  Moluccas;  it  has  very  fragrant  flowers, 
which  are  used  in  Borneo  for  decorating,  and 
a  drupe-like  nut  about  the  size  of  a  hen's  egg, 
with  a  fibrous  rind  half  an  inch  thick;  the 
seed  is  about  the  size  of  a  nutmeg,  which  it 
also  resembles  in  the  mottled  appearance  of  its 
albumen;  the  nuts  are  very  astringent;  by 
boiling  in  water  and  evaporating  the  decoction 
a  form  of  catechu  is  obtained;  the  nuts  yield 
a  charcoal  which  is  sometimes  used  for  tooth 
powder,  but  it  differs  from  other  coal  only  in 


Areca  lutescens.— A   young1  specimen  in  pot,  to  show  the 
ornamental  character  of  small  palms. 

its  greater  hardness;  the  principal  use  of  the 
nuts  is  as  a  masticatory.  (See  Betel.)  The 
cabbage  palm  of  the  West  Indies,  oreodoxa 
oleracea,  is  so  called   because   the    terminal 


18 


PALM 


bud,  consisting  of  closely  packed,  undeveloped 
leaves,  is  used  as  a  table  vegetable,  and  is  re- 
garded as  a  delicacy;  in  order  to  obtain  this,  a 
noble  tree  over  100  ft.  high  is  sacrificed ;  the 
terminal  bud  in  many  other  species  is  used  in 
the  same  manner.  The  young  unexpanded 
flower  spikes  of  species  of  chammdorea  are  used 
as  a  vegetable  in  Mexico,  and  the  natives  of 
New  Zealand  make  a  similar  use  of  those  of 
Kentia  sapida,  both  of  this  tribe,  and  the  last 
named  interesting  as  being  found  further  south 
than  any  other  palm,  in  lat.  38°  22'.  Several 
species  of  the  South  American  genus  oznocarpus 
have  fruits  with  an  oily  flesh,  and  the  oil  ob- 
tained from  them  is  used  for  cooking  and  for 


Toddy  Palm  (Caryota  urens). 

lamps ;  it  is  said  to  be  mixed  in  Para  with  olive 
oil  as  an  adulteration;  the  stiff  nerves  of  the 
leaves  of  these  palms  furnish  the  Indians  with 
arrows  for  their  blow-guns,  which  are  made 
by  boring  the  leaf  stalks  of  other  palms  of  this 
tribe.  The  East  Indian  genus  caryota,  which 
includes  lofty  trees  of  great  beauty,  furnishes 
various  useful  products ;  palm  wine  and  sugar 
are  obtained  from  the  flower  spikes,  the  trunks 
yield  a  good  sago,  and  the  leaves  furnish  a  fibre 
of  great  strength  called  Jcittul,  used  for  making 
ropes  and  mats.  The  species  of  this  genus  are 
favorites  in  cultivation,  as  this  is  one  of  the 
few  with  bi-pinnate  leaves.  When  the  tree 
has  completed  its  growth,  the  flowers  are  pro- 
duced in  drooping  tassels ;  a  flower  cluster  is 


produced  at  the  base  of  the  uppermost  leaf, 
then  one  appears  at  the  next  lower  leaf,  and 
so  on  until  the  lowermost  leaf  has  produced 
a  cluster  from  its  base,  when  the  plant  dies. 
The  wax  palm  of  Colombia,  ceroxylon  andico- 
la,  is  a  lofty  tree  growing  in  elevated  regions ; 
it  is  remarkable  for  its  swollen  trunk,  which 
is  larger  in  the  middle  than  it  is  above  or  be- 
low, and  is  covered  with  a  whitish  wax-like 
substance,  which  is  collected  by  felling  the 
tree  and  scraping ;  the  product  of  each  trunk 
is  about  25  lbs.;  it  consists  of  a  resin  and  a 
wax,  and,  though  too  inflammable  to  be  used 
by  itself,  it  makes  good  candles  when  mixed 
with  tallow.  2.  The  calamus  tribe  (calamece) 
consists  of  sarmentose  or  runner-like  plants 
and  some  trees ;  the 
pinnate  or  fan-like 
leaves  are  often  ter- 
minated by  a  long  ap- 
pendage which  is  fur- 
nished with  hooks ; 
the  spathe  is  usual- 
ly several-leaved,  and 
the  fruit  a  berry  cov- 
ered with  overlapping 
scales.  The  principal 
genus  is  calamus,  of 
which  more  than  80 
species  are  described, 
all  natives  of  Asia,  es- 
pecially the  Malayan 
peninsula,  save  one  in 
Africa  and  two  in 
Australia.  They  are 
known  as  rattan  and 
cane  palms,  the  stems 
of  several  being  found 
in  commerce  under 
these  names.  Some 
are  low  bushes,  while 
others,  with  stems 
seldom  over  an  inch 
thick,  climb  to  a  great  distance  over  trees,  to 
which  they  cling  by  means  of  the  hooked 
spines  upon  their  leaf  stalks.  Some  remark- 
able stories  have  been  told  of  the  great  length 
of  these  stems;  Eumphius's  statement  that 
they  grow  from  1,200  to  1,800  ft.  long  has  not 
been  verified,  though  it  is  not  rare  to  find 
them  300  ft.  long.  Their  leaves  are  mostly 
pinnate,  with  the  leaf  stalk  prolonged  into  a 
long  whip-like  tail ;  the  rose-colored  or  green- 
ish flowers  are  in  long  branching  spikes,  and 
the  fruit  consists  of  a  single  seed,  surrounded 
by  an  edible  pulp,  which  is  enclosed  by  a  cov- 
ering of  shiny  scales.  The  stems  of  these  palms 
are  used  in  their  native  countries  for  numerous 
purposes ;  they  make  ropes  of  great  length  and 
strength,  used  in  catching  elephants  and  as  ca- 
bles for  vessels ;  in  the  Himalaya  the  stems  are 
used  for  building  suspension  bridges.  The  rat- 
tans of  commerce  are  afforded  by  calamus  ro- 
tang,  G.  verus,  G.  rudentum,  and  others ;  they 
are  cut  12  or  16  ft.  in  length,  once  doubled,  and 
made  into  bundles  of  100  each ;  immense  num- 


Eattan  Palm  (Calamus 
rotang). 


PALM 


19 


bers  of  these  canes  are  imported  into  Europe 
and  America,  anil  as  new  uses  are  constantly 
found  for  them,  the  consumption  rapidly  in- 
creases. The  ease  with  which  they  are  split, 
and  the  strength  of  very  small  splints,  adapts 
them  to  a  great  variety  of  wares.  One  of 
their  commonest  uses  is  to  make  chair  bot- 
toms ;  chairs  are  often  made  entirely  of  rattans, 
the  whole  canes  forming  the  framework,  which 
is  filled  in  with  a  fabric  of  split  ones;  sofas 
and  lounges  are  made  largely  of  rattans,  as 
are  the  bodies  of  fancy  carriages;  the  whole 
canes  are  used  for  making  baskets  requiring 
great  strength,  while  the  split  canes  are  woven 
into  the  most  delicate  work  baskets  for  ladies. 
The  Malacca  canes,  highly  esteemed  as  walk- 
ing sticks,  are  the  stems  of  G.  Scipionum,  the 
joints  of  which  are  so  far  apart  that  a  good 
cane  may  be  made  from  a  single  internode; 
they  have  a  rich  reddish  brown  color,  which  is 
due  to  their  being  smoked  and  varnished  with 
the  bark  on.  A  portion  of  the  resinous  drug 
dragon's  blood  is  obtained  from  the  fruit  of 
C.  Draco,  a  species  which  some  botanists  place 
in  the  genus  dcemonorops.  The  sago  of  com- 
merce is  mainly  furnished  by  species  of  sagus, 
but  the  pith  of  other  genera  affords  this  form 
of  starch,  some  of  them  in  sufficient  quantities 
to  supply  the  inhabitants  of  the  countries  where 
they  grow  with  an  important  share  of  their 
food.  (See  Sago.)  The  remaining  genus  of 
this  group,  valuable  for  its  products,  is  mau- 
ritia,  the  moriche  or  Ita  palm  of  tropical  South 
America.  M.  Jlexuosa,  especially  abundant  on 
the  Amazon  and  other  rivers,  supplies  nearly 
all  the  wants  of  the  natives ;  during  the  great 
inundations  they  even  suspend  their  dwellings 
from  the  trunks ;  the  skin  of  the  young  leaves 
is  spun  into  cord  for  making  hammocks,  the 
trunk  supplies  sugar  in  abundance,  and  both  the 
sap  and  the  fruit  are  converted  into  intoxica- 
ting beverages.  3.  The  borassus  tribe  (ooras- 
sinece)  consists  of  trees  with  fan-shaped  or  pin- 
nate leaves;  a  woody,  fibrous,  or  (in  one  ge- 
nus) net-like  spathe,  and  the  fruit  a  drupe. 
The  principal  genus  oorassus  consists  of  only 
two  species,  one  of  which,  B.  flabelliformis,  is 
the  magnificent  Palmyra  palm,  found  through- 
out tropical  Asia,  and  celebrated  for  the  great 
number  of  its  useful  products.  Its  trunk, 
from  60  to  80  and  even  100  ft.  high,  and  2  ft.  in 
diameter  at  base,  bears  a  magnificent  crown  of 
leaves  of  a  circular  fan  shape,  which  inclu- 
ding the  petiole  are  10  ft.  long ;  these  are  used 
to  thatch  houses,  to  cover  floors  and  ceilings 
when  plaited  into  mats,  and  to  form  a  great 
number  of  useful  articles,  from  bags  and  bas- 
kets to  umbrellas  and  hats ;  they  also  serve  as 
paper,  which  is  written  upon  with  a  style  ;  all 
the  important  books  in  Cingalese  relative  to  the 
religion  of  Buddha  are  written  upon  the  lami- 
nae of  this  palm.  The  fruit  is  in  bunches  of 
15  or  20,  about  the  size  of  a  child's  head,  and 
contains  three  seeds  as  large  as  a  goose's  egg ; 
the  albumen  of  these  is  edible  when  young, 
but  in  the  ripe  seed  it  is  horny;  the  coating 


surrounding  the  seeds  is  a  thick  fibrous  pulp, 
which  is  roasted  and  eaten ;  the  young  seed- 
lings of  this  tree  are  cultivated  as  an  article  of 
food,  to  be  eaten  in  the  green  state,  or  they  are 
dried  and  made  into  a  coarse  meal,  which  is 


Palmyra  Palm  (Borassus  flabelliformis). 

regarded  as  very  nutritious.  The  most  impor- 
tant products  of  this  palm  are  palm  wine 
(toddy)  and  sugar  (jaggery) ;  these  are  yielded 
by  many  other  species  and  in  other  countries, 
but  the  methods  of  obtaining  them  are  essen- 
tially the  same.  When  the  flower  spike  makes 
its  appearance,  the  operator  ascends  the  tree 
by  the  aid  of  a  vine  or  rope  passed  loosely 
around  his  own  body  and  that  of  the  tree ;  he 
ties  the  spathe  securely,  so  that  it  cannot  ex- 
pand, and  beats  the  base  of  the  spike  with  a 
short  stick ;  this  beating,  which  is  supposed  to 
determine  a  flow  of  sap  toward  the  wounded 
part,  is  repeated  for  several  successive  morn- 
ings ;  a  thin  slice  is  removed  from  the  end  of 
the  spathe;  about  the  eighth  day  the  sap  begins 
to  flow,  and  is  caught  in  a  jar ;  the  daily  flow 
is  two  pints  or  more,  and  continues  for  four  or 
five  months,  the  jar  being  emptied  every  morn- 
ing, and  a  thin  slice  being  at  the  same  time 
removed  from  the  end  of  the  spathe.  This 
juice  readily  ferments,  and  is  then  palm  wine 
or  toddy,  which  is  drunk  in  that  state  or  is  dis- 
tilled to  separate  the  spirit,  known  as  arrack ; 
if  allowed  to  pass  into  the  acetous  fermenta- 
tion, toddy  is  converted  into  vinegar.  When 
sugar  is  to  be  made  from  the  juice,  it  is  collect- 
ed several  times  a  day,  and  the  receiving  jars 
are  cleansed  with  lime  to  prevent  fermenta- 
tion ;  it  is  boiled  down  and  treated  in  the  same 
manner  as  cane  juice.  The  remaining  species, 
B.  jEthiopum,  of  the  central  part  of  tropical 
Africa,  furnishes  products  similar  to  those  of 


20 


PALM 


the  Asiatic  species,  but  it  is  said  that  the  na- 
tives are  not  acquainted  with  the  process  of 
extracting  toddy.  The  doum  palm  of  Egypt, 
which  also  grows  in  Arabia  and  Abyssinia,  is 


Doum  Palm  (Hyphaene  Thebaica). 

hyphcene  Thebaica  (or  cucifera);  the  genus  is 
remarkable  among  palms  in  having  branching 
stems ;  in  the  doum  palm  the  trunk  is  seldom 
over  30  ft.  high ;  it  is  simple  when  young,  but 
in  old  trees  forked  three  or  four  times,  each 
branch  being  terminated  by  a  tuft  of  large, 
fan-shaped  leaves.  The  fruit  is  produced  in 
large  clusters  of  over  100,  each  the  size  of  an 
orange,  irregular  in  shape,  with  a  highly  pol- 
ished yellowish  brown  rind,  enclosing  a  single 
horny  seed;  the  rind,  which  is  dry,  fibrous, 
and  mealy,  is  said  to  taste  exactly  like  ginger- 
bread, and,  though  unpalatable  from  its  dry- 
ness, forms  a  common  article  of  food  among 
the  Arabs.  The  double  or  sea  cocoanut  was 
long  a  great  puzzle  to  naturalists;  its  large 
deeply  lobed  nuts,  appearing  like  two  cocoanuts 
joined  for  about  half  of  their  length,  were  oc- 
casionally picked  up  at  sea ;  their  origin  being 
unknown,  they  were  in  olden  times  invested 
with  remarkable  virtues ;  the  albumen  or  meat 
of  the  nut  was  regarded  'as  a  preventive  of 
various  diseases,  and  the  shell,  used  as  a  drink- 
ing cup,  imparted  similar  power  to  the  liquid 
it  contained;  enormous  prices  were  paid  for 
single  specimens,  and  they  were  regarded  as 
among  the  most  costly  of  regal  gifts.  With 
the  exploration  of  the  Seychelles  islands  in 
1743,  the  source  of  this  "wonderful  miracle  of 
nature,  the  most  rare  of  marine  productions," 
was  ascertained ;  it  is  the  fruit  of  a  palm,  grow- 
ing only  on  the  two  small  islands  Praslin  and 


Curieuse,  which  was  named  by  La  Billardiere 
Lodoicea  Sechellarurn.  The  tree  is  dioecious, 
of  slow  growth,  the  males  attaining  100  ft.  in 
height ;  it  does  not  blossom  until  30  years  old, 
and  the  fruit  is  10  years  from  that  time  in 
maturing ;  the  fruits  are  borne  in  clusters  of  5 
to  11  upon  a  strong  zigzag  stalk,  and  average 
about  40  lbs.  each ;  they  have  a  tough  fibrous 
husk,  which  encloses  usually  one,  but  some- 
times two  or  three  nuts;  the  nuts  serve  to 
make  various  domestic  utensils,  and  the  leaves 
afford  material  for  the  most  delicate  baskets, 
bonnets,  and  articles  of  fancy  work ;  the  wood 
is  valuable,  and  houses  are  made  of  the  large 
leaves.  It  is  feared  that  the  felling  of  the 
trees  to  obtain  the  nuts,  as  well  as  the  bud  or 
"  cabbage,"  will  before  long  cauSe  this  remark- 
able species  to  become  extinct.  The  bossu  of 
the  natives  of  the  southern  Amazon  is  mani- 
caria  saccharifera,  the  only  species  of  the 
genus,  and  grows  in  the  tidal  swamps ;  this  is 
distinguished  from  other  palms  by  its  entire 
leaves,  only  occasionally  divided  when  old  by 
splitting ;  they  are  frequently  30  ft.  long,  4  or 
5  ft.  wide,  and  strongly  furrowed  from  the 
midrib  to  the  margin;  these  leaves  are  used 
for  roofing  huts.  The  spathes  of  this  palm  are 
fibrous,  and  when  cut  around  at  the  base  of  the 
flower  cluster,  they  may  be  pulled  off  entire. 
The  spathe  is  dark  brown,  and  its  very  strong 


Hardy  Palm  (Chamserops  excelsa). 

fibres  are  so  interwoven  that  it  may  be  stretched 
to  several  times  its  proper  diameter  without 
tearing,  and  forms  a  very  serviceable  seamless 
bag ;  or  if  cut,  it  may  be  used  as  a  coarse  cloth. 
4.  The  tribe  coryphinece  consists  of  trees  or 
stemless  plants  with  fan-shaped,  rarely  pin- 
nate leaves,  the  pinnules  with  erect  margins ; 
spathes  rarely  perfect;  flowers  usually  perfect, 
sometimes  polygamous ;  fruit  a  berry.  The 
genus  corypha  includes  several  stately  species, 
one  of  the  best  known  being  the  talipot  palm 
(O.  umlraculifera)  of  Ceylon  and  other  parts 
of  the  East ;  its  magnificent  leaves  are  remark- 
able for  their  regular  plaiting,  and  form  a  fan 
which  is  nearly  a  complete  circle  4  ft.  or  more 
in  diameter  ;  the  numerous  segments  are  split, 
and  form  a  double  fringe  to  the  margin.  These 
leaves  require  little  preparation  to  make  the 


PALM 


21 


fans  used  by  the  Cingalese  as  emblems  of  rank ; 
they  are  put  to  many  other  of  the  uses  of  palm 
leaves,  including  the  making  of  paper.  The 
trunk  yields  sago.  The  tura  palm  of  Bengal 
(C.  taller  a)  and  the  gebang  palm  of  Java  (C. 
gebanga)  are  both  useful  in  various  ways.  The 
wax  palm  of  Brazil,  Copernicia  cerifera,  bears 
upon  its  young  leaves  a  coating  of  wax ;  this 
is  collected  by  shaking  the  leaves,  melted,  and 
run  into  moulds;  it  is  harder  than  beeswax, 
but  no  method  of  depriving  it  of  its  yellow 
color  having  been  discovered,  its  use  in  candle 
making  is  limited.  A  kind  of  cane  was  known 
in  commerce  as  Penang  lawyers  a  long  time 
before  its  origin  was  ascertained;  it  is  now 
known  to  be  'the  stem  of  a  small  palm  of  this 
group,  licuala  actitifida,  of  the  island  of  Pe- 
nang ;  the  stem  is  seldom  much  more  than  5  ft. 
high,  and  has  a  diameter  of  an  inch ;  the  canes 
are  prepared  for  walking  sticks  by  scraping 
the  surface  and  polishing.  The  genus  chamce- 
rops  is  noted  as  being  the  northernmost  of  the 
palm  family;  one  species,  C.  humilis,  grows 
wild  in  southern  Europe  as  far  as  Nice ;  another 
( G.  excelsa)  is  found  in  Asia  as  high  as  lat.  44° 
S". ;  and  one  of  our  southern  palms  belongs 
to  this  genus.  (See  Palmetto.)  The  most 
important  tree  of  this  tribe  is  the  date  palm, 
phoenix  dactylifera.  (See  Date.)  5.  The  fifth 
tribe,  cocoinece,  includes  both  large  and  small 
trees,  some  with  thorny  trunks ;  the  leaves  are 
pinnate,  the  pinnules  with  their  margins  turned 
downward ;  the  flowers  at  first  enclosed  in  a 
spathe ;  fruit  a  drupe,  with  its  exterior  por- 
tion (sarcocarp)  fibrous  or  oily,  the  inner  por- 
tion (endocarp)  thick  and  woody,  with  three 
scars,  from  one  of  which  the  embryo  issues; 
seed  oily.  This  tribe  takes  its  name  from  its 
most  important  genus,  cocos,  of  which  there  are 
about  a  dozen  species,  including  C.  nucifera, 
the  cocoanut  palm.  (See  Cocoanut  Teee.) 
The  peach  palm,  Guilielma  speciosa,  a  native 
of  Venezuela,  and  cultivated  in  other  parts  of 
South  America,  is  a  lofty  tree,  its  stem  armed 
with  sharp  small  spines ;  its  fruit,  borne  in  large 
clusters,  is  about  the  size  of  an  apricot,  pear- 
shaped,  and  scarlet  and  orange-colored  when 
ripe;  the  outer  portion  abounds  in  starchy 
matter,  and  when  roasted  is  said  to  taste  much 
like  the  potato ;  it  forms  a  considerable  portion 
of  the  food  of  the  natives,  who  also  ferment 
the  fruit  with  water  and  prepare  an  alcoholic 
beverage.  The  trees  of  the  genus  Maximili- 
ana  form  a  striking  feature  in  South  American 
scenery;  the  Inaja  palm  of  the  Amazon,  M. 
regia,  reaches  over  100  ft.,  and  has  a  crown  of 
immense  leaves,  which  are  30  to  50  ft.  long ; 
the  spathes  are  5  or  6  ft.  long,  woody,  and 
about  2  ft.  broad,  tapering  at  each  end  to  a 
narrow  point ;  these  are  used  as  packages  in 
which  to  keep  and  transport  flour  and  other 
articles,  and  will  resist  the  action  of  heat 
sufficiently  to  serve  as  cooking  utensils.  The 
coquita  palm  of  Chili  is  Juocea  spectaMUs,  one 
of  the  most  southern  species,  and  furnishes  the 
palm  honey  so  much  used  by  the  Chilians;  this 


is  obtained  by  felling  the  tree,  removing  the 
crown,  and  catching  the  sap  which  runs  from 
the  wound ;  the  flow  is  kept  up  by  removing  a 
thin  slice  of  the  end  each  day,  and  it  continues 


Coquita  Palm  (Jubaea  spectabilis). 

for  several  months,  each  trunk  yielding  about 
90  gallons ;  the  sap  is  boiled  down  to  the  con- 
sistence of  molasses,  and  used  as  a  substitute 
for  sugar ;  the  small  nuts  of  the  tree  are  edi- 
ble, and  are  a  considerable  article  of  export  to 
other  parts  of  South  America.  They  are  de- 
prived of  their  husks  in  a  singular  manner; 
cows  and  oxen,  which  are  very  fond  of  the 
green  husks,  are  allowed  to  feed  upon  the 
nuts ;  they  only  masticate  the  husk  and  swal- 
low the  nuts  wrhole;  when  afterward  they 
chew  the  cud  they  reject  the  nuts,  and  when 
the  animals  have  finished  ruminating  these  are 
found  deposited  in  small  heaps,  perfectly  free 
from  the  husk.  The  piassata  of  Brazil,  Atta- 
lea  funifera,  furnishes  a  strong  and  valuable 
fibre  in  the  decayed  bases  of  the  leaf  stalks ;  it 
is  also  called  monkey  grass  and  Para  grass,  and 
is  used  for  various  purposes ;  each  fibre  is  the 
size  of  a  small  quill,  smooth  and  stiff ;  consid- 
erable quantities  are  sent  to  England,  where 
it  is  made  into  coarse  brooms ;  the  brushes  of 
street-cleaning  machines  are  made  of  it.  The 
fruit  of  this  is  different  from  that  in  any 
of  the  allied  genera,  it  being  three-celled  and 
three-seeded.  The  nuts  are  an  article  of  com- 
merce, and  known  as  coquillo  nuts ;  they  are 
oval,  about  3  in.  long,  of  a  rich  brown  color, 
and  have  an  extremely  hard  and  bony  texture ; 


22 


PALM 


they  are  used  for  making  knobs  and  other 
small  wares,  similar  to  those  made  from  vege- 
table ivory.  The  vegetable  ivory  nut  was  long 
regarded  as  the  product  of  a  palm,  but  the 


Pissata  Palm  (Attalea  funifera)  and  Fruit— Coquillo  Nuts. 

plant  of  which  it  is  the  fruit  is  found  to  be- 
long to  a  different  family.  (See  Phytele- 
phas.)  One  of  the  most  important  products 
of  this  family  is  palm  oil,  which  is  obtained 
from  the  fruit  of  elceis  Guineensis  of  western 
Africa,  where  it  grows  in  immense  numbers ; 
its  trunk,  seldom  over  30  ft.  high,  is  covered 
with  the  remains  of  dead  leaves,  and  sur- 
mounted by  a  tuft  of  long,  pinnate  leaves,  with 
prickly  petioles.  The  flowers  are  usually  dioe- 
cious, densely  crowded  in  clusters,  and  in  the 
females  succeeded  by  a  cluster  1£  to  2  ft.  long, 
in  which  the  fruit  is  so  compactly  crowded 
that  the  cluster  has  been  compared  to  a  large 
pineapple;  the  individual  fruits  are  an  inch 
and  a  half  long,  somewhat  pear-shaped,  and 
bright  red;  they  consist  of  an  outer  fleshy 
portion  containing  the  oil,  and  within,  forming 
about  one  fourth  of  the  whole,  a  hard  stone 
from  which  an  oil  may  also  be  extracted.  (See 
Palm  Oil.)  A  closely  related  species  of  elceis 
{E.  melanococca)  is  found  in  South  America. — 
In  this  review  of  the  great  palm  family  only 
the  species  most  valuable  to  man  have  been 
mentioned ;  there  are  but  few  which  may  not 


be  made  useful  in  some  manner,  and  the  va- 
rious products  afforded  by  those  here  referred 
to  are  to  be  found  in  more  or  less  abundance 
and  perfection  in  a  multitude  of  other  species. 
— Palms  are  often  cultivated  in  warm  coun- 
tries for  their  useful  products,  but  in  northern 
climates  large  specimens  with  their  peculiar 
forms  and  strikingly  tropical  foliage  can  only 
be  enjoyed,  save  in  a  few  exceptions,  under  im- 
mense structures  of  glass  ;  and  on  account  of 
the  great  height  which  the  trees  attain,  a  palm 
house  is  only  within  the  reach  of  the  very 
wealthy.  The  most  notable  structure  of  this 
kind  is  that  at  Kew,  England,  where  the  house 
is  362  ft.  long,  100  ft.  wide,  and  64  ft.  high, 
but  must  soon  be  raised  to  allow  of  the  de- 
velopment of  the  larger  specimens.  Palms  of 
small  growth  and  young  plants  of  the  larger 
are  often  found  in  greenhouses  and  stoves. 
Well  developed  plants  of  various  species  are 
much  used  for  decorative  purposes.  Palms 
may  be  used  with  fine  effect  upon  lawns  and 
near  the  entrance  to  the  house ;  but  as  the  foli- 
age may  be  injured  by  heavy  winds,  only  the 
more  robust  kinds  should  be  used  for  this  pur- 
pose. Two  species  of  chamcerops  are  hardy  in 
France  and  in  portions  of  England ;  these,  C. 
exceha  from  Nepaul  (see  p.  16)  and  0.  Fortunei 
of  north  China,  also  called  Chusan  palm,  are 
of  great  value  in  subtropical  gardening,  as  their 
large  fan-shaped  foliage  is  unlike  that  of  any 
other  plants.  These  withstand  a  cold  consid- 
erably below  32°,  and  would  be  quite  hardy  in 
Virginia  and  southward;  north  of  that  they 
may  be  used  for  outdoor  decoration  if  housed 
for  the  winter  in  a  dry  cellar  or  even  in  a  barn. 
— In  very  early  times  the  palm  was  recognized 
as  a  token  of  victory,  and  in  a  more  general 
sense  of  honor  and  preeminence,  a  use  still  re- 
tained. The  custom  of  carrying  palm  branch- 
es (which  of  course  are  properly  leaves)  on  oc- 
casions of  festivity  was  an  ancient  one  among 
the  Jews,  and  its  observance  on  Christ's  entry 
into  Jerusalem  is  still  commemorated  in  all 
Roman  Catholic  churches  on  the  Sunday  be- 
fore Easter.  A  curious  instance  of  the  influ- 
ence of  religion  upon  horticulture  is  in  the 
cultivation  of  date  palms  at  Bordighera,  near 
Mentone  on  the  Mediterranean ;  the  date  is 
barely  hardy  in  that  locality,  but  is  grown  in 
considerable  quantities  for  the  purpose  of  sup- 
plying St.  Peter's  and  other  churches  in  Rome, 
of  which  it  has  the  monopoly.  The  leaves  of 
the  date  are  no  doubt  the  true  palm  branches 
of  the  Bible,  but  in  other  countries  they  are 
represented  in  the  ceremony  by  such  foliage 
as  may  be  available  at  that  season ;  in  south- 
ern and  middle  Europe  the  olive  is  used,  and 
further  north  the  holly  ;  in  most  parts  of 
our  northern  states  the  branches  of  the  hem- 
lock (abies  Canadensis)  serve  for  palms,  and 
when  nothing  else  is  obtainable  sometimes  the 
willow  has  been  employed. — For  an  account 
of  the  palms  of  the  East,  reference  may  be 
made  to  Blame's  Rumphia  (fol.,  Amsterdam, 
1835-'46),  Royle's  "Illustrations  of  the  Bot- 


PALM 


PALMAROLI 


23 


any  of  the  Himalayas"  (fol.,  London,  1839), 
and  Griffith's  "Palms  of  British  East  Indies" 
(8vo,  incomplete,  Calcutta,  1845).  For  the 
palms  of  tropical  America,  see  Martius's  Gene- 
ra et  Species  Palmarum  Brasilia  (fol.,  Munich, 
1823-45),  and  his  Palmetum  Orbignianum,  in 
vol.  vii.  of  D'Orbigny's  Voyage  (4to,  Paris,  1843 
-'6),  and  Wallace's  "  Palm  Trees  of  the  Amazon 
and  Rio  Negro  "  (8vo,  London,  1853).  Kunth, 
Ehumeratio  Plantarum,  vol.  iii.  (8vo,  Stutt- 
gart, 1841),  gives  a  systematic  arrangement  of 
all  the  species  known  at  that  time.  A  very 
full  description  of  the  family,  with  copious  il- 
lustrations of  the  structure,  is  given  in  Maout 
and  Decaisne's  "  General  System  of  Botany," 
translated  by  Mrs.  and  edited  by  Dr.  J.  D. 
Hooker  (4to,  London,  1873).  For  instructions 
in  the  cultivation  of  palms  see  "  Choice  Stove 
and  Greenhouse  Ornamental-leaved  Plants,"  by 
B.  S.  Williams  (12mo,  London,  1870). 

PALM,  Joliaun  Philipp,  a  German  publisher, 
born  at  Schorndorf,  Bavaria,  in  1766,  executed 
at  Braunau,  Austria,  Aug.  26, 1806.  In  1806  he 
received  for  transmission,  in  the  course  of  his 
business  as  a  bookseller  at  Nuremberg,  a  pam- 
phlet entitled  Deutschland  in  seiner  tiefsten 
Erniedrigung  ("  Germany  in  her  Greatest  De- 
gradation "),  which  reflected  severely  upon  Na- 
poleon, and  particularly  upon  the  French  troops 
stationed  in  Bavaria.  The  emperor  caused  him 
to  be  arrested  and  conveyed  to  Bernadotte's 
headquarters  at  Anspach,  and  next  to  Braunau, 
where  he  was  put  to  death.  A  subscription 
was  raised  for  his  family,  and  his  biography 
was  published  in  Munich  in  1842. 

PALM,  the  capital  of  the  Spanish  island  of 
Majorca,  in  the  Mediterranean,  in  lat.  39°  34' 
N.,  Ion.  2°  45'  E. ;  pop.  about  50,000.  It  is 
situated  on  the  S.  W.  coast,  at  the  head  of  the 
bay  of  Palmas,  which  here  forms  a  fine  harbor, 
on  the  slope  of  a  hill,  with  the  large  cathedral 
towering  over  the  houses  and  fortifications. 
It  is  surrounded  by  a  wall  36  ft.  thick,  with  13 
bastions  and  8  gates.  It  is  regularly  built,  and 
has  handsome  streets  and  promenades.  It  is 
the  seat  of  the  captain  general  of  the  Balearic 
islands,  and  of  a  bishop.  Among  the  principal 
buildings  are  the  captain  general's  palace,  the 
exchange,  the  city  hall,  and  several  churches 
and  convents.  The  public  institutions  embrace 
a  naval  school,  a  seminary,  a  theatre,  and  sev- 
eral hospitals.  Wool  and  silk  are  manufac- 
tured, and  cordage  for  the  entire  Spanish  navy 
is  now  made  here,  with  fibre  imported  from 
Manila.  To  the  Vienna  exhibition  in  1873,  29 
kinds  of  wine  and  a  great  variety  of  natural 
and  industrial  productions  were  sent  from  Pal- 
ma,  which  took  49  prizes  and  diplomas.  The 
total  value  of  exports  to  foreign  and  domestic 
ports  in  1873  was  $6,076,340.  The  first  rail- 
way in  the  island  of  Majorca  was  opened  from 
Palma  to  Inca,  Feb.  24,  1875. 

PALMA.  I.  Jacopo,  the  elder,  an  Italian  paint- 
er, born  near  Bergamo,  about  the  close  of  the 
15th  century,  died,  according  to  Vasari,  at  the 
age  of  48.     He  was  educated  in  the  school  of 


Venice.  His  pictures  are  esteemed  for  com- 
position and  expression.  II.  Jacopo,  the  young- 
er, grandnephew  of  the  preceding,  born  in 
Venice  about  1544,  died  in  1628.  He  was 
sent  by  the  duke  of  Urbino  to  Rome,  where 
during  a  residence  of  eight  years  he  studied 
the  antique  and  the  works  of  Raphael  and 
Michel  Angelo.  Returning  to  Venice  at  the 
age  of  24,  he  found  the  public  favor  and  em- 
ployment engrossed  by  Tintoretto  and  Paul 
Veronese;  but  after  their  death  he  was  with- 
out a  rival  in  Venice.  Examples  gf  his  best 
style  are  the  "  Plague  of  the  Serpents  "  in  the 
church  of  San  Bartolommeo,  and  the  "  As- 
sumption of  the  Virgin"  in  the  Ospitaletto. 
His  later  works  were  very  carelessly  executed. 
He  also  made  etchings. 

PALMA,  San  Miguel  de  la,  an  island  of  the  Ca- 
nary group,  about  50  m.  W.  of  Teneriffe ;  area, 
about  300  sq.  m. ;  pop.  about  34,000.  It  is 
traversed  by  two  mountain  masses,  divided  by 
a  depression  4,600  ft.  above  the  sea,  and  reach- 
ing at  their  highest  points  about  7,000  ft.  In 
the  most  northerly  summit,  rather  resembling 
a  truncated  cone,  is  a  vast  and  deep  crater 
called  La  Caldera,  4^  m.  wide,  and  encircled 
by  precipices  varying  from  1,500  to  2,000  ft. 
in  vertical  height.  The  exterior  of  the  cone 
is  gullied  by  deep  ravines,  and  the  lower  por- 
tions of  the  flanks,  as  in  the  other  mountains 
of  the  island,  are  covered  with  forests  offering 
large  quantities  of  building  and  cabinet  timber. 
Pines,  palms,  and  chestnut  trees  are  especially 
abundant.  Besides  the  perennial  stream  from 
the  Caldera,  there  are  few  watercourses  in  the 
island,  and  there  is  a  scarcity  of  fresh  water, 
though  there  are  many  mineral  springs.  The 
few  valleys  and  the  lower  portions  of  the  coast 
are  very  fertile,  producing  the  vine,  many  va- 
rieties of  fruits,  and  the  cactus  on  which  the 
cochineal  insect  feeds.  The  sugar  cane  thrives 
on  the  elevated  plain  of  Los  Llanos.  Wheat 
and  other  cereals  are  imported.  The  climate 
is  mild  and  equable.  The  chief  industries  are 
the  manufacture  of  ribbons,  silk  gloves,  stock- 
ings, taffetas,  and  other  tissues,  and  especially 
the  fisheries  on  the  coasts.  The  principal  port 
is  that  of  Santa  Cruz,  at  the  head  of  a  fine 
bay  on  the  E.  side,  with  the  best  mooring 
ground  in  the  Canaries.  The  exports  amount 
to  about  $1,500,000  annually,  mainly  of  cochi- 
neal of  various  grades. 

PALMA  CHRISTI.     See  Castoe  Oil. 

PALMAROLI,  Pietro,  an  Italian  painter,  born 
after  1750,  died  in  Rome  in  1828.  He  was  the 
first  to  transfer  frescoes  from  walls  to  canvas, 
and  to  his  skill  in  the  execution  of  this  difficult 
process  is  due  the  preservation  of  Daniele  da 
Volterra's  famous  "  Descent  from  the  Cross," 
accomplished  in  Rome  in  1811.  He  restored 
innumerable  beauties  in  obscured  paintings. 
Prominent  among  these  were  Raphael's  Ma- 
donna di  San  Sisto  in  the  gallery  at  Dresden, 
and  the  fresco  of  the  "Sibyls,"  by  the  same 
master,  in  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  della 
Pace  in  Rome. 


24 


PALMAS 


PALMER 


PALMAS,  Cape.     See  Cape  Palmas. 

PALMAS,  Cindad  Real  de  las,  a  fortified  maritime 
city  of  the  Canary  islands,  on  the  N.  JL  coast 
of  Grand  Canary;  lat.  28°  7'  K,  Ion.  15°  32' 
W. ;  pop.  about  14,500.  It  is  situated  on  the 
river  Angostura,  at  the  head  of  a  beautiful 
bay,  and  comprises  an  old  and  a  new  division. 
An  aqueduct  supplies  the  town  with  water. 
The  chief  public  edifices  are  the  cathedral,  four 
churches,  a  convent  (five  others  having  of  late 
years  been  appropriated  to  other  purposes),  the 
city  hall,  the  court  house  (in  the  old  inquisi- 
tion building),  a  general  and  a  foundling  hos- 
pital, and  a  hospital  exclusively  for  elephantia- 
sis. There  are  a  college,  a  seminary,  and  other 
schools.  The  climate  is  very  mild  and  equa- 
ble, the  temperature  varying  annually  from  68° 
to  90°  F.  The  port,  though  not  well  sheltered, 
has  a  mole  about  900  ft.  long  by  80  ft.  wide, 
and  is  visited  yearly  by  a  large  number  of  ships, 
the  steamers  averaging  100,  and  the  sailing 
vessels  1,000.  The  annual  value  of  the  exports 
is  about  $1,800,000,  chiefly  in  cochineal,  and 
of  the  imports  $2,000,000.  The  foreign  trade 
is  principally  with  Great  Britain,  Spain,  and 
the  Spanish  West  Indies.  The  chief  manufac- 
tures are  hats,  woollens,  linens,  carpets,  glass 
and  earthern  ware,  with  shipping  tackle,  chairs, 
&c. ;  and  ship  building  and  fishing  are  exten- 
sively carried  on. 

PALMBLAD,Vilhelni  Fredrik,  a  Swedish  author, 
born  at  Lil jested,  Dec.  16,  1788,  died  in  Upsal, 
Sept.  2,  1852.  He  studied  at  the  university  of 
Upsal.  In  1810  he  bought  the  academic  print- 
ing office,  and  began  the  publication  of  the 
"Phosphorus,"  in  1812  of  the  Poetisk  Kalen- 
der,  and  in  1813  of  the  Svensk  Liter  aturti- 
dende,  all  of  which  periodicals  had  much  in- 
fluence in  the  development  of  Swedish  litera- 
ture, turning  it  from  French  to  German  mod- 
els. In  1830  he  was  made  vice  president  and 
subsequently  president  of  the  Swedish  literary 
society,  and  in  1835  professor  of  Greek  litera- 
ture in  the  university  of  Upsal,  and  became 
editor  of  the  biographical  lexicon  of  distin- 
guished Swedes,  completed  in  23  vols,  in  1857. 
He  wrote,  besides  other  works,  Supplemental 
in  Lexica  Grmca  (1822),  and  several  novels,  of 
which  Familjen  Falkensvard  (2  vols.,  Orebro, 
1844-'5)  and  Aurora  Konigsmark  are  the  most 
deserving  of  mention.  One  of  his  most  im- 
portant works  was  the  uncompleted  Hand- 
hole  i  physiska  och  politisJca  Geographia  (5 
vols.,  Upsal,  1826-37).  He  also  contributed 
to  Ersch  and  Gruber's  Encyklopadie,  and  to 
Brockhaus's  Conversations- Lexikon. 

PALMELLA,  Dom  Pedro  de  Souza-Holstein,  duke 
de,  a  Portuguese  statesman,  born  in  Turin  in 
1786,  died  in  Lisbon,  Oct.  12,  1850.  In  1814- 
'15  he  represented  Portugal  in  the  congress  of 
Vienna.  In  1816  he  became  minister  of  for- 
eign affairs  in  Brazil,  in  1820  president  of  the 
regency  of  Portugal,  and  in  1823  minister  of 
foreign  affairs  and  marquis.  In  1825  he  was 
ambassador  to  England.  In  1828  he  adhered 
to  Dona  Maria,  and  the  regent  Dom  Miguel  sen- 


tenced him  to  death  for  high  treason.  Under 
the  regency  of  Dom  Pedro  in  1832  he  became 
premier,  and  shortly  afterward  was  again  am- 
bassador to  England.  He  returned  to  Lisbon 
with  Villaflor  in  1833,  and  in  1834  Dona  Ma- 
ria made  him  premier  and  raised  him  to  the 
rank  of  duke.  The  insurrection  of  1836  drove 
him  into  exile,  but  he  returned  in  1846. 

PALMER,  Christian  von,  a  German  theologian, 
born  at  Winnenden,  near  Stuttgart,  Jan.  27, 
1811.  He  completed  his  studies  in  Tubingen, 
became  professor  in  1852,  and  in  1853  was  en- 
nobled. In  1869  he  was  vice  president  of  the 
national  synod  of  Wiirtemberg,  and  in  1870 
was  elected  to  the  diet.  He  is  a  represen- 
tative of  the  so-called  conciliatory  theology. 
His  principal  works  are :  Evangelisehe  Homi- 
letik  (Stuttgart,  1842 ;  5th  ed.,  1867) ;  Evan- 
gelische  Eateehetik  (1844 ;  5th  ed.,  1864) ; 
Evangelisehe  Padagogik  (1852  ;  4th  ed.,  1869) ; 
Eva,ngelische  Pastor  altheologie  (1860 ;  2d  ed., 
1861);  Die  Moral  des  Christenthums  (1864); 
Evangelisehe  Gasualreden  (4  vols.,  4th  ed., 
1864-'5) ;  and  Evangelisehe  Hymnologie  (1865). 

PALMER,  Edward  Henry,  an  English  oriental- 
ist, born  in  Cambridge,  Aug.  7,  1840.  He 
graduated  at  Cambridge  in  1867,  accompanied 
the  Sinai  survey  expedition  in  1868-'9,  and 
explored  the  land  of  Moab  and  other  regions 
of  the  East  in  1869-'70.  In  1871  he  became 
professor  of  Arabic  at  Cambridge.  He  has 
translated  Moore's  "Paradise  and  the  Peri" 
into  Persian,  the  Persian  "  History  of  Donna 
Juliana  "  into  French,  and  various  Persian  po- 
ems into  English.  Among  his  prose  writings 
are  "  The  Negah,  or  South  Country  of  Scrip- 
ture, and  the  Desert  of  Et-Tih"  (1871),  and 
"  The  Desert  of  the  Exodus :  Journeys  on 
foot  in  the  Wilderness  of  the  Forty  Years' 
Wanderings"  (1871). 

PALMER,  Erastns  Dow,  an  American  sculptor, 
born  in  Pompey,  Onondaga  co.,  ST.  Y.,  April 
2,  1817.  He  was  brought  up  to  the  trade  of  a 
joiner,  and  at  an  early  age  attracted  attention 
by  ingenious  carvings  in  wood  of  natural  ob- 
jects, such  as  leaves  and  animals.  At  the  age 
of  29,  while  working  at  his  trade  in  Utica,  in- 
cited by  a  cameo  portrait,  he  procured  a  shell 
and  made  a  similar  head  of  his  wife.  The 
success  of  this  work  decided  him,  and  after  a 
few  years'  practice  in  cameo  cutting  he  turned 
his  attention  to  sculpture,  having  in  the  mean 
time  settled  in  Albany.  His  first  work  in 
marble,  an  ideal  bust  of  the  infant  Ceres,  mod- 
elled from  one  of  his  own  children,  was  exhib- 
ited at  the  New  York  academy  of  design  in 
1850.  This  was  followed  by  two  bass  reliefs 
of  "  Morning"  and  "  Evening,"  and  a  statue  of 
life  size  representing  an  Indian  girl  contem- 
plating a  crucifix  which  she  holds  in  her  hand. 
Among  his  other  statues  in  marble  are  "  The 
Sleeping  Peri,"  "  The  Little  Peasant,"  "  Mem- 
ory," a  full-length  recumbent  statue  of  a  young 
girl,  a  monumental  work  in  Grace  church,  Uti- 
ca, and  "  The  Angel  at  the  Sepulchre,"  a  statue 
of  heroic  size  in  the  Albany  rural  cemetery, 


PALMER 


PALMERSTON 


25 


one  of  his  best  works.  "  The  White  Captive  " 
is  a  nude  figure  of  a  young  American  woman,  a 
captive  to  savages  wno  have  tied  her  to  a  tree. 
Among  his  works  in  bass  relief  are  "  Faith," 
"Immortality,"  "Sappho,"  "Peace  in  Bon- 
dage," "Good  Morning,"  and  "The  Spirit's 
Flight."  He  has  made  many  fine  portrait  busts, 
among  others,  of  Alexander  Hamilton,  Wash- 
ington Irving,  Commodore  M.  C.  Perry,  E.  D. 
Morgan,  Moses  Taylor,  and  Erastus  Corning. 
He  went  to  Paris  in  1873  and  modelled  for  the 
state  of  New  York  a  statue  of  Robert  R.  Liv- 
ingston, which  was  cast  in  bronze  in  Paris,  and 
placed  in  the  old  hall  of  representatives  at 
Washington  in  March,  1875.  His  most  com- 
prehensive design,  representing  the  "  Landing 
of  the  Pilgrims,"  including  16  statues  of  colos- 
sal size,  is  intended  for  the  capitol  at  Washing- 
ton.    He  still  lives  in  Albany. 

PALMER,  John,  an  English  clergyman,  born 
in  Southwark  in  1729,  died  June  26,  1790.  In 
1759  he  became  pastor  of  a  Presbyterian  con- 
gregation in  London,  with  which  he  remained 
connected  till  1780,  when,  having  married  a 
lady  of  fortune,  he  retired  from  the  minis- 
try, and  devoted  himself  to  literary  pursuits. 
In  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  abandoned  the 
doctrines  of  Calvin  for  those  of  Socinus.  His 
principal  works  are :  "  Observations  in  defence 
of  the  Liberty  of  Man  as  a  Moral  Agent,"  in 
reply  to  Dr.  Priestley's  "Illustrations  of  Phi- 
losophical Necessity  "  (8vo,  London,  1779);  an 
appendix  to  that  production,  and  a  "  Letter  to 
Priestley"  on  the  same  subject;  and  a  "Sum- 
mary View  of  Christian  Baptism." 

PALMER,  Ray,  an  American  author,  born  at 
Little  Compton,  R.  I.,  Nov.  12,  1808.  He  grad- 
uated at  Yale  college  in  1830,  studied  theology 
at  New  Haven,  and  was  ordained  in  1835  as 
pastor  of  the  central  Congregational  church  in 
Bath,  Me.  In  1850  he  became  pastor  of  the 
first  Congregational  church  in  Albany,  N.  Y., 
and  in  1866  secretary  of  the  American  Congre- 
gational union  in  New  York,  which  office  he 
still  holds  (1875).  In  1852  he  received  the  de- 
gree of  D.  D.  from  Union  college.  He  has 
written  many  hymns  and  sacred  poems  which 
have  gained  a  wide  popularity,  the  best  known 
being  the  hymn  "  My  faith  looks  up  to  Thee." 
His  principal  works  are:  "The  Spirit's  Life," 
a  poem  (1837)  ;  "  Spiritual  Improvement  " 
(1839),  enlarged  as  "Closet  Hours"  (1851); 
"Doctrinal  Text  Book"  (1839);  "Hints  on 
the  Formation  of  Religious  Opinions  "  (1860) ; 
"  Hymns  and  Sacred  Pieces"  (1865) ;  "  Remem- 
ber Me,  or  the  Holy  Communion"  (1865); 
"Hymns  of  my  Holy  Hours"  (1867)  ;  "  Home, 
or  the  Unlost  Paradise,"  a  poem  in  four  parts 
(1872) ;  and  "  Earnest  Words  on  True  Success 
in  Life"  (1873). 

t  PALMER.  I.  Roundell,  Lord  Selborne,  an  Eng- 
lish statesman,  born  at  Mixbury,  Oxfordshire, 
Nov.  27,  1812.  He  was  educated  first  at  Rug- 
by and  Winchester,  and  graduated  at  Trinity 
college,  Oxford,  in  1834,  as  first  class  in  clas- 
sics, having  previously  gained  several  prizes, 


among  which  were  those  for  Latin  and  Eng- 
lish verse.  He  was  chosen  to  a  fellowship  at 
Magdalen  college,  in  1834  obtained  the  Eldon 
law  scholarship,  and  in  1835  the  chancellor's 
prize  for  the  Latin  essay.  He  was  called  to 
the  bar  in  1837,  and  was  made  queen's  counsel 
in  1849.  He  was  returned  to  parliament  in 
1847  for  Plymouth,  was  defeated  in  1852,  but 
was  again  returned  in  1853,  holding  his  seat 
until  1857.  In  1861,  having  been  knighted 
and  made  solicitor  general,  he  was  returned 
for  Richmond,  and  in  1865  and  1868  was  re- 
elected.    He  was  made   attorney  general  in 

1864,  but  went  out  of  office  in  1866  with  the 
other  members  of  the  Russell  administration. 
On  Mr.  Gladstone's  accession  in  1868,  the  chan- 
cellorship was  offered  to  him  ;  but  he  declined 
on  account  of  his  difference  with  the  premier 
on  the  question  of  the  disestablishment  of  the 
Irish  church.  In  1872  he  was  the  counsel  of 
the  British  government  at  the  Geneva  court  of 
arbitration,  and  was  soon  after  raised  to  the 
peerage  under  the  title  of  Lord  Selborne,  and 
became  lord  chancellor,  retiring  in  1874  with 
the  Gladstone  ministry.  He  has  edited  "  The 
Book  of  Praise,  from  the  best  English  Hymn 
Writers  "  (London,  1862).  II.  William,  an  Eng- 
lish clergyman,  brother  of  the  preceding,  born 
July  12,  1811.  He  graduated  in  1830  at  Mag- 
dalen college,  Oxford,  where  he  became  fellow, 
tutor,  and  public  examiner.  He  subsequently 
took  orders,  travelled  in  the  East,  and  endeav- 
ored to  draw  together  the  Anglican  and  orien- 
tal churches.  In  1856  he  joined  the  Roman 
Catholic  communion.  Besides  several  contro- 
versial pamphlets,  he  has  published  "  Harmony 
of  Anglican  Doctrine  with  that  of  the  East" 
(1844),  and  "The  Patriarch  and  the  Tsar," 
translated  from  the  Russian  (1871). 

PALMERSTON,  Henry  John  Temple,  viscount, 
a  British  statesman,  born  in  London,  Oct.  20, 
1784,  died  at  Brockett  Hall,  Herts,  Oct.  18, 

1865.  He  succeeded  to  the  title  as  third  vis- 
count (in  the  Irish  peerage)  in  1802,  and  after 
studying  in  the  university  of  Edinburgh  gradu- 
ated at  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  in  1806. 
In  1807  he  was  returned  to  parliament  for 
Newport,  Isle  of  Wight,  and  from  1811  to  1831 
represented  Cambridge  university.  He  suc- 
ceeded Lord  Castlereagh  as  secretary  at  war 
in  the  Perceval  cabinet  in  1809,  and  held  the 
office  under  five  administrations,  retiring  with 
Huskisson  from  the  Wellington  cabinet  in  May, 
1828.  He  soon  afterward  severed  his  connec- 
tion with  the  tory  party,  and  was  secretary 
of  state  for  foreign  affairs  under  Earl  Grey 
from  November,  1830,  to  December,  1843,  and 
under  Lord  Melbourne  from  April,  1835,  to 
September,  1841.  In  July,  1846,  he  was  again 
called  to  that  post  in  the  Russell  cabinet ;  but 
offending  the  court  and  his  colleagues  by  his 
friendly  attitude  toward  the  coup  oVUat  of 
Louis  Napoleon,  he  retired  in  December,  1851. 
In  1852  he  became  home  secretary  in  the  co- 
alition ministry  of  Lord  Aberdeen,  whom  he 
succeeded  as  prime  minister  in  1855.     In  1857 


26 


PALMERSTOtf 


PALMETTO 


the  house  of  commons  censured  his  China  pol- 
icy, but,  the  house  having  been  dissolved,  the 
new  elections  were  in  his  favor.  The  defeat 
of  the  "conspiracy  to  murder  bill,"  intro- 
duced with  reference  to  the  attempt  of  Or- 
sini  against  Napoleon  III.,  in  February,  1858, 
occasioned  his  retirement.  In  June,  1859,  he 
was  once  more  premier,  and  held  the  post 
till  his  death.'  In  1861  he  was  appointed  lord 
warden  of  the  cinque  ports,  and  governor  of 
Dover  castle.  In  1862  he  received  the  degree 
of  D.  C.  L.  from  (Oxford,  and  was  elected  lord 
rector  of  the  university  of  Glasgow.  He  mar- 
ried the  widow  of  Earl  Cowper  in  1839,  but 
the  union  was  without  issue,  and  the  title  is 
extinct.  He  was  buried  in  Westminster  abbey, 
Oct.  27,  1865.  A  bronze  statue  of  him  was 
unveiled  at  Romsey  in  1868,  and  another  in 
Parliament  square,  London,  in  1874.  Politi- 
cally, from  his  accession  to  office  in  the  whig 
ministry  in  1830  till  his  death,  he  was  a  promi- 
nent leader  of  the  liberal  party.  He  had  pre- 
viously supported  Catholic  emancipation.  He 
was  opposed  to  the  settlement  with  the  United 
States  of  the  N".  E.  boundary,  and  stigmatized 
the  treaty  as  the  "Ashburton  capitulation." 
In  1845  he  declared  in  favor  of  the  absolute  re- 
peal of  the  corn  laws,  though  previously  he  was 
for  a  fixed  duty  for  revenue.  As  minister  of 
foreign  affairs  he  directed  the  diplomacy  of  the 
country  in  many  difficult  and  delicate  questions, 
such  as  the  troubles  in  Portugal,  the  Swiss 
troubles,  the  revolutionary  movements  of  1848, 
the  Greek  imbroglio  (1847-50),  the  Hungarian 
war  and  the  protection  of  the  refugee  chiefs, 
and  in  securing  the  recognition  of  Napoleon 
III.  and  the  subsequent  coalition  with  France. 
Personally  he  was  a  man  of  extraordinary  ac- 
tivity of  mind  and  body,  indefatigable  in  busi- 
ness, fond  of  the  pleasures  of  society,  and  of 
great  culture.  He  preserved  his  health  and 
strength  almost  to  the  close  of  his  life.  His 
last  illness  resulted  from  exposure  to  sudden 
cold  weather,  and  was  brief  and  nearly  pain- 
less. His  views  and  opinions  are  to  be  found 
in  detail  in  parliamentary  reports  and  in  his 
occasional  addresses. — Multitudes  of  disserta- 
tions on  the  foreign  policy  of  Lord  Palmers- 
ton  have  been  published,  among  the  chief 
of  which  are  the  publications  and  speeches 
of  David  Urquhart  accusing  him  of  being  se- 
cretly in  the  service  of  Russia  and  of  betraying 
the  interests  of  England  in  the  eastern  ques- 
tion, and  Count  Ficquelmont's  Lord  Palmers- 
ton,  V Angleterre  et  le  continent  (1852).  More 
elaborate  works  are :  "  Opinions  and  Policy  of 
the  Right  Hon.  Viscount  Palmerston  as  Min- 
ister, Diplomatist,  and  Statesman,  with  a  Me- 
moir by  G.  H.  Francis"  (1852),  made  up  chiefly 
of  extracts  from  his  speeches  ;  "  Thirty  Years 
of  Foreign  Policy,  a  History  of  the  Secretary- 
ships of  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen  and  Lord  Pal- 
merston" (1855)  ;  and  "Life  of  Viscount  Pal- 
merston, with  selections  from  his  Diaries  and 
Correspondence,"  by  Henry  Lytton  Bulwer 
(3  vols.,  1870-'74). 


PALMETTO,  the  common  name  of  the  four 
species  of  palm  indigenous  to  the  United  States, 
belonging  to  two  genera  of  the  tribe  coryphi- 
nem.  (See  Palm.)  The  largest  species  is  the 
tall  palmetto  or  cabbage  palmetto,  sabal  pal- 
metto ;  the  meaning  of  the  generic  name  does 
not  seem  to  be  understood.  This  grows  from 
20  to  50  ft.  high  and  12  to  15  in.  in  diameter ; 
it  is  found  along  the  coast  from  North  Carolina 
to  Florida,  not  far  from  salt  water  ;  its  leaves 
are  from  5  to  8  ft.  long,  fan-shaped,  recurved 
at  the  summit,  and  usually  shorter  than  the 
smooth  concave  petiole ;  the  divisions  are  deep- 
ly cleft  with  thread-like  filaments  among  the 
divisions ;  the  flowers  are  perfect,  followed  by 
a  small  black  drupe,  less  than  half  an  inch  in 


Cabbage  Palmetto  (Sabal  palmetto). 

diameter.  This  tree  is  the  emblem  of  the  state 
of  South  Carolina.  Its  principal  use  is  in  the 
construction  of  wharves,  for  which  in  south- 
ern waters  it  is  superior  to  all  other  wood,  as 
it  resists  the  attacks  of  the  ship  worm  {teredo 
navalis),  which  so  soon  riddles  and  renders 
useless  piles  of  other  material ;  the  logs  do  not 
splinter,  and  have  been  employed  in  the  con- 
struction of  forts,  such  as  that  on  Sullivan's 
island.  As  with  many  other  palms,  the  bud 
of  this  is  eaten,  and  is  by  some  highly  esteem- 
ed, while  others  do  not  regard  it  as  desirable 
where  other  vegetables  can  be  obtained ;  how- 
ever great  a  delicacy  it  may  be,  it  should  only 
be  indulged  in  when  the  tree  is  felled  for  its 
timber,  as  the  removal  of  the  "  cabbage  "  causes 
the  death  of  the  tree  ;  palm  wine  or  toddy  has 


PALM  OIL 


27 


been  prepared  from  its  juice.  Blocks  from  the 
interior  and  softer  parts  of  the  stem  are  used 
in  the  southern  states  as  a  substitute  for  scrub- 
bing brushes,  the  softer  portions  wearing  away 
and  leaving  the  hard  fibres  to  act  as  a  brush. 
The  leaves  serve  for  thatching  out-buildings, 
and  are  woven  into  baskets  and  mats  and  plait- 
ed into  hats,  and  the  younger  leaves  afford  ma- 
terial for  light  and  delicate  bonnets.  The  saw 
palmetto  (S.  serrulata),  so  called  on  account  of 
the  sharp  spiny  teeth  along  the  edges  of  the 
petiole,  has  a  creeping  stem  4  to  8  ft.  long, 
from  which  arise  leaves  2  to  4  ft.  high ;  these 
are  circular,  bright  green,  the  erect  divisions 
slightly  cleft,  without  thread-like  filaments; 
the  fruit  is  about  three  fourths  of  an  inch  long, 
with  a  sweet  pulp  ;  it  is  said  that  the  Indians 
use  it  as  food,  but  in  whites  it  causes  purging 
and  griping.  The  leaves,  shred  with  a  hatchel, 
boiled,  and  dried  in  the  sun,  make  an  excellent 
material  for  beds.  It  is  said  that  the  creeping 
stem,  when  grubbed  up,  dried,  and  burned, 
yields  a  greater  amount  of  potash  than  any 
other  vegetable  substance.  This  species  is 
common  in  sandy  barrens  from  South  Carolina 
southward.  The*  dwarf  palmetto  (8.  Ander- 
sonii)  has  its  short  stem  wholly  under  ground ; 
its  leaves,  2  to  3  ft.  high,  are  of  a  glaucous 
green,  longer  than  the  smooth  petiole,  with  the 
numerous  divisions  slightly  cleft  at  apex,  with 
sparing  filaments  between  them ;  the  drupe  is 
a  third  of  an  inch'  in  diameter.  It  is  found 
from  North  Carolina  to  Florida,  sometimes, 
especially  on  some  of  the  sea  islands,  quite 
covering  sandy  tracts.  The  chief  use  made  of 
this  is  for  fans,  for  which  the  leaves  answer 
excellently ;  it  is  frequently  called  palmeet  and 
palmeta.  These  three  species  were  placed  by 
older  botanists  in  the  genus  chamcerops,  but  the 
structure  of  their  flowers  refers  them  to  sdbal. 
We  have,  however,  one  chamcerops,  known  as 
the  blue  palmetto  ( G.  hystrix) ;  this  has  a  short 
creeping  stem,  with  somewhat  glaucous  leaves 
3  to  4  ft.  high ;  at  the  bases  of  the  leaves  are 
numerous  erect  strong  spines,  like  porcupines' 
quills,  which  serve  to  distinguish  it  from  the 
other  palmettos ;  the  fruit  is  from  one  half  to 
three  fourths  of  an  inch  long.  This  does  not 
appear  to  be  put  to  any  special  use.  It  is 
found  in  the  same  states  as  the  preceding,  but 
prefers  a  richer  soil,  and  is  often  found  in  moist 
shady  woods  and  on  the  margins  of  swamps. 

PALM  OIL,  a  fatty  oil  of  the  consistence  of 
butter,  of  a  rich  orange  color,  sweetish  taste, 
and  odor  like  that  of  violets  or  orris  root.  It 
is  the  product  of  the  fibrous  fleshy  coat  of  the 
drupe  or  stone  fruit  of  the  palm  known  as  the 
elceis  Guineensis  of  W.  Africa,  belonging  to  the 
tribe  of  cocoanut  palms.  The  same  oil  is  also 
obtained  in  Brazil,  Cayenne,  and  the  West  In- 
dies, and  is  probably  yielded  by  other  species 
of  palm  besides  that  named.  To  obtain  it,  the 
negroes  bruise  the  fruit  and  cover  it  with  boil- 
ing water,  upon  which  the  oil  rises  and  is 
skimmed  from  the  surface.  It  retains  the  col- 
oring matter  of  the  fruit,  which  is  removed  in 


the  subsequent  treatment  of  the  oil  in  the  Eng- 
lish factories,  either  by  bleaching  in  shallow 
vats  on  the  surface  of  hot  water  or  by*  various 
chemical  methods  of  treatment.  Each  drupe 
affording  only  about  T\  of  an  ounce  of  oil,  and 
each  tree  only  3  or  4  lbs.  of  it,  an  immense 
amount  of  labor  must  be  expended  in  secur- 
ing this  product,  and  the  forests  of  palm  must 
be  of  great  extent.  The  nuts  were  formerly 
rejected,  but  a  clear  limpid  oil  is  now  obtained 
from  them,  called  palm-nut  oil. — Palm  oil  is 
very  extensively  used  in  the  manufacture  of 
candles  and  soap,  and  in  the  various  kinds 
of  axle  grease.  It  melts  to  a  very  thin  fluid 
at  temperatures  varying  from  75°  to  95°  F. ; 
the  older  it  is,  the  greater  is  the  heat  required 
to  melt  it.     By  age  and  exposure  it  becomes 


Oil  Palm  (EMs  Guineensis) 

rancid  and  whitish.  In  ether  it  is  perfectly 
soluble,  slightly  so  in  cold  alcohol,  and  in  boil- 
ing alcohol  dissolves  readily,  but  separates  on 
cooling.  It  consists  of  margarine,  oleine,  and 
a  solid  fat  resembling  stearine  and  called  pal- 
mitine,  which  constitutes  about  two  thirds  of 
its  weight.  This  substance  is  further  reduced 
to  palmitic  acid  and  oxide  of  glycerine.  The 
change  takes  place  in  saponification;  and  as 
these  ingredients  also  exist  uncombined  in  the 
commercial  oil,  this  is  in  better  condition  than 
any  other  oil  for  the  process  of  soap  making. 
In  the  manufacture  of  candles,  the  oil,  having 
been  melted  by  steam  pipes  introduced  into 
the  casks,  and  freed  from  impurities,  is  mixed 
with  one  seventh  to  one  sixth  of  its  weight  of 
sulphuric  acid,  and  is  briskly  agitated  for  about 
two  hours  in  copper  boilers  heated  by  steam 


28 


PALM  OIL 


PALMYEA 


to  about  350°.  The  glycerine  and  sulphuric 
acid  by  their  mutual  reaction  are  thus  decom- 
posed and  escape  partially  in  carbonic  and  sul- 


Oil  Palm.— Part  of  Female  Flower  Spike,  Fruit,  and  Nut 
with  and  without  envelope. 

phurous  acids,  and  the  remainder  by  subsequent 
washing.  The  impure  acids  are  next  distilled 
in  copper  stills  heated  by  steam  injected  at  a 
temperature  of  600°.     The  dark  residue  in  the 


retorts  is  made  by  pressure  to  yield  further 
portions  of  oil  at  the  close  of  the  distillation, 
and  the  black  solid  mass  which  remains  is  used 
for  fuel.  The  distilled  fat,  when  cooled  to  50° 
or  54°,  is  broken  into  cakes  18  in.  square  and 
about  If  thick,  which  are  distributed  upon 
squares  of  coir  or  cocoanut  matting,  and  these 
being  piled  upon  each  other  are  submitted  to 
the  action  of  a  hydraulic  press  at  a  temperature 
of  75°.  The  fat  thus  obtained  may  be  run  at 
once  into  candles  for  the  European  markets ; 
but  for  tropical  climates  it  is  again  submitted 
to  pressure  at  a  temperature  of  120°.  The 
soaps  made  with  palm  oil  retain  the  natural 
agreeable  odor  of  the  oil. — In  Africa  palm  oil 
is  eaten  to  some  extent  by  the  natives  as  a  sort 
of  butter.  In  medicine  it  is  recognized  as  an 
emollient,  and  employed  sometimes  in  friction 
or  embrocation,  though  possessing  no  specific 
virtue  over  other  oleaginous  substances. 

PALM  SUNDAY.    See  Holy  Week. 

PALMYRA,  an  ancient  city  in  an  oasis  in  the 
Syrian  desert,  about  120  m.  N,  E.  of  Damas- 
cus. It  is  supposed  to  be  the  Tadmor  founded 
or  (according  to  Josephus)  enlarged  by  Solo- 
mon, and  its  Hebrew  name,  like  its  Greek  and 
Latin  one,  signifies  "  the  city  of  palms."  It 
was  autonomous  and  early  became  an  impor- 
tant emporium,  but  is  seldom  mentioned  by 
the  more  ancient  historians.  Pliny  refers  to  it 
as  a  city  of  merchants,  carrying  on  the  traffic 
between  the  Romans  and  Parthians.  In  the 
reign  of  Hadrian  it  formed  an  alliance  with 
Rome.  Its  ruler  Odenathus  received  the  title 
of  Augustus  from  the  emperor  Gallienus  for 
his  services  against  the  Persians  in  A.  D.  260. 


Kuins  of  Palmyra. 


He  was  assassinated  in  266,  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  widow  Zenobia,  under  whom  it  reached 
its  greatest  prosperity.     She  extended  her  sway 


over  considerable  portions  of  Mesopotamia  and 
Syria,  and  assumed  the  title  of  queen  of  the 
East.    As  she  refused  to  acknowledge  the  su- 


PALO  ALTO 


PAMPAS 


29 


premacy  of  Kome,  Aurelian  defeated  her  at 
Antioch  and  Emesa,  and  besieged  her  capital 
in  273.  Zenobia  fled,  but  was  captured,  and 
Palmyra  surrendered.  Subsequently  the  peo- 
ple revolted  and  slew  the  garrison  of  600  men, 
and  Aurelian  destroyed  the  city.  Justinian  re- 
stored it  in  527 ;  it  was  captured  by  the  Sara- 
cens in  633,  pillaged  by  them  in  744,  and  taken 
by  Tamerlane  in  1400.  The  place  now  has  a 
small  population  of  Syrians  and  a  Turkish  gar- 
rison. The  ruins  are  remarkable,  and.  com- 
prise countless  Corinthian  columns  of  white 
marble  extending  a  mile  and  a  half,  numerous 
tomb  towers  with  separate  compartments  for 
the  dead,  and  the  remains  of  a  grand  temple 
of  the  sun,  the  surrounding  columns  of  which 
are  Ionic.  The  tombs  appear  to  be  of  a  date 
preceding  the  Roman  conquest,  most  of  them 
containing  inscriptions  in  the  Palmyrene  char- 
acter and  language,  a  branch  of  the  Syriac. 
The  ruins  were  visited  by  some  English  mer- 
chants in  1691,  and  an  account  was  published 
in  the  "Transactions"  of  the  royal  society. 
They  were  explored  in  1751  by  Wood  and 
Dawkins,  who  published  an  elaborate  account 
with  plates  (fol.,  London,  1758);  by  Irby  and 
Mangles  in  1817-18 ;  and  since  then  have  been 
visited  by  many  travellers,  including  Burton 
(1870)  and  Myers  (1871-'2).  Much  informa- 
tion in  respect  to  recently  discovered  remains 
is  given  in  Vogue's  Syrie  centrale  (Paris,  1869). 

PALO  ALTO,  a  N".  W.  county  of  Iowa,  drained 
by  the  Des  Moines  river  and  its  tributaries; 
area,  576  sq.  m.;  pop.  in  1870,  1,336.  The 
surface  is  generally  level  and  the  soil  fertile. 
The  chief  productions  in  1870  were  19,475 
bushels  of  wheat,  22,336  of  Indian  corn,  19,976 
of  oats,  45,525  lbs.  of  butter,  and  7,432  tons  of 
hay.  There  were  349  horses,  760  milch  cows, 
1,642  other  cattle,  and  357  swine.  Capital, 
Emmetsburg. 

PALO  ALTO  (Sp.,  "  tall  timber  "),  a  wood  in  S. 
Texas,  about  8  m.  N.  N.  E.  of  Matamoros,  near 
which  a  battle  was  fought,  May  8,  1846,  be- 
tween the  Americans  commanded  by  Gen.  Tay- 
lor, and  the  Mexicans  by  Gen.  Arista.  Taylor 
had  marched  on  May  1  from  Fort  Brown,  oppo- 
site Matamoros,  for  the  relief  of  Point  Isabel, 
where  he  had  a  depot  of  provisions  which  was 
threatened  by  the  Mexicans.  Having  made 
this  place  defensible,  he  started  to  return  on 
the  7th.  At  noon  on  the  8th  the  enemy  ap- 
peared in  his  front  in  a  position  to  cut  him  off 
from  Fort  Brown.  The  action  began  with  an 
artillery  fire  from  the  Mexicans  and  a  cavalry 
attack  with  the  lance.  They  were  forced  back, 
and  the  Americans  advanced.  After  an  engage- 
ment of  five  hours  the  Mexicans  retreated. 
They  numbered  about  6,000,  and  their  loss  in 
killed  was  about  100.  The  Americans  num- 
bered about  2,300,  and  their  loss  was  4  killed 
and  40  wounded. 

PALOMINO  DE  CASTRO  Y  VALASCO,  Acislo  Antonio, 
a  Spanish  painter,  born  in  Bujalance  in  1653, 
died  in  Madrid,  April  13,  1726.  He  studied 
theology,  philosophy,  and  jurisprudence  at  Cor- 


dova, but  devoted  himself  secretly  to  paint- 
ing. In  1678  he  went  to  Madrid,  and  in  1688 
was  appointed  painter  to  the  king.  Among 
his  chief  productions  are  the  fresco  in  the 
church  of  San  Juan  del  Mercado  in  Valencia, 
that  of  the  "Triumph  of  Religion  "  in  the  con- 
vent of  San  Esteban  in  Salamanca,  and  others 
in  Granada,  and  a  series  of  altarpieces  at  Cor- 
dova. After  the  death  of  his  wife  in  1725  he 
took  orders.  He  published  El  museo  pictorico 
y  escala  optica  (Madrid,  1715-24),  and  Vidas 
de  los  pintores  y  estatuarios  eminentes  espa- 
noles  (8  vols.,  London,  l739-'42),  translated 
into  German,  French,  and  English. 

PALO  PINTO,  a  N".  W.  county  of  Texas,  inter- 
sected by  the  Brazos  river;  area,  974  sq.  m. 
The  population  was  not  returned  in  the  census 
of  1870.  The  surface  is  broken  and  hilly,  with 
much  prairie  land  and  some  woodland.  Sheep 
and  stock  raising  are  the  chief  industries.  The 
county  has  suffered  from  Indian  incursions. 
Capital,  Palo  Pinto. 

PALOS,  a  town  of  Andalusia,  Spain,  in  the 
province  and  5  m.  S.  E.  of  the  town  of  Huelva, 
on  the  Tinto,  near  its  mouth  in  the  gulf  of 
Cadiz;  pop.  about  1,200.  It  is  remarkable  as 
the  port  from  which  Columbus  sailed  (Aug.  3, 
1492)  on  his  first  voyage  to  America.  Be- 
tween it  and  the  sea  is  the  old  convent  of  La 
Rabid  a,  noted  in  the  earlier  history  of  the 
navigator. 

PALPITATION.   See  Heart,  Diseases  of  the. 

PALSY.     See  Paralysis. 

PAMIERS,  a  town  of  France,  in  the  depart- 
ment of  Ariege,  on  the  river  Ariege,  10  m.  N. 
of  Foix;  pop.  in  1872,  8,690.  It  is  the  seat 
of  a  bishop,  has  two  religious  communities  of 
men  and  four  of  women,  and  a  communal  col- 
lege.    It  was  formerly  the  capital  of  Foix. 

PAMLICO,  an  E.  county  of  North  Carolina, 
bordering  on  the  Neuse  river  and  Pamlico 
sound,  formed  from  portions  of  Beaufort  and 
Craven  cos.  in  1872;  area,  about  300  sq.  m. 
The  surface  is  low  and  swampy.  Capital, 
Vandemere. 

PAMLICO  RIVER,  an  estuary  receiving  the 
waters  of  Tar  river  and  Tranter's  creek,  and 
opening  into  Pamlico  sound,  N".  C.  It  is  from 
1  to  8  m.  broad  and  40  m.  long,  and  navigable 
for  all  vessels  which  can  enter  the  sound. 

PAMLICO  SOUND,  a  shallow  body  of  water  on 
the  coast. of  North  Carolina,  separated  from 
the  Atlantic  by  long  and  narrow  sandy  isl- 
ands, whose  outermost  point  is  Cape  Hatteras ; 
breadth  from  10  to  30  m.,  length  about  80  m. 
The  principal  entrance  is  by  Ocracoke  inlet  on 
the  southwest.  It  communicates  with  Albe- 
marle and  Currituck  sounds  on  the  north,  and 
receives  Pamlico  and  Neuse  rivers  on  the  west. 

PAMPAS,  the  great  plains  of  South  America, 
stretching  from  lat.  50°  S.  in  Patagonia  north- 
ward through  the  Argentine  Republic  to  the 
Bolivian  frontier,  about  27  degrees  of  latitude, 
and  covering  an  area  of  about  600,000  sq.  m. 
The  northern  portion  is  occupied  by  the  vast 
unexplored  territory  of  the  Gran  Chaco ;  the 


30 


PAMPAS  GRASS 


PAMPHILUS 


southern  forms  an  immense  desert  interspersed 
with  sand  pools ;  the  eastern,  extensive  plains 
and  marshes,  with  tracts  entirely  inundated ; 
while  the  western  border  rises  gradually  into 
the  elevated  region  of  Salta,  Tucuman,  Santi- 
ago, Cordova,  and  San  Luis,  in  the  Argentine 
Republic,  and  into  the  Andes  proper  in  Pata- 
gonia. The  natural  features  of  the  northern 
and  northwestern  parts  are  plains  of  magnifi- 
cent pasture,  dense  timber  forests,  and  numer- 
ous lagoons  and  rivers,  chief  among  the  last 
being  the  Pilcomayo  and  the  Bermejo.  The 
central  portion  is  distinguishable  into  several 
subdivisions,  differing  in  climate  and  products, 
although  under  the  same  parallel.  Proceeding 
westward  from  Buenos  Ayres,  the  first  of  these 
presents  for  nearly  200  m.  an  alternate  growth 
of  clover  and  thistles ;  the  next,  a  covering  of 
long  grass  and  brilliant  flowers  extending  with- 
out a  weed  some  400  m.  further  westward; 
the  third,  reaching  to  the  base  of  the  Andes, 
one  continuous  grove  of  shrubs  and  small 
evergreen  trees,  so  evenly  set  that  a  horseman 
may  gallop  at  random  between  them  without 
inconvenience.  Change  of  season  brings  little 
variation  in  the  aspect  of  the  two  regions  last 
referred  to  ;  but  in  the  first  remarkable  muta- 
tions occur.  During  the  winter  months  the 
thistles  and  clover  are  exceedingly  rich  and 
strong,  and  support  countless  herds  of  wild 
cattle.  On  the  approach  of  spring  the  clover 
disappears,  and  nothing  is  distinguishable  save 
an  immense  forest  of  giant  thistles,  so  closely 
set  and  so  strong  as  to  form  an  impenetrable 
barrier.  In  summer  the  thistles  give  place  to 
a  new  and  luxurious  growth  of  clover.  Nu- 
merous rivers  traverse  the  central  and  south- 
ern parts,  but  the  only  absolutely  perennial 
stream  is  the  Rio  Negro,  which  forms  the 
boundary  line  with  Patagonia.  The  Andine 
regions  abound  in  guanacos,  llamas,  and  vicu- 
nas ;  deer,  wild  hogs,  and  armadillos  are  every- 
where found;  ostriches  are  plenty;  and  the 
rodent  tocutuco  and  vizcacha  render  travel  dan- 
gerous from  their  burrowings. 

PAMPAS  GRASS  {gynerium  argenteum),  a  large 
perennial  grass  from  the  plains  of  South  Amer- 
ica. It  is  dioecious,  and  the  generic  name  (G-r. 
ywfa  female,  and  ipiov,  wool,  hair)  is  derived 
from  the  fact  that  the  glumes  of  the  female 
flowers  are  furnished  with  long  hairs,  which 
are  lacking  in  the  male  flowers.  An  old  and 
well  established  specimen  of  this  grass  presents 
an  enormous  tuft  4  to  6  ft.  high  and  as  much  or 
more  across,  of  very  long  narrow  leaves,  with 
rough  edges,  which  curve  gracefully  and  make 
the  plant  highly  ornamental  for  its  foliage 
alone.  It  flowers  at  the  end  of  summer  or  in 
early  autumn,  throwing  up  numerous  stalks, 
sometimes  in  an  old  plant  as  many  as  40  or 
50,  which  are  from  4  to  15  ft.  high,  according 
to  the  strength  of  the  plant,  each  surmounted 
by  a  dense  panicle  of  flowers  1  or  2  ft.  long, 
which  in  the  pistillate  plant  are  of  a  beautiful 
silky,  silvery  lustre.  The  flowers  are  similar 
in  structure  to  those  of  our  common  reed 


(phragmites),  to  which  it  Is  closely  related, 
with  but  two  florets  in  each  spikelet.  This 
grass  was  first  introduced  into  cultivation  by 
seeds  sent  from  Buenos  Ayres  to  England  in 


Pampas  Grass  (Gynerium  argenteum). 

1843,  and  is  now  quite  common;  it  is  easily 
raised  from  seed;  but  as  female  plants  are 
much  more  ornamental  than  the  males,  and  as 
there  is  no  way  of  telling  the  sex  of  the  plants 
until  they  bloom,  it  is  customary  to  multiply  it 
by  division  of  old  plants,  the  sex  of  which  is 
known.  It  is  barely  hardy  in  the  climate  of 
New  York.  Further  south  no  protection  is 
needed.  Varieties  have  been  obtained  in  which 
the  plumes  are  tinged  with  purple,  others  with 
yellow,  and  there  is  one  form  in  which  the 
leaves  are  variegated  with  white. 

PAMPELUNA.    See  Pamplona. 

PAMPHILUS,  a  Greek  painter,  born  in  Am- 
phipolis,  flourished  between  390  and  350  B.  C. 
Not  more  than  four  or  five  of  his  pictures  are 
specified  by  ancient  authors,  but  Quintilian 
says  he  was  one  of  the  most  celebrated  among 
the  Greeks  for  composition.  He  was  the  mas- 
ter of  Apelles  and  Melanthius. 

PAMPHILUS,  an  early  Christian  writer,  born 
probably  in  Berytus,  suffered  martyrdom  in 
Csesarea,  Feb.  16,  309.  He  studied  in  Berytus, 
and  under  Pierius  in  Alexandria,  and  became  a 
presbyter  of  Csesarea  in  Palestine.  About  the 
close  of  307  he  was  imprisoned,  and  finally  put 
to  death,  for  refusing  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods. 
With  his  most  intimate  friend  Eusebius,  who 
attended  him  in  his  imprisonment  and  assumed 
his  name,  he  probably  wrote  five  books  of  "  The 
Apology  for  Origen."  At  Csesarea  he  formed 
a  public  library,  chiefly  of  ecclesiastical  works, 
which  became  very  celebrated,  and  founded  a 
theological  school.  In  conjunction  with  Euse- 
bius he  prepared  an  edition  of  the  Septuagint, 
which  was  commonly  used  in  the  eastern  church. 
The  Expositio  Capitum  Actuum  Apostolicorum 


PAMPHYLIA 


PANAMA 


31 


has  been  ascribed  to  him,  but  doubtfully.  The 
life  of  Pamphilus  was  written  by  Eusebius,  but 
only  a  few  doubtful  fragments  remain. 

PAMPHYLIA  (Gr.  7rav,  all,  and  <j>v?iov,  tribe), 
an  ancient  division  of  Asia  Minor,  on  its  S. 
coast,  now  comprised  in  the  Turkish  vilayet  of 
Konieh.  It  is  said  to  have  been  first  called 
Mopsopia,  from  Mopsus,  its  first  Greek  colo- 
nizer. The  later  name  referred  to  the  mixed 
character  of  its  inhabitants,  among  whom 
were  many  aboriginal  tribes  from  the  interior. 
Pamphylia  was  bounded  E.  by  Cilicia,  N.  by 
Pisidia,  from  which  it  was  divided  by  Mt. 
Taurus,  and  W.  by  Lycia.  It  was  a  narrow 
strip  about  90  m.  long,  and  formed  an  arch 
around  the  Pamphylian  gulf  (now  gulf  of  Ada- 
lia).  The  eastern  extremity  is  fiat  and  sandy, 
the  western  hilly  with  the  ramifications  of  Mt. 
Taurus  that  run  down  to  the  coast.  The  west- 
ern part  of  this  district  is  a  mass  of  incrusted 
vegetable  matter,  beneath  which  its  rivers,  the 
ancient  Catarrhactes,  Oestrus,  Eurymedon,  and 
Melas,  find  their  way  to  the  sea. — Pamphylia 
was  conquered  by  Cyrus,  and  when  the  Persian 
empire  was  destroyed  by  Alexander  it  became 
subject  to  Macedon,  and  then  to  Syria.  It 
subsequently  became  a  part  of  the  kingdom  of 
Pergamus,  and  finally  a  Koman  province.  The 
principal  towns  were  Attalia  (now  Adalia),  01- 
bia,  Corycus,  Aspendus,  Perge,  Syllium,  Side, 
Cibyra,  and  Ptolemais.  The  language  spoken 
was  a  mixture  of  Greek  and  a  native  (probably 
Semitic)  dialect. 

PAMPLONA,  or  Pampeluna  (anc.  Pompelon),  a 
fortified  city  of  Spain,  capital  of  the  province 
of  Navarre,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Arga,  197 
m.  N.  E.  of  Madrid;  pop.  about  23,000.  It 
stands  in  a  plain  flanked  on  three  sides  by  the 
Pyrenees,  is  entered  by  six  gates,  and  has  29 
streets.  The  cathedral  was  founded  in  1100, 
and  rebuilt  three  centuries  later  by  Charles 
III.  of  Navarre.  The  university  was  founded 
in  1608.  The  best  public  library  is  that  at- 
tached to  the  cathedral.  Water  is  conveyed 
from  the  mountains  of  Subiza,  12  m.  distant, 
by  a  superb  aqueduct,  one  portion  of  which 
rests  on  97  arches,  each  of  35  ft.  span  and  65 
ft.  high.  The  citadel,  separated  from  the  town 
by  a  vast  esplanade,  occupies  a  commanding 
site.  Cloth,  leather,  wax,  and  earthenware  are 
manufactured,  and  there  is  much  trade  in  flour 
and  wool. — Pamplona  was  anciently  the  chief 
town  of  the  Vascones  in  Hispania  Tarraconen- 
sis.  The  Goths  under  Euric  wrested  it  from 
the  Eomans  in  466,  and  the  Franks  captured  it 
in  542.  Charlemagne  seized  it  in  778 ;  and  af- 
ter falling  into  the  hands  of  the  Saracens  under 
Al-Hakim,  it  was  recaptured  by  the  Franks  in 
806,  and  became  the  capital  of  Navarre  about 
the  middle  of  the  century.  It  has  since  been 
many  times  besieged  and  captured.  The  Car- 
lists  blockaded  it  Sept.  1,  1874,  half  the  popu- 
lation was  driven  away,  and  the  city  now  (1875) 
presents  a  most  desolate  appearance. 

PAN,  in  Grecian  mythology,  the  god  of  flocks 
and  shepherds.  He  was  the  son  of  Mercury 
vol.  xni. — 3 


by  Callisto,  Dryops,  (Eneis,  or  Penelope,  or 
according  to  some  authorities  of  Penelope  by 
Ulysses  or  by  all  her  suitors  in  common.  He 
is  represented  with  horns,  a  pug  nose,  and  a 
goat's  beard,  feet,  and  tail,  and  was  perfectly 
developed  from  his  birth.  When  his  mother 
first  saw  him  she  ran  away  in  fright,  but  Mer- 
cury carried  him  to  Olympus,  and  the  nymphs 
nursed  him.  He  was  a  favorite  with  all  the 
gods,  and  was  especially  the  companion  of  Bac- 
chus. He  had  a  terrific  voice,  by  which  he 
frightened  the  Titans  in  their  struggle  with 
the  gods.  Phidippides  asserted  in  Athens  that 
Pan  promised  him  to  frighten  away  the  Per- 
sians if  the  Athenians  would  worship  him ; 
and  hence  originated  the  expression  "panic 
fear."  He  played  upon  the  syrinx  or  shep- 
herd's flute,  of  which  he  was  the  inventor,  and 
was  the  patron  of  hunters,  but  was  dreaded 
by  travellers.  He  was  the  god  of  bee-keepers 
and  fishermen,  and  according  to  Servius  was 
considered  as  the  god  of  nature  generally,  or 
a  personification  of  the  universe  (Gr.  to  kclp), 
whence  his  name,  though  Pan  is  also  associated 
with  the  Greek  Tr&etv,  Latin  pascere,  to  feed  or 
pasture.  He  loved  the  nymph  Echo,  by  whom 
or  by  Pitho  he  became  the  father  of  lynx,  the 
nymph  Pitys,  who  was  metamorphosed  into 
a  fir  tree,  and  Syrinx,  after  whom  he  named 
his  flute.  His  worship,  native  in  Arcadia,  ex- 
tended thence  over  other  parts  of  Greece,  and 
after  the  battle  of  Marathon  was  introduced 
into  Athens.  In  Eome  he  was  honored  under 
the  names  of  Inuus  and  Faunus.  The  fir  tree 
was  sacred  to  him,  and  sacrifices  were  offered 
to  him  consisting  of  cows,  rams,  lambs,  milk, 
and  honey.     The  satyrs  were  his  attendants. 

PANjENTS,  a  Greek  painter,  who  flourished 
in  Athens  about  448  B.  C.  He  was  a  nephew 
of  Phidias,  and  when  that  sculptor  made  the 
statue  of  the  Olympian  Jupiter,  Pansenus  orna- 
mented the  base  with  a  series  of  mythological 
pictures.  He  also  painted  the  roof  of  Miner- 
va's temple  at  Elis.  His  principal  work  was 
the  battle  of  Marathon  in  the  Pcecile  at  Ath- 
ens, representing  four  periods  of  the  combat. 

PANAMA  (Sp.  Panama).  I.  A  state  of  the 
United  States  of  Colombia,  occupying  the  isth- 
mus connecting  North  and  South  America,  be- 
tween lat.  6°  45'  and  9°  40'  N.,  and  Ion.  77° 
and  83°  W. ;  area,  31,921  sq.  m. ;  pop.  in  1870, 
220,542.  Its  general  form  is  an  arc  curving 
from  E.  to  W.  with  its  convex  side  toward  the 
north.  On  the  southeast  it  joins  the  state 
of  Cauca ;  on  the  west  it  is  bounded  by  Costa 
Eica.  In  its  widest  part  the  distance  from  sea 
to  sea,  through  the  peninsula  of  Azuero,  is 
about  120  m. ;  in  the  narrowest,  between  the 
gulf  of  San  Bias  and  the  mouth  of  Bayano 
river,  about  30  m. ;  following  the  line  of  the 
Panama  railway,  47£  m.  The  coast  line  on 
the  Caribbean  sea  is  about  450  m.  long,  and 
forms  a  reverse  curve,  convex  from  the  gulf 
of  Darien  to  Point  Manzanillo,  and  concave 
from  thence  to  the  Doraces  river.  The  prin- 
cipal bays  are  Caledonia  bay  and  the  gulf  of 


32 


PANAMA 


San  Bias,  in  the  latter  of  which  are  the  isl- 
ands forming  the  Mulatas  archipelago,  Limon 
or  Navy  bay,  and  the  Ohiriqui  lagoon.  The 
chief  ports  are  Puerto  Escoces  in  Caledonia 
bay,  San  Bias,  Portobello,  Colon  or  Aspinwall 
in  Limon  bay,  and  Chiriqui.  On  the  Pacific 
coast  the  bay  of  Panama  makes  an  indenta- 
tion about  110  m.  deep  and  122  m.  wide  at 
its  mouth.  Its  W.  coast  is  formed  by  the  pen- 
insula of  Azuero,  which  extends  S.  E.  from 
the  mainland  about  75  m.  There  are  many 
islands  in  the  bay,  the  principal  of  which  are 
the  Pearl  islands.  At  its  N".  extremity  are  the 
city  and  port  of  Panama,  and  on  its  E.  coast  is 
the  gulf  of  San  Miguel,  which  contains  a  good 
port.  There  are  also  several  smaller  ports  on 
the  W.  coast.  Beyond  the  peninsula  of  Azue- 
ro the  coast  of  the  isthmus  is  broken  by  the 
bay  of  Montijo,  which  contains  several  islands. 
The  largest  of  these,  Coiba,  has  an  area  of 
180  sq.  m.,  and  contains  the  port  of  Damas. 
From  the  Atlantic  coast  the  isthmus  appears 
to  be  traversed  through,  its  entire  length  by  a 
range  of  high  mountains,  the  continuation  of 
the  Andes,  but  surveys  have  proved  that  in 
some  parts  the  elevation  does  not  exceed  300 
ft.  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  From  this  divi- 
ding ridge  about  150  streams  flow  into  the  At- 
lantic, and  more  than  twice  as  many  into  the 
Pacific.  The  largest  of  these  is  the  river  Tui- 
ra,  which  rises  in  the  sierra  on  the  borders  of 
Cauca,  and  empties  into  the  gulf  of  San  Mi- 
guel ;  it  is  162  m.  long,  and  is  navigable  for 
barges  for  102  m.  The  Chagres,  which  falls 
into  the  Caribbean  sea  a  little  W.  of  Limon 
bay,  is  navigable  by  bongos  for  about  30  m. 
The  Chepo,  after  a  W.  N.  W.  course  of  about 
75  m.,  turns  S.  and  empties  into  the  bay  of 
Panama.  Among  the  minerals  of  Panama  are 
gold,  mercury,  copper,  iron,  salt,  gypsum,  lime, 
and  coal.  The  product  of  the  gold  mines — 
once  considerable,  as  is  attested  by  the  ancient 
name  of  the  isthmus,  Castilla  de  Oro,  and  by 
the  large  quantities  of  the  metal  formerly  ex- 
tracted from  the  huacas  of  Chiriqui — is  now 
insignificant,  being  probably  less  than  $100,- 
000  annually.  Coal  is  mined  in  Bocas  del 
Toro  and  other  places.  There  are  several  ther- 
mal springs,  and  salt  is  an  important  product. 
The  climate  is  very  hot  on  the  coasts  ;  on  the 
flanks  of  the  mountains  in  the  interior  it  is 
relatively  cool,  but  miasmatic  fevers  prevail 
everywhere.  The  seasons  are  the  wet  and  the 
dry,  the  former  lasting  from  May  to  Decem- 
ber inclusive;  July,  August,  and  September 
are  the  hottest  months.  Nearly  all  the  vege- 
table products  of  the  torrid  zone  grow  luxuri- 
antly, and  much  of  the  surface  is  covered  with 
dense  forests,  in  which  are  found  many  of  the 
most  valuable  kinds  of  timber,  dye,  cabinet, 
and  medicinal  woods,  and  shrubs.  Codazzi 
enumerates  55  varieties  of  fruit  trees.  Con- 
spicuous among  the  trees  are  the  giant  cedars 
and  the  palms,  among  the  latter  of  which  are 
the  wine,  sago,  ivory,  glove,  cabbage,  and 
cocoa  palms.     In  the  rainy  season,  when  the 


blossoming  trees  are  festooned  with  flowering 
vines  and  epiphytes,  the  forests  are  magnifi- 
cent almost  beyond  description.  The  fauna 
corresponds  with  that  of  the  lower  Magdalena 
valley,  excepting  the  monkeys  and  parrots, 
which  are  not  equalled  in  variety  and  number 
elsewhere  N.  of  the  forests  of  the  Amazon. 
Taboga  island  in  the  bay  of  Panama  is  noted 
for  the  number  and  great  size  of  the  turtles 
found  there.  The  Pearl  islands  were  once 
celebrated  for  their  pearl  fisheries,  but  the 
oysters  are  now  nearly  exhausted,  and  in  1874 
the  fishing  was  prohibited  by  law  for  a  term 
of  years.  Agriculture  is  very  backward,  and 
not  more  than  one  tenth  of  the  surface  is 
cultivated.  Maize  and  rice  are  the  principal 
grains ;  coffee,  cacao,  tobacco,  and  sugar  cane 
are  raised  for  home  consumption;  cotton  is 
indigenous  and  perennial,  and  the  indigo  plant 
grows  spontaneously.  Manufacturing  indus- 
try is  limited  to  the  production  of  cloth  and 
grass  hammocks,  coarse  linen,  grass  hats  and 
knapsacks,  pack  saddles,  matting,  tiles,  small 
boats,  sails,  soap,  and  a  few  other  articles. 
Among  the  products  exported  are  cocoanuts, 
cocoanut  oil,  bananas,  caoutchouc,  and  tor- 
toise shells.  The  foreign  trade  is  carried  on 
principally  through  the  ports  of  Panama  and 
Aspinwall,  the  termini  of  the  Panama  rail- 
way. As  no  official  accounts  are  kept,  the 
commerce  proper  of  the  isthmus  cannot  be  dis- 
tinguished from  the  transit  trade.  The  lat- 
ter amounts  to  the  estimated  annual  value  of 
$50,000,000,  about  two  thirds  of  which  rep- 
resents that  from  the  Pacific  to  the  Atlantic. 
The  only  railway  is  that  from  Panama  to  As- 
pinwall, 47i  m.  long,  which  is  owned  and  con- 
trolled by  an  American  company.  It  was  be- 
gun in  1850,  and  on  Jan.  28,  1855,  the  first 
train  passed  over  it.  Its  cost  was  $7,500,000. 
The  finest  work  on  the  road  is  the  iron  bridge 
over  the  Chagres,  which  is  625  ft.  long  and  40 
ft.  above  the  water,  and  cost  $500,000.  The 
only  advantages  reserved  from  the  railway 
company  by  the  government  are  3  per  cent, 
of  its  net  revenues,  and  $10,000  annually  as  a 
compensation  for  the  free  transit  of  all  foreign 
mails.  In  connection  with  the  railway  are 
lines  of  steamers  between  Aspinwall  and  New 
York,  and  Panama  and  San  Francisco;  and 
other  lines,  British,  French,  and  Chilian,  touch 
at  one  or  the  other  of  these  ports.  All  the 
ports  are  now  free.  A  submarine  cable  con- 
necting Aspinwall  and  Kingston,  Jamaica,  was 
broken  in  1872,  and  has  not  yet  (1875)  been 
repaired.  A  cable  from  Valparaiso  to  Pana- 
ma, touching  at  the  principal  intermediate 
ports,  is  projected.  Public  education  is  begin- 
ning to  receive  attention.  At  the  commence- 
ment of  1874  there  were  no  public  schools,  but 
before  its  close  there  were  16,  well  attended. 
The  isthmus  was  formerly  divided  into  the 
provinces  of  Azuero,  Chiriqui,  Panama,  and 
Veragua,  but  in  1865  the  several  provinces 
were  formed  into  the  state  of  Panama,  of 
which   each   now   constitutes   a  department. 


PANAMA 


33 


Besides  the  capital,  Panama,  the  other  chief 
towns  are  Santiago,  Montijo,  David,  Porto- 
bello,  Colon  or  Aspinwall,  Chagres,  and  San- 
tos.— Columbus,  in  his  last  voyage  in  1502, 
discovered  Chiriqui  lagoon,  and  established  a 
colony  at  Belen,  but  it  was  soon  abandoned. 
The  first  permanent  settlement  was  that  of 
Portobello  by  Nicuesa,  in  1510.  The  Pacific 
was  first  reached  by  Balboa,  Sept.  26,  1513. 
In  1514  reports  of  the  immense  riches  of  Cas- 
tilla  de  Oro,  as  the  country  was  then  called, 
led  to  the  expedition  of  Pedrarias  Davila,  who 
transferred  the  seat  of  government  in  1518  to 
Panama.  In  1586  Drake  sacked  Portobello; 
the  buccaneers  under  Morgan  took  it  in  1665, 
and  in  16 TO  reduced  the  castle  of  San  Lorenzo 
at  Chagres  and  burned  Panama.  In  1680  they 
crossed  the  isthmus  under  Sharp,  Ringrose, 
and  Dampier,  and  took  the  city  of  Santa  Ma- 
ria, which  led  to  the  closing  of  the  gold  mines 
of  Cana  in  1685  by  royal  decree.  In  1698 
William  Paterson  founded  a  Scotch  colony 
at  Puerto  Escoces,  on  Caledonia  bay.  (See 
Daeien,  Colony  of.)  In  1719  the  Catholic 
missionaries  had  established  several  towns  on 
the  Atlantic  coast  and  on  the  rivers  flowing 
into  the  gulf  of  San  Miguel,  but  they  were  all 
destroyed  by  the  Indians.  In  1790  a  treaty  of 
peace  was  made  with  the  Indians  of  Darien, 
in  compliance  with 
which  the  Spaniards  .• 

abandoned  all  their 
forts  in  that  district. 
— The  isthmus  of  Pa- 
nama has  derived  its 
chief  importance  from 
its  supposed  facilities 
for  the  construction 
of  an  interoceanic  ca- 
nal. Since  1528  the 
idea  has  been  mooted 
of  opening  a  canal  be- 
tween the  river  Cha- 
gres (falling  into  the 
Caribbean  sea  at  the 
town  of  that  name) 
and  the  Grande,  fall- 
ing into  the  Pacific 
near  Panama,  or  the 
Trinidad  and  Caimito. 
The  route  was  exam- 
ined by  two  Flemish 
engineers  under  the 
orders  of  Philip  II.; 
but  for  political  rea- 
sons the  king  ordered 
that  no  one  should 
revive  the  subject  un- 
der penalty  of  death. 
In  1826  Domingo  Lo- 
pez, a  native  of  Colombia,  traced  a  new  line 
for  a  canal  between  Panama  and  Portobello. 
But  the  first  formal  exploration  was  made  in 
1827,  under  the  orders  of  Gen.  Bolivar,  by  the 
engineers  Lloyd  and  Falmark.  Their  labors, 
concluded  in  1829,  proved  that  a  railway,  if 


not  a  canal,  could  readily  be  built  between 
Chagres  and  Panama.  In  1843  the  French 
government  sent  out  Messrs.  Garella  and  Cour- 
tines  to  make  examinations.  Garella  report- 
ed in  favor  of  a  canal  from  Limon  bay,  to  pass 
under  the  dividing  ridge  of  Ahogayegua  by  a 
tunnel  120  ft.  high  and  17,390  ft.  long,  to  the 
bay  of  Vaca  del  Monte,  12  m.  W.  of  Panama. 
In  1852  the  government  of  New  Granada  con- 
ceded to  Dr.  Cullen  and  others  the  privilege 
of  building  a  canal  between  Caledonia  bay  and 
the  gulf  of  San  Miguel.  In  1864  Mr.  Kelley 
of  New  York  surveyed  a  route  from  the  gulf 
of  San  Bias  to  the  river  Chepo,  which  would 
require  a  long  tunnel.  In  1865  M.  de  la  Charme 
surveyed  a  line  from  the  S.  part  of  the  gulf  of 
Darien  to  the  gulf  of  San  Miguel,  via  the  river 
Tuira.  In  the  same  year  M.  de  Puydt,  an  engi- 
neer employed  by  the  French  international  Co- 
lombian company,  announced  the  discovery  of 
a  favorable  passage  from  the  port  of  Escondido 
to  the  Tuira,  and  thence  into  the  gulf  of  San 
Miguel.  In  1870  Capt.  Selfridge,  U.  S.  N.,  sur- 
veyed two  lines  from  Caledonia  bay  by  different 
routes  to  the  mouths  of  the  rivers  Sabana  and 
Lara  on  the  Pacific,  but  found  no  lower  level 
on  the  Cordillera  than  1,000  ft.  Another  line 
run  from  the  bay  of  San  Bias  to  the  Chepo  river 
was  still  more  unfavorable.    In  1871  he  exam- 


Cathedral  of  Panama. 

ined  the  line  of  M.  de  Puydt  and  found  it  im- 
practicable. In  1874  two  other  expeditions 
were  sent  out  by  the  United  States  govern- 
ment, one  to  survey  a  line  between  the  Atrato 
and  the  Pacific,  across  the  Colombian  state  of 
Cauca,  and  the  other  a  line  parallel  with  the 


34 


PANATHEN^EA 


PANCREAS 


Panama  railway.  Their  reports  are  about  to 
be  published.  II.  A  city,  capital  of  the  state, 
situated  on  the  bay  of  the  same  name,  in  lat. 
8°  56'  N.,  Ion.  79°  31'  2"  W. ;  pop.  about  11,000. 
It  occupies  a  rocky  peninsula  extending  from 
the  base  of  the  volcanic  hill  of  Ancon  about 
one  fourth  of  a  mile  into  the  bay.  The  houses 
are  mostly  of  stone,  built  in  the  Spanish  style, 
the  larger  ones  with  courtyards  and  balconies, 
and  the  smaller  with  but  one  story.  The  only 
buildings  of  note  are  the  cathedral,  the  churches, 
the  cabildo  or  town  hall,  and  the  warehouses 
of  the  Panama  railway.  Tlie  bay  is  shallow, 
so  that  only  small  vessels  can  approach  the 
shore,  and  the  roadstead,  though  protected  by 
several  small  outlying  islands,  is  dangerous  on 
account  of  the  frequency  of  northers ;  but  ships 
find  excellent  anchorage  at  the  neighboring 
island  of  Taboga,  where  they  take  in  water. 
About  2£  m.  from  the  town  are  the  islands  of 
Perico  and  Flamenco,  the  stations  of  the  Cali- 
fornia and  Central  American  company's  steam- 
ers. On  the  latter  island  are  docks  and  other 
facilities  for  repairing  vessels.  Passengers  and 
freight  are  carried  from  the  steamers  on  steam 
tugs  and  landed  on  a  pier  which  extends  450 
ft.  into  the  bay.  .The  average  rise  and  fall  of 
the  tide  is  12  ft.  Panama  has  a  large  com- 
merce, but  most  of  it  is  due  to  the  transit  trade. 
The  arrivals  of  steamers  average  13  a  month, 
and  of  sailing  vessels  not  more  than  100  a 
year.  The  steamers  comprise  two  American 
lines  connecting  with  San  Francisco  and  the 
Mexican  and  Central  American  ports,  and 
British,  French,  and  Chilian  lines  running  to 
Guayaquil,  Callao,  Valparaiso,  and  intermedi- 
ate ports.  The  coasting  trade  is  carried  on 
in  schooners  and  bongos,  their  freight  consist- 
ing principally  of  caoutchouc  and  provisions. 
— Panama  was  founded  in  1518  by  Pedrarias 
Davila,  about  6  m.  N.  E.  of  the  present  site,  to 
which  it  was  transferred  after  the  destruction 
of  the  old  city  by  the  buccaneers  in  1670.  It 
has  suffered  much  from  disastrous  fires :  in 
1737,  when  it  was  almost  entirely  destroyed, 
and  in  1864,  1870,  and  1874,  the  loss  in  the 
last  year  amounting  to  $1,000,000. 

PANATHENJEA,  the  most  splendid  of  the  Athe- 
nian festivals,  celebrated  in  honor  of  Athena 
(Minerva)  Polias,  protectress  of  the  city.  Ac- 
cording to  tradition,  it  was  instituted  by  Erich- 
thonius  under  the  title  of  Athenaaa.  It  retained 
this  name,  and  the  celebration  was  confined  to 
Athens,  until  the  reign  of  Theseus,  who  united 
all  the  Attic  tribes,  and  this,  becoming  -their 
common  festival,  was  called  Panathensea.  The 
festival  was  divided  into  the  lesser  and  the 
greater,  the  former  taking  place  every  year, 
the  latter  in  the  third  year  of  each  Olympiad. 
The  difference  between  the  two  consisted  in 
the  greater  splendor  and  solemnity  of  the  lat- 
ter. The  exercises  consisted  of  foot,  horse, 
and  chariot  races,  gymnastics,  and  musical  and 
poetic  contests.  The  sacrifices  were  very  costly, 
for  every  town  in  Attica  and  every  colony  of 
Athens  was  obliged  to  send  a  bull  for  the  cele- 


bration. The  duration  of  the  festival  was 
gradually  extended  from  two  to  twelve  days. 
The  great  attraction  of  the  Panathenasa  was 
the  procession,  in  which  nearly  all  the  in- 
habitants of  Attica  took  part,  to  carry  to  the 
temple  of  Athena  Polias  the  peplus  of  the  god- 
dess, a  crocus-colored  garment  in  which  were 
woven  representations  of  her  victorious  acts. 
Phidias  and  his  disciples  represented  this  pro- 
cession in  the  frieze  of  the  Parthenon. 

PANAY.     See  Philippine  Islands. 

PANCKOIJCKE.  I.  Charles  Joseph,  a  French 
editor,  born  in  Lille,  Nov.  26,  1736,  died  in 
Paris,  Dec.  19,  1798.  His  father,  Andee  Jo- 
seph Panckotjcke  (l700-'53),  a  publisher,  was 
a  prominent  Jansenist  and  compiler  of  numer- 
ous" works.  The  son  became  one  of  the  most 
eminent  booksellers  of  Paris,  and  edited  Buf- 
fon's  works  and  other  celebrated  publications, 
including  Le  grand  vocabulaire  frangais,  Le 
repertoire  de  jurisprudence,  and  Le  voyageur 
frangais,  comprising  an  aggregate  of  about 
100  volumes.  Voltaire  and  his  literary  execu- 
tors designated  him  as  the  editor  of  his  works ; 
but  Panckoucke  ceded  the  editorship  to  Beau- 
marchais,  though  he '  supervised  the  publica- 
tion. He  translated  Tasso's  Gerusalemme  li- 
berata,  Ariosto's  Orlando,  and  Lucretius.  His 
greatest  enterprise  was  the  Encyclopedic  metho- 
dique,  published  conjointly  with  Agasse  (201 
vols.,  1781-1832,  comprising  47  vols,  of  plates). 
He  was  proprietor  of  the  Mercure  frangais, 
which  he  edited  in  conjunction  with  his  broth- 
er-in-law Suard;  and  in  November,  1789,  he 
founded  the  Moniteur,  with  La  Harpe,  An- 
drieux,  Regnier,  and  other  eminent  men  as  col- 
laborators. II.  Charles  Louis  Fleury,  a  French 
editor,  son  of  the  preceding,  born  in  Paris, 
Dec.  23,  1780,  died  July  12,  1844.  He  studied 
jurisprudence,  and  early  held  an  office,  but  af- 
terward engaged  in  the  publishing  business.  He 
published  the  Dictionnaire  des  sciences  medi- 
cales  (60  vols.,  1812  et  seq.),  followed  by  Biogra- 
phie  medicale  and  Flore  medicale  (the  latter 
illustrated  by  his  wife,  who  died  in  1860); 
L?  Expedition  des  Frangais  en  figypte  (26  vols., 
1820-'30,  besides  12  vols,  of  plates) ;  Les  bar- 
reaux  frangais  et  anglais  (19  vols.,  1821);  and 
18  editions  of  the  complete  and  separate  works 
of  Tacitus,  including  a  superb  one  of  the  Latin 
text  (80  copies,  1826-7).  His  most  celebrated 
publication  was  the  Bibliotheque  latine-fran- 
gaise,  with  translations  (174  vols!,  1828  et  seq.), 
for  which  he  translated  the  works  of  Tacitus 
(7  vols.,  1830-'38).— The  publishing  house  has 
been  continued  by  his  son  Eenest  (born  in 
1806),  who  was  for  some  time  managing  direc- 
tor of  the  Moniteur,  and  who  has  made  a  met- 
rical translation  of  Horace  (1834;  new  ed., 
1855),  and  edited  many  important  works. 

PAXCREAS,  a  single,  non-symmetrical  glan- 
dular organ,  situated  in  man  transversely  across 
the  upper  part  of  the  abdomen,  about  on  the 
level  of  the  last  dorsal  vertebra ;  it  is  behind 
the  peritoneum,  at  the  posterior  part  of  the 
epigastric  region,  on  the  spine  and  great  ves- 


PANCREAS 


35 


sels,  between  the  three  portions  of  the  duo- 
denum, behind  the  stomach,  and  on  the  right 
of  the  spleen.  It  is  of  an  irregular,  elongated 
form,  flattened  from  before  backward,  the  left 
extremity  very  thin  and  prolonged  to  and  some- 
times beneath  the  spleen ;  the  right  extremity 
rounded,  resting  against  the  second  portion  of 
the  duodenum ;  the  color  is  grayish  white ;  the 
length  is  about  7  in.,  width  1£,  and  thickness 
1  in.,  and  the  weight  3  to  4  oz. ;  it  is  rather 
smaller  in  woman.  The  duct  is  in  the  interior, 
going  from  left  to  right,  receiving  in  its  course 
the  excretory  canal  which  comes  from  the  lar- 
ger end,  or  little  pancreas  as  it  is  sometimes 
called;  it  opens  into  the  duodenum,  at  the 
lower  part  of  the  second  curve,  by  a  special 
orifice,  or  one  common  to  it  and  the  bile  duct; 
its  arteries  come  principally  from  the  splenic 
branch  of  the  cceliac  axis,  and  its  nerves  from 
the  solar  plexus.  It  closely  resembles  in  struc- 
ture the  salivary  glands,  like  the  parotid  ;  it  is 
made  up  of  clusters  of  secreting  follicles  form- 


Ao. 


Dtn.\ 


nous  matters,  it  at  once  reduces  them  to  a  state 
of  emulsion,  the  fatty  substance  being  broken 
up  into  finely  divided  particles,  and  held  sus- 
pended in  this  condition  in  the  animal  fluid;  this 
intimate  mixture  of  the  oily  and  albuminoid 
matters  forms  a  white,  opaque,  milky  liquid,  and 
is  known  as  the  chyle ;  it  is  also  true  that  the 
chyle  makes  its  appearance  in  the  intestines 
only  after  the  pancreatic  juice  has  had  access 
to  the  alimentary  matters.  From  these  experi- 
ments there  is  little  doubt  that  the  main  office 
of  the  pancreatic  juice  in  digestion  is  to  act 
upon  the  oleaginous  ingredients  of  the  food, 
and  to  prepare  them  for  absorption  by  the 
emulsifying  process.  (See  Chyle,  and  Diges- 
tion.) The  daily  quantity  of  pancreatic  juice 
secreted  and  discharged  into  the  intestine  is 
estimated  at  rather  more  than  half  a  pound  in 
the  dog,  and  between  a  pound  and  a  half  and 
two  pounds  in  the  human  subject;  the  secre- 
tion is  most  abundant  at  the  commencement  of 
and  during  the  digestive  process,  and  the  prob- 
ability is  that  it  is  very  much  dimin- 
ished, if  it  does  not  cease  entirely,  in 
the  intervals  of  digestion.  The  pancreas 
is  liable  to  hypertrophy,  atrophy,  soft- 
ening, induration,  inflammation  extend- 
ing from  neighboring  organs,  simple  and 
malignant  tumors,  fatty  degeneration, 
and  calculous  growth.  That  it  performs 
some  essential  function  is  evident  from 
its  existence  in  all  vertebrates,  whether 
carnivorous  or  herbivorous,  and  from  its 
presenting  a  constant  relation  to  the  duo- 
denum, whatever  be  the  proportions  of 
the  alimentary  canal  or  the  form  of  the 
organ  ;  it  is  even  found  in  a  rudimentary 


The  Spleen  (Spl.)  with  the  splenic  artery  (Sp.  A.).  Below  this  is  seen 
the  splenic  vein  running  to  help  to  form  the  vena  portce  (  V.  P.). 
Ao.,  the  aorta ;  Z>.,  a  pillar  of  the  diaphragm ;  P.  J),,  the  pancreatic 
duct  exposed  by  dissection  in  the  substance  of  the  pancreas ;  Dm., 
the  duodenum ;  B.  Z>.,  the  biliary  duct  opening  with  the  pancreatic 
duct  at  x  ;  y,  the  intestinal  vessels. 

ing  the  ends  of  the  finely  branching  divisions 
of  the  duct;  each  cluster,  with  its  vessels, 
nerves,  and  connecting  areolar  tissue,  forms 
a  lobule,  and  the  several  lobules  are  held  to- 
gether by  the  ducts,  vessels,  and  areolar  tissue ; 
its  development  begins  by  a  budding  forth  of 
cells  from  the  intestinal  canal.  The  secretion 
of  the  pancreas,  called  the  pancreatic  juice,  is 
a  colorless,  alkaline  fluid,  possessing  a  consid- 
erable degree  of  viscidity ;  it  consists  of  nearly 
10  per  cent,  of  solid  matters,  of  which  by  far 
the  most  abundant  and  important  is  an  organic 
substance,  termed  pancreatine,  resembling  al- 
bumen in  being  coagulable  by  heat,  by  nitric 
acid,  and  by  alcohol,  but  differing  from  it  in 
being  also  coagulable  by  sulphate  of  magnesia 
in  excess.  The  pancreatic  juice  has  been  ob- 
tained in  the  lower  animals  by  introducing  a 
silver  canula  into  the  pancreatic  duct,  and  col- 
lecting the  fluid  discharged  from  its  orifice  du- 
ring digestion.  Its  most  remarkable  property 
is  that,  when  brought  in  contact  with  oleagi- 


as  the  worms  {rotatoria)-,  also  in  the 
annelids  proper,  the  gasteropod  and  ce- 
phalopod  mollusks,  and  in  many  insects ; 
it  exists  here  as  caecal  appendages  with 
thick  walls,  lined  with  ciliated  epithe- 
lium, and  opening  into  the  beginning  of 
the  intestine.  The  pyloric  cascal  appendages 
of  most  osseous  fishes  have  generally  been  re- 
garded by  anatomists  as  the  analogue  of  a 
pancreas;  they  become  more  and  more  nu- 
merous and  complex,  from  the  simple  ones  in 
the  turbot  to  the  60  in  the  salmon  with  a 
secreting  surface  of  more  than  32  ft. ;  in  the 
sturgeon  they  become  united  into  a  glandular 
organ.  In  some  orders  these  cseca  are  ab- 
sent, as  in  the  sharks  and  rays,  pike,  and  eel, 
in  which  the  pancreas  has  the  ordinary  glan- 
dular form.  Some  authors  deny  the  pancrea- 
tic nature  of  these  ca3ca,  and  maintain  that 
they  secrete  a  fluid  only  accessory  to  the  true 
pancreatic  secretions.  In  reptiles  the  pancreas 
is  always  present,  often  large,  and  in  the  higher 
orders  more  or  less  in  contact  with  the  spleen. 
In  birds  it  is  larger  than  in  any  other  class,  and 
it  probably  performs  also  the  office  of  salivary 
glands,  which  are  here  wanting ;  it  communi- 
cates with  the  intestinal  canal  by  two  or  three 
openings ;  as  a  general  rule  the  pancreatic  se- 


36 


PANCREATINE 


PAND^NUS 


cretion  is  poured  in  before  the  bile,  though  the 
ducts  are  so  near  together  that  no  physiological 
conclusions  can  be  drawn  as  to  their  separate 
actions ;  the  greatest  separation  is  probably  in 
the  ostrich,  in  which  the  bile  duct  opens  close 
to  the  pylorus  and  the  pancreatic  duct  3  ft. 
lower  down ;  it  is  generally  whitish  red,  large, 
elongated,  and  usually  with  two  lobes.  In 
mammals  it  differs  from  that  of  man  chiefly  in 
color  and  in  its  more  or  less  division  into  lobes ; 
in  rodents,  and  especially  in  the  rat,  it  is  spread 
out  in  an  arborescent  manner;  in  the  rabbit 
the  duct  enters  the  intestine  from  9  to  13  in. 
from  the  pylorus,  affording  special  facilities 
for  studying  its  secretion,  since  in  this  animal  it 
has  been  found  that  the  chyle  does  not  make  its 
appearance  in  the  intestine  or  the  lacteals  until 
the  food  has  passed  the  orifice  of  the  pancreatic 
duct ;  in  other  species,  where  this  duct  opens 
into  the  intestine  higher  up,  the  chyle  is  also 
found  at  a  higher  level.  The  pancreas  is  often 
called  sweetbread  in  the  calf,  but  this  term 
more  properly  belongs  to  the  thymus  gland. 

PANCREATINE,  a  name  given  to  various  prep- 
arations representing  the  activity  of  the  pan- 
creatic juice,  and  containing  its  peculiar  fer- 
ment in  greater  or  less  purity.  The  processes 
by  which  pancreatine  is  formed  are  not  offi- 
cinal, and  some  of  them  are  secret.  A  gly- 
cerine extract  may  be  made,  and  it  is  said  that 
pancreatine  may  be  prepared  by  a  process  sim- 
ilar to  that  employed  for  pepsin.  (See  Pep- 
sin.) The  pancreas  itself  chopped  up  with 
meat  makes  a  good  digestive  for  certain  pur- 
poses. Pancreatine  digests  albuminoid  mate- 
rials, and  assists  in  transforming  starch  into 
sugar.  Its  peculiar  function  however  is  the 
digestion  of  fat,  which  it  forms  into  a  fine 
and  permanent  emulsion  capable  of  being  ab- 
sorbed. It  possesses  the  special  advantage  over 
pepsin,  that  it  does  not  require  an  acid  me- 
dium for  its  action,  but  digests  in  an  alkaline, 
neutral,  or  even  acid  fluid,  although  the  pan- 
creatic juice  itself  is  alkaline.  Pancreatine 
has  been  somewhat  used  in  medical  practice, 
especially  with  fatty  articles  of  food  or  medi- 
cine. It  may  be  given  with  cod-liver  oil,  and 
may  be  used  in  the  wasting  diseases  of  chil- 
dren. The  fresh  pancreas  chopped-  fine  with 
meat  has  been  recommended  as  a  highly  di- 
gestible and  consequently  absorbable  material 
for  injection  into  the  rectum  when  it  is  neces- 
sary to  sustain  life  in  this  way.  Pancreatine 
is  sometimes  combined  with  pepsin.  Mixed 
with  cream  it  forms  an  emulsion,  which  has 
been  used  as  a  substitute  for  cod-liver  oil. 

PANCSOVA,  a  fortified  market  town  of  S. 
Hungary,  in  the  late  Military  Frontier,  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Temes  in  the  Danube,  67  m. 
S.  S.  W.  of  Temesvar;  pop.  in  1870,  13,408. 
It  has  Roman  Catholic  and  Greek  churches, 
and  several  schools  of  a  high  grade.  There 
are  extensive  manufactories  of  beet  sugar.  It 
is  a  station  of  the  Danube  steam  packet  line, 
and  has  an  active  trade.  Here,  on  July  30, 
1739,  the  Austrians  under  Field  Marshal  Wallis 


gained  a  great  victory  over  the  Turks ;  and  on 
Jan.  2,  1849,  the  Austrian  general  Meyerhofer 
defeated  the  Hungarians  under  Gen.  Kiss. 

PANDA,  a  carnivorous  plantigrade  mammal, 
of  the  genus  ailurus  (F.  Cuv.),  which  seems  to 
connect  the  bears  with  the  civets ;  by  some  au- 
thors it  is  placed  with  the  civets.  The  teeth 
resemble  those  of  the  bears ;  the  molars  f  if ,  or 
perhaps  |z|,  a  single  unicuspidate  false  molar 
on  each  side  above,  the  others  tuberculate,  and 
two  tuberculate  on  each  side  below ;  the  ca- 
nines are  nearly  straight ;  the  ears  rounded  and 
small;  claws  curved  and  semi-retractile;  tail 
thick  at  the  base  and  bushy ;  feet  five-toed,  and 
the  soles  covered  with  thick  fur.     The  only 


Panda  (Ailurus  fulgens). 

species  described  is  the  A.  fulgens  (F.  Cuv.), 
inhabiting  the  snowy  regions  of  Nepaul ;  it  is 
about  the  size  of  a  large  cat,  with  full  and  soft 
fur ;  the  color  above  is  chestnut  brown,  bright- 
est on  the  shoulders,  with  throat,  belly,  and 
legs  black ;  head  whitish,  with  a  reddish  brown 
spot  under  the  eyes ;  tail  like  a  lady's  boa, 
banded  with  red  and  yellow ;  it  is  rather  an 
elegant  animal.  It  is  found  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  rivers  and  mountain  streams,  living 
much  on  trees,  and  feeding  on  small  birds  and 
mammals ;  it  is  called  wah  from  its  cry. 

PANDANUS  (Malayan,  pan-dang),  the  generic 
name  of  the  screw  pines,  so  called  not  because 
of  their  resemblance  to  the  pines  proper,  but 
from  the  leaves,  which  are  arranged  spirally, 
somewhat  like  those  of  the  pineapple.  The 
genus  is  the  principal  one  of  the  order  panda- 
nacece,  which  as  at  present  restricted  consists  of 
only  three  genera  of  arborescent  plants,  with 
simple  or  branched  stems  and  simple  leaves 
arranged  .in  three  very  close  spirals ;  the  flow- 
ers are  dioecious,  without  calyx  or  corolla,  and 
arranged  very  compactly  upon  a  spadix;  the 
fruit  consists  of  numerous  fibrous  drupes  close- 
ly crowded  and  cohering.  The  trunks  in  this 
family  are  supported  by  strong  adventitious 
roots,  and  appear  as  if  set  upon  a  cone  of  props. 
The  screw  pines  are  natives  of  the  East,  espe- 
cially the  islands  of  the  Indian  archipelago, 
abounding  along  the  banks  of  rivers  and  the 
littoral  marshes,  often  occupying  large  tracts 
to  the  exclusion  of  other  vegetation.  There 
are  30  or  more  species,  some  being  20  or  30 
ft.  high,  but  the  majority  do  not  exceed  10  or 
15  ft.     One  of  the  finest  is  pandanus  cande- 


PANDECTS 


PANGOLIN 


lahrum,  the  chandelier  tree,  so  named  on  ac- 
count of  its  manner  of  branching.  The  most 
useful  species,  P.  utilis,  is  the  vacoa  of  Mauri- 
tius, where  it  grows  wild,  and  is  also  cultivated 
to  a  great  extent;  its  leaves  are  used  in  manu- 
facturing the  sacks  in  which  sugar  is  exported, 
and  in  England  the  empty  sacks  are  converted 
into  fish  bags.    The  flowers  of  P.  odoratissimus 


Pandanus  candelabrum. 

are  exceedingly  fragrant,  and  the  tree  is  culti- 
vated in  Japan  for  the  sake  of  their  perfume. 
A  number  of  species  and  varieties  are  in  culti- 
vation ;  their  handsome  and  peculiarly  arranged 
leaves  make  the  plants  conspicuous  ornaments 
in  a  stove  house ;  the  leaves,  from  3  to  6  ft.  long, 
are  generally  gracefully  recurved  and  pendu- 
lous, with  their  edges  and  the  midrib  upon  the 
back  armed  with  very  sharp  recurved  prickles, 
which,  while  they  render  the  plants  trouble- 
some to  handle,  add  much  to  their  beauty,  as 
they  are  white,  brown,  or  red,  and  in  fine  con- 
trast with  the  green  leaf ;  in  some  the  leaf  is 
marked  with  white  longitudinal  stripes.  Small 
plants  of  screw  pines  are  used  for  decorating 
tables  and  rooms. 

PANDECTS.    See  Civil  Law,  vol.  iv.,  p.  623. 

PANDORA  (Gr.  irav,  all,  and  Supnv,  a  gift),  in 
Grecian  legends,  the  first  created  woman.  Ac- 
cording to  Hesiod,  Jupiter,  angry  because  Pro- 
metheus had  stolen  fire  from  heaven,  ordered 
Vulcan  to  make  a  beautiful  virgin,  who  was 
dressed  by  Minerva,  adorned  with  fascinations 
by  Venus  and  the  Graces,  and  endowed  with  a 
deceitful  mind  by  Mercury.  She  was  brought 
to  Epimetheus,  who,  disregarding  the  command 
of  his  brother  not  to  accept  from  Jupiter  any 
present  whatever,  received  her  while  Prome- 
theus was  absent.   When  admitted  among  men, 


she  opened  a  casket  enclosing  all  the  evils  of 
mankind,  and  everything  escaped  except  delu- 
sive hope.  Another  version  of  the  story  makes 
Pandora  open  a  casket  containing  the  winged 
blessings  of  the  gods.  In  the  Orphic  poems, 
Pandora  is  ranked  along  with  Hecate  and  the 
Erinnyes  as  an  infernal  divinity. 

PANEL.     See  Juey,  vol.  ix.,  p.  724. 

PANGAOI.     See  Goa,  New. 

PANGOLIN,  or  Scaly  Ant-Eater,  a  burrowing 
edentate  mammal  of  the  old  world,  whose  spe- 
cies constitute  the  genus  manis  (Linn.).  These 
animals  have  the  long  pointed  snout,  toothless 
mouth,  and  extensile  tongue  of  the  ant-eaters, 
and  the  upper  parts  of  the  body  and  the  tail 
armed  with  scales  like  the  armadillos ;  the  ex- 
ternal ears  are  hardly  perceptible ;  the  scales 
are  corneous  and  imbricated,  permitting  the 
body  to  be  rolled  up  in  a  ball  secure  from  the 
teeth  of  the  largest  carnivora;  the  limbs  are 
short  and  robust,  the  hind  ones  the  longest; 
the  claws  curved  and  formed  for  digging;  the 
tail  long,  thick  at  the  base.  The  skeleton  has 
no  clavicles,  the  stomach  is  simple,  and  the  cae- 
cum is  absent.  They  are  found  in  the  warm 
parts  of  Africa  and  Asia,  living  in  holes  which 
they  dig  in  the  ground  or  in  the  hollows  of 
trees,  and  feeding  upon  insects,  especially  ants, 
which  they  capture  on  their  long,  round,  and 
viscid  tongue ;  the  gait  on  the  ground  is  awk- 
ward, as  they  walk  on  the  outer  side  of  the 
feet,  with  the  claws  turned  in ;  they  are  harm- 
less, though  they  display  great  strength  and 
activity  in  tearing  to  pieces  the  hills  of  termites 
and  ants.  The  largest  species  is  the  short-tailed 
pangolin  (if.  pentadactyla,  Linn.),  3  or  4  ft. 
long,  with  five  toes,  and  the  thick  tail  about 
as  long  as  the  head  and  trunk ;  it  is  found  in 
India  and  Ceylon;  the  scales  are  deep  brown 


Short-tailed  Pangolin  (Manis  pentadactyla). 

in  the  adult  animal,  and  hard  enough  to  turn 
a  musket  ball.  The  long-tailed  pangolin  (M. 
tetradactyla,  Linn.),  from  the  coast  of  Guinea, 
is  four-toed,  with  a  flatter  tail  nearly  twice 
as  long  as  the  rest  of  the  body ;  the  scales  are 
large,  dark-colored,  with  yellow  margin,  ar- 
ranged in  11  rows  on  the  body,  and  armed 
with  three  points  at  the  end ;  under  parts  cov- 
ered with  rough  brown  hairs;  the  whole  length 
is  between  2  and  3  ft.  From  their  external 
covering  and  shape  they  resemble  scaly  lizards 
more  than  mammals ;  both  surfaces  of  the  tail 


38 


PACINI 


PANTHEON 


are  covered  with  scales.  The  flesh  of  the  pan- 
golins, which  are  probably  the  best  protected 
of  mammals  against  carnivora,  is  delicate  and 
much  prized  by  the  natives  of  Africa. 

PANINI,  a  Sanskrit  grammarian,  probably  of 
the  4th  century  B.  0.,  according  to  a  passage 
in  Vedic  literature  which  speaks  of  him  as  a 
contemporary  of  King  Nanda.  Little  is  known 
of  his  history,  for  the  biography  found  in  the 
KatMsaritsdyanoi,  of  the  12th  century  bears 
every  mark  of  a  fanciful  composition.  Of  his 
celebrated  grammar  Max  Mullersays:  "It  is 
the  perfection  of  a  merely  empirical  analysis  of 
language,  unsurpassed,  nay,  even  unapproached, 
by  anything  in  the  grammatical  literature  of 
other  nations."  See  Max  Miiller,  "  History  of 
Ancient  Sanskrit  Literature  "  (London,  1859); 
Goldstiicker,  "Panini,  his  Place  in  Sanskrit 
Literature"  (London,  1860);  and  Benfey,  Ge- 
schichte  der  Sprachwissenschaft  (Munich,  1869). 

PANIPET,  a  town  of  British  India,  in  the  dis- 
trict and  60  m.  N.  N.  W.  of  Delhi ;  pop.  about 
23,000.  It  is  in  a  fertile,  well  irrigated  tract, 
is  surrounded  by  an  irregular  line  of  walls, 
and  has  considerable  trade.  It  contains  many 
temples  and  several  large  and  animated  cara- 
vansaries. The  adjacent  plain  has  been  the 
scene  of  several  battles,  the  most  important 
of  which  are  the  rout  of  Ibrahim  by  Baber  in 
April,  1526,  and  the  great  battle  between  the 
Afghans  and  Mahrattas,  in  January,  1761,  in 
which  the  latter  were  defeated  and  the  way 
was  prepared  for  British  supremacy.  (See  In- 
dia, vol.  ix.,  p.  209.) 

PANIZZI,  Sir  Anthony,  librarian  of  the  British 
museum,  born  at  Brescello,  in  the  duchy  of  Mo- 
dena,  Sept.  16,  1797.  He  was  educated  at  the 
university  of  Parma,  which  he  left  in  1818  and 
devoted  himself  to  the  practice. of  law.  Hav- 
ing taken  part  in  the  Piedmontese  revolution 
of  1821,  he  fled  to  England,  and  taught  Italian 
at  Liverpool.  In  1828  he  was  called  to  the 
chair  of  Italian  language  and  literature  in  Lon- 
don university,  which  he  held  three  years.  In 
1831  he  was  chosen  assistant  librarian  of  the 
British  museum,  and  in  1837  was  appointed 
keeper  of  the  printed  books.  During  his  super- 
intendency  of  19  years  in  this  department, 
through  his  influence  the  parliamentary  grants 
for  purchases  were  greatly  augmented,  and  the 
number  of  books  was  more  than  doubled.  In 
1856  he  succeeded  Sir  Henry  Ellis  as  principal 
librarian.  In  1866  he  resigned,  the  govern- 
ment awarding  him  his  full  salary  as  a  retiring 
pension,  and  in  1869  he  was  knighted.  He  has 
edited  Boiardo's  Orlando  innamorato  and  the 
Orlando  furioso  of  Ariosto  (9  vols.,  London, 
1830-'34),  Boiardo's  Sonetti  e  canzoni  (1835), 
and  Dante's  Inferno  (1860). 

PANJIM.     See  Goa,  New. 

PANNONIA,  a  province  of  the  Roman  empire, 
bounded  N.  and  E.  by  the  Danube,  which  sepa- 
rated it  from  Germany  and  Dacia,  S.  by  the 
Save  (Savus),  separating  it  from  Illyria,  and  W. 
by  the  Julian  Alps  and  Mt.  Cetius  (now  Wie- 
ner Wald),  separating  it  from  Italy  and  Nori- 


cum.  It  thus  embraced  the  Trans-Danubian 
circle  of  Hungary,  the  whole  of  Slavonia,  and 
parts  of  Croatia,  Carniola,  Styria,  and  Lower 
Austria.  The  inhabitants,  mostly  of  Illyrian 
race,  were  divided  into  numerous  tribes,  and 
are  described  as  brave  and  warlike,  but  cruel 
and  treacherous.  The  Romans,  by  whom  they 
were  conquered  under  Augustus,  and  recon- 
quered after  a  revolt  and  desperate  struggle 
during  the  same  reign,  not  only  kept  strong 
garrisons,  but  also  built  numerous  towns  and 
fortresses  in  Pannonia,  among  which  were 
Vindobona  (now  Vienna),  iEmona  (Laybach), 
Taurunum  (Semlin),  Sirmium  on  the  Save, 
and  Mursa  (Esz6k).  A  dangerous  mutiny  of 
the  Pannonian  legions  was  quelled  by  Drusus 
shortly  after  the  death  of  Augustus.  The 
province  was  subsequently  divided  into  Upper 
and  Lower  Pannonia,  the  former  being  the 
western,  and  partly  separated  from  the  latter 
by  the  Arrabo  (Raab).  In  the  reign  of  Gale- 
rius  a  part  of  Lower  Pannonia  was  erected 
into  a  province  under  the  name  of  Valeria. 
The  three  provinces  subsequently  formed  part 
of  the  Illyrian  division  of  the  empire.  During 
the  last  period  of  the  western  empire  Panno- 
nia was  successively  occupied  by  the  Huns  and 
the  Ostrogoths,  and  after  its  fall  by  the  Longo- 
bards  and  other  barbarians.  The  name  Pan- 
nonia is  frequently  used  for  Hungary  by  wri- 
ters of  that  country. 

PANOLA.  I.  A  N.  W.  county  of  Mississippi, 
intersected  by  the  Tallahatchie  river;  area, 
about  750  sq.  m. ;  pop.  in  1870,  20,754,  of  whom 
12,585  were  colored.  Its  surface  is  generally 
level  or  rolling,  and  the  soil  fertile,  especially 
in  the  low  lands.  The  Mississippi  and  Tennes- 
see railroad  passes  through  it.  The  chief  pro- 
ductions in  1870  were  20,408  bushels  of  wheat, 
390,767  of  Indian  corn,  36,531  of  Irish  and 
58,395  of  sweet  potatoes,  and  15,764  bales  of 
cotton.  There  were  2,147  horses,  2,361  mules 
and  asses,  3,085  milch  cows,  6,137  other  cattle, 
2,952  sheep,  and  17,385  swine.  Capital,  Pano- 
la. II.  An  E.  county  of  Texas,  bordering  on 
Louisiana,  intersected  by  the  Sabine  river  and 
drained  by  its  branches ;  area,  750  sq.  m. ;  pop. 
in  1870,  10,119,  of  whom  3,727  were  colored. 
It  has  a  gently  rolling  surface  covered  with  ex- 
tensive forests  of  pine,  oak,  walnut,  ash,  and 
hickory,  and  a  fertile  soil.  The  chief  produc- 
tions in  1870  were  306,665  bushels  of  Indian 
corn,  66,828  of  sweet  potatoes,  60,280  lbs.  of 
butter,  and  9,367  bales  of  cotton.  There  were 
1,739  horses,  1,174  mules  and  asses,  3,806  milch 
cows,  8,811  other  cattle,  4,492  sheep,  and  18,796 
swine.     Capital,  Carthage. 

PANORMIJS.     See  Palermo. 

PANSY.     See  Violet. 

PANTHEISM.     See  Philosophy. 

PANTHEON  (Gr.  ttcv,  all,  and  6e6e,  a  god), 
literally,  a  temple  dedicated  to  all  the  gods. 
The  most  famous  structure  of  this  kind  is  that 
in  Rome,  erected  by  M.  Agrippa,  the  son-in- 
law  of  Augustus,  26  B.  C,  and  consecrated  in 
608  by  Boniface  IV.  as  a  Christian  church,  un- 


PANTHER 


PAOLI 


39 


der  the  name  of  Sancta  Maria  ad  Martyres, 
but  which  is  still  commonly  called  the  Panthe- 
on. It  stands  in  a  piazza  between  the  Oorso 
and  the  piazza  Navona,  near  the  centre  of  the 
ancient  Campus  Martius,  and  after  the  lapse 
of  19  centuries  is  the  best  preserved  of  the 
monuments  of  ancient  Rome.  It  is  a  rotunda, 
143  ft.  in  diameter,  surmounted  by  a  dome,  of 
which  the  summit  is  143  ft.  above  the  pave- 
ment. (See  Dome.)  The  most  remarkable 
feature  of  the  Pantheon  is  its  Corinthian  por- 
tico, 110  ft.  in  length  by  44  in  depth,  composed 
of  16  granite  columns,  with  marble  capitals 
and  bases,  disposed  in  a  triple  row,  each  column 
being  46£  ft.  high  and  5  ft.  in  diameter.  These 
columns  support  a  pediment,  a  large  portion  of 
the  bronze  roof  of  which  was  removed  by  the, 
emperor  Coj^stantius  II.  and  the  remainder  by 
Pope  Urban  ViTt:,  to  make  columns  for  altars 
and  cannons  for  the  castle  of  Sant'  Angelo. 
Benedict  XIV.  removed  many  fine  marbles 
from  the  interior  to  decorate  other  buildings. 
Other  features  of  the  Pantheon,  such  as  the 
bronze  doors,  the  niches  and  cediculce,  the  mar- 
ble cornice  and  the  mosaic  pavement  of  the 
interior,  are  in  excellent  preservation,  and  give 
an  adequate  idea  of  the  original  splendor  of 
the  edifice.  An  inscription  on  the  frieze  of 
the  portico  shows  that  it  was  erected  by  Agrip- 
pa  in  his  third  consulate,  while  another  below 
records  repairs  by  the  emperors  Septimus  Seve- 
rus  and  Caracalla.  It  contains  the  tombs  of 
Raphael,  Annibale  Carracci,  and  other  cele- 
brated painters. — The  Pantheon  or  Ste.  Gene- 
vieve's in  Paris  is  in  the  shape  of  a  Greek 
cross  formed  of  four  aisles  uniting  under  a 
dome  66  ft.  8£  in.  in  diameter  at  the  base,  and 
258  ft.  in  height  from  the  floor  to  the  top  of 
the  lantern.  (See  Dome.)  The  height  of  the 
edifice  is  190  ft.  from  the  ground,  the  length 
externally  340  ft.  It  was  built  at  the  instance 
of  Mrae.  de  Pompadour  to  replace  the  old  church 
of  Ste.  Genevieve,  the  patron  saint  of  Paris. 
It  was  begun  by  the  architect  South' ot  in  1764, 
was  finished  in  1790,  was  dedicated  in  1791  as 
a  Pantheon  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  illus- 
trious citizens,  was  made  a  church  in  1822,  be- 
came once  more  a  Pantheon  in  1831,  and  in 
1853  was  restored  to  religious  purposes.  In 
the  insurrection  of  June,  1848,  it  was  a  refuge 
for  some  of  the  insurgents,  and  the  interior 
was  somewhat  injured  by  cannon  balls  fired 
at  them  through  the  west  doors.  In  1871  the 
vaults  were  stored  with  vats  of  petroleum  and 
barrels  of  powder,  the  communists  intending 
to  blow  up  the  building ;  but  it  was  taken  from 
them  on  May  24,  and  the  explosion  was  pre- 
vented. The  crypts  contain  cenotaphs  and 
tombs  of  Voltaire,  Rousseau,  Soufflot,  Lannes, 
Lagrange,  and  other  eminent  men. 
<  PANTHER  (felis  pardus,  Linn.),  a  large  Af- 
rican spotted  cat,  considered  by  Temminck  and 
most  modern  naturalists  as  a  variety  of  the 
leopard  {F.  leopardus,  Linn,  or  L.  varius, 
Gray),  but  regarded  by  Cuvier,  Hamilton  Smith, 
and  others,  as  a  true  species.     Skins  of  all  the 


spotted  cats  vary  so  much,  even  the  two  sides 
of  the  same  animal  being  unlike,  that  it  is 
difficult  to  pronounce  on  the  identity  of  these 
two  animals;  travellers  and  furriers  consider 
them  the  same,  and  naturalists  have  been  ready 
to  follow  their  opinion.  The  description  of 
the  panther  by  Linnasus  is  false,  and  others  of 
the  older  naturalists  confound  this  animal  with 
the  jaguar  (F.  onca)  of  South  America.  Cuvier 
gives  them  as  separate,  this  animal  being  the 
pardalis  of  the  Greeks  and  the  panther  a  of  the 
Romans,  and  says  if  any  leopard  was  by  them 
confounded  with  it,  it  was  the  cheetah  or  hunt- 
ing leopard  (F.  jubata).  If  not  distinct  spe- 
cies, the  panther  and  leopard  are  very  marked 
varieties.  The  former  is  more  powerful,  dark- 
er colored,  with  the  crowded  markings  ar- 
ranged with  considerable  regularity,  and  the 
tail  longer  in  proportion ;  II.  Smith  describes 
one  as  5£  ft.  long  without  the  tail,  and  2f  ft. 
high  at  the  shoulder ;  of  a  buff  yellow  color,  ap- 
proaching to  ochrey  on  the  back  and  sides,  and 
with  no  white  anywhere ;  with  seven  vertical 
rows  of  imperfect  dark  rings  on  the  sides,  each 
formed  by  an  assemblage  of  five  or  six  sim- 
ple spots,  darkest  within  the  rings,  descending 
even  to  the  knees ;  the  tail  spotted  to  the  end, 
and  a  narrow  black  bar  across  the  lower  part  of 
the  throat;  in  the  leopard  the  rings  are  more 
numerous  and  the  spots  smaller.  This  is  prob- 
ably the  animal  so  abundantly  supplied  to  the 
public  spectacles  of  ancient  Rome,  hundreds 
having  been  exhibited  together.  The  panther 
is  less  common  than  the  leopard,  and  confined 
chiefly,  if  not  entirely,  to  Africa ;  it  is  an  ex- 
pert climber,  very  active,  and  readily  trained ; 
the  female  is  gravid  nine  weeks,  and  the  young 
are  born  blind.  The  panther  of  South  America 
is  the  jaguar,  and  of  North  America  the  cou- 
guar.     (See  Leopaed.) 

PANTICAPMJM.    See  Keetch. 

PAOLI.  I.  Pasquale,  a  Corsican  patriot,  born 
near  Morosaglia  in  1726,  died  in  London,  Feb. 
5,  1807.  His  father  Giacinto  was  a  leader  of 
the  Corsicans  in  their  struggles  against  the 
Genoese  and  the  French.  Being  exiled,  he 
went  in  1739  to  Naples.  There  Pasquale  was 
educated,  and  subsequently  served  as  an  officer 
in  one  of  the  Corsican  regiments  of  Naples, 
formed  of  refugees  from  that  island.  In  1755 
he  returned  to  Corsica,  was  unanimously  chosen 
for  the  annual  magistracy,  and  in  a  consulta, 
held  July  16,  was  offered  the  supreme  com- 
mand of  the  troops.  He  shared  the  command, 
however,  with  Mario  Matra,  who  was  killed  in 
1757,  when  Paoli  procured  from  the  consulta 
the  confirmation  of  his  rank  as  general  for  life, 
and,  pursuing  the  war  against  the  Genoese, 
beat  them  back  from  the  interior  of  the  island, 
hemmed  them  in  within  a  few  seaports,  de- 
feated their  army  under  Grimaldi,  and  organ- 
ized a  navy  that  seriously  interfered  with  their 
trade.  Turning  his  attention  next  to  civil 
affairs,  he  established  permanent  courts,  in- 
troduced uniformity  of  weights  and  measures, 
regulated  the  coinage,  encouraged  agriculture, 


40 


PAOLO 


PAPAL  STATES 


manufactures,  and  commerce,  instituted  a  na- 
tional printing  press,  and  opened  a  university 
at  Corte.  In  1765  he  was  visited  by  Boswell, 
whose  journal,  published  in  1768,  contributed 
much  to  Paoli's  European  reputation.  In  1767 
he  again  repelled  the  Genoese,  and  captured 
the  island  of  Oapraja.  The  Genoese  then  sold 
their  right  to  the  French,  and  another  and 
more  terrible  conflict  began.  At  first  Paoli 
checked  the  advance  of  the  invaders  under 
Marboeuf  and  Ohauvelin,  and  routed  them  at 
San  Nicolao  and  at  Borgo,  forcing  them  to 
seek  refuge  within  the  walls  of  Bastia.  But  in 
1769  an  army  of  22,000  men,  under  the  count 
de  Vaux,  landed  in  the  island,  and  soon  com- 
pletely subdued  it.  Paoli  went  to  Holland, 
and  finally  to  England,  where  he  received  a 
pension  of  £1,200,  and  lived  for  20  years. 
The  constituent  assembly  of  France  having 
allowed  the  Oorsican  exiles  to  return  home, 
Paoli  went  to  Paris,  and  was  made  a  lieuten- 
ant general  and  military  governor  of  Corsica. 
When  the  island  was  formed  into  a  depart- 
ment, he  became  president  of  the  administra- 
tion and  commander  of  the  national  guard. 
But  the  lawless  and  sanguinary  proceedings 
of  the  convention  soon  estranged  him;  and, 
assisted  by  Great  Britain,  he  organized  a  re- 
volt, and  was  elected  in  June,  17-93,  generalis- 
simo and  president  of  a  consulta,  which  met 
at  Corte.  The  French  garrisons  were  driven 
from  the  island;  English  troops  were  landed 
there,  and  George  III.  was  proclaimed  "  king 
of  Corsica,"  but  Paoli  was  treated  with  neg- 
lect. In  1795  he  removed  to  England,  and 
in  the  following  year  the  island  was  perma- 
nently annexed  to  France.  His  biography  has 
been  written  by  Arrighi  (2  vols.,  Paris,  1843), 
by  Klose  (Brunswick,  1853),  and  by  Bartoli 
(Ajaccio,  1867).  He  bequeathed  a  large  part 
of  his  fortune  to  establish  schools  in  Corsica. 
II.  Clemenle,  a  Oorsican  patriot,  elder  brother 
of  the  preceding,  born  at  Rostino  in  1715, 
died  there  in  1793.  During  his  exile  he  be- 
came a  Franciscan  friar.  He  accompanied  his 
brother  in  1755  to  Corsica,  was  a  prominent 
leader  in  the  war  of  independence  against  the 
Genoese  and  French,  and  greatly  distinguished 
himself  in  the  battle  of  Borgo.  After  the  bat- 
tle of  Ponte  Nuovo  he  retired  to  a  convent 
near  Vallambrosa,  and  there  remained  20  years, 
returning  to  Corsica  an  old  man. 

PAOLO,  Fra,  or  Paolo  Sarpi.    See  Sarpi. 

PAOLO  VERONESE.     See  Cagliaki,  Paolo. 

PiPA,  a  town  of  S.  W.  Hungary,  in  the  coun- 
ty and  26  m.  N.  W.  of  the  city  of  Veszprem, 
from  which  it  is  separated  by  the  principal 
range  of  the  Bakony;  pop.  in  1870,  14,223, 
chiefly  Magyars.  It  is  on  a  small  affluent  of 
the  river  Marczal,  and  contains  a  castle  belong- 
ing to  the  family  of  the  Esterhazys,  several 
churches,  synagogues,  convents,  and  hospitals, 
a  Catholic  and  a  Reformed  gymnasium,  and 
other  institutions  of  learning.  The  neighbor- 
ing country  produces  wine.  Cloth,  paper,  and 
stone  ware  are  manufactured. 


PAPACY.    See  Pope,  and  Papal  States. 

PAPAGOS,  a  tribe  of  Indians  in  Arizona,  be- 
longing to  the  Pima  family,  and  calling  them- 
selves Papapootam.  They  were  enemies  of  the 
Apaches  and  friendly  to  the  Spaniards  from 
an  early  period,  and  Jesuit  missions  were  estab- 
lished among  them;  but  the  tyranny  of  the 
whites  led  to  several  revolts  of  the  Papagos 
and  other  tribes.  They  drove  the  Spaniards 
out  in  1694,  but  made  peace  soon  after.  On 
the  suppression  of  the  Jesuits  the  Franciscans 
continued  their  work,  and  the  mission  has 
lasted  to  the  present  time,  the  tribe  being 
Catholic.  The  Mexican  revolutions  left  the 
frontier  exposed,  and  the  Papagos  lost  heavily 
in  war  with  the  Apaches.  They  had  become 
partly  civilizecl.  When  Arizona  was  annexed 
to  the  United  States,  the  Papagos  were  really 
Mexican  citizens,  but  their  status  as  such  has 
not  been  recognized,  and  no  treaty  was  made 
with  them  for  their  territory.  Settlers  entered 
it,  and  the  very  sites  of  their  towns  were  open 
to  preemption.  They  were  industrious  and 
friendly,  cultivating  their  small  farms  and 
working  for  the  settlers,  whose  esteem  they 
soon  gained.  After  a  time  an  agency  was  estab- 
lished for  them,  and  was  assigned  to  the  Cath- 
olic church,  which  had  been  laboring  among 
them  since  1689.  President  Grant,  by  execu- 
tive order  of  July  1,  1874,  set  apart  a  reser- 
vation of  70,400  acres  for  them,  on  the  river 
Santa  Cruz,  between  Tucson  and  Tubac,  but 
their  individual  rights  are  not  recognized. 
They  have  made  peace  with  the  Apaches,  and 
in  1874  numbered  5,000  in  800  houses,  had  89 
children  at  school  under  Sisters  of  St.  Joseph, 
and  possessed  200  horses  and  500  cattle. 

PAPAL  STATES,  or  States  of  the  Church,  the  name 
formerly  given  to  a  territory  of  central  Italy 
subject  to  the  pope.  In  1859,  before  the  an- 
nexation of  most  of  the  territory  to  the  domin- 
ions of  Victor  Emanuel,  it  extended  from  lat. 
41°  15'  to  45°  N".,  and  from  Ion.  11°  25'  to  13° 
55'  E.,  and  was  bounded  K  by  Venetia,  E.  by 
the  Adriatic,  S.  and  S.  E.  by  the  former  king- 
dom of  Naples,  S.  W.  by  the  Mediterranean, 
and  W.  and  N".  W.  by  Tuscany  and  Modena. 
It  was  260  m.  long  from  the  mouth  of  the  Po 
to  Monte  Circello,  and  136  m.  broad  from  An- 
cona  to  Civita;  Vecchia;  area,  about  16,000  sq. 
m. ;  pop.  3,000,000.  It  was  divided  into  a 
comarca,  including  Rome  and  the  Agro  Ro- 
mano, governed  by  a  cardinal  president,  six 
legations  governed  each  by  a  cardinal  legate, 
and  13  delegations  placed  under  inferior  pre- 
lates. Of  these  the  legations  of  Ferrara,  Bo- 
logna, Ravenna,  and  Forli  constituted  the  dis- 
trict of  Romagna ;  Spoleto  and  Perugia  formed 
that  of  Umbria ;  while  Pesaro,  Urbino,  Anco- 
na,  Macerata,  Fermo,  and  Ascoli  were  called 
the  Marches  (It.  marca,  an  old  term  denoting  a 
frontier  territory  governed  by  a  marquis).  The 
principal  cities  were  Rome,  Bologna,  Ancona, 
Ferrara,  Ravenna,  Sinigaglia,  Faenza,  Jesi,  Pe- 
rugia, Benevento,  Pesaro,  Macerata,  Rimini, 
Fano,  Forli,  and  Fermo.     In  1859  the  Roma- 


PAPAL  STATES 


41 


gna  detached  itself  from  the  papal  rule,  and  in 
1860  the  Marches  and  JJmbria  were  occupied 
by  the  Sardinians,  and  the  Papal  States  were 
thus  reduced  to  the  divisions  of  Rome,  Viterbo, 
Civita  Vecchia,  Velletri,  and  Frosinone  (area, 
about  4,500  sq.  m. ;  pop.  700,000).  This  rem- 
nant was  annexed  to  the  kingdom  of  Italy  in 
1870.  For  the  description  of  the  coast  lines 
on  the  Mediterranean  and  Adriatic  as  well  as 
of  the  physical  aspect  and  geological  features 
of  the  country,  see  Italy. — The  temporal  sov- 
ereignty of  the  pope  grew  up  imperceptibly 
out  of  his  spiritual  authority.  About  the  time 
of  Constantine  some  landed  possessions  seem 
to  have  been  attached  to  the  see  of  Rome. 
By  the  time  of  Leo  the  Iconoclast  (718-41) 
and  Gregory  II.  the  power  of  the  popes  had 
acquired  importance.  "  Their  popular  elec- 
tion," says  Gibbon,  "  endeared  them  to  the 
Romans ;  the  public  and  private  indigence  was 
relieved  by  their  ample  revenue;  and  the  weak- 
ness or  neglect  of  the  emperors  compelled 
them  to  consult,  both  in  peace  and  war,  the 
temporal  safety  of  the  city."  The  invasion 
of  the  Lombards,  who,  after  capturing  Raven- 
na, the  seat  of  the  exarch  or  imperial  vicere- 
gent,  finally  laid  siege  to  Rome  itself  in  741,  and 
the  neglect  of  the  Byzantine  emperors  to  take 
any  measures  for  the  protection  of  their  Ital- 
ian subjects,  compelled  the  pope  to  look  else- 
where for  help.  Gregory  III.  accordingly  sent 
an  embassy  to  Charles  Martel,  offering  him 
in  the  name  of  the  Roman  senate  and  people 
the  dignity  of  patrician,  and  imploring  his  as- 
sistance. Charles  was  preparing  to  cross  the 
Alps  with  an  army  when  he  died,  and  the 
pope  died  in  the  same  year;  but  Gregory's 
successor  Zachary  kept  back  the  invaders,  re- 
established the  exarch,  and  obtained  the  res- 
toration of  the  captured  cities.  On  his  death 
the  Lombards  made  a  fresh  invasion,  the  ex- 
archate was  finally  overthrown,  Rome  was 
again  attacked,  and  Pope  Stephen  III.  called 
in  the  assistance  of  Pepin.  The  Frankish  ru- 
ler marched  into  Italy,  defeated  the  Lombard 
king  Astolphus,  and  obliged  him  to  give  up  to 
the  pope  the  greater  part  of  the  exarchate  of 
Ravenna,  comprising  the  Pentapolis  (or  five 
cities  of  Rimini,  Pesaro,  Fano,  Sinigaglia,  and 
Ancona),  and  17  other  towns  situated  chiefly  on 
the  Adriatic.  From  this  time  the  popes  in  all 
their  proceedings  assumed  the  style  of  temporal 
sovereigns.  Their  authority,  however,  was  lit- 
tle more  than  nominal  until  Charlemagne,  hav- 
ing completed  his  father's  work  by  the  total 
destruction  of  the  Lombard  monarchy  in  774, 
secured  to  the  Roman  pontiffs  the  exarchate 
of  Ravenna,  the  island  of  Corsica,  the  prov- 
inces of  Parma,  Mantua,  Venice,  and  Istria, 
and  the  duchies  of  Spoleto  and  Benevento. 
But  with  this  new  order  of  things  arose  a  new 
source  of  dispute.  Charlemagne  was  crowned 
by  Pope  Leo  III.  in  800  "  emperor  of  the  Ro- 
mans," and  for  many  years  his  successors  con- 
tinued to  assert  an  imperial  authority  over 
Italy,  which  was  retained  in  name  by  the  Ger- 


man emperors  down  to  the  beginning  of  the 
1 9th  century.  In  the  mean  time,  under  cover  of 
papal  grants  of  territory  to  lay  barons,  several 
powerful  families  had  grown  up  in  Rome  and 
other  dominions  of  the  church,  who  acted  as 
politically  independent.  Thus,  between  the 
pretensions  of  suzerainty  of  the  emperors,  the 
turbulence  of  factions,  and  the  insubordination 
of  petty  princes,  the  popes  of  the  middle  ages 
were  incessantly  involved  in  quarrels.  Many 
of  them  were  exiled,  imprisoned,  or  put  to 
death.  The  party  for  the  time  dominant  raised 
its  own  favorite  to  the  pontificate,  and  not  un- 
frequently  there  were  two  or  more  claimants 
for  the  sacerdotal  crown.  Gregory  VII.  (Hil- 
debrand),  who  reigned  from  1073  to  1085, 
made  the  liberation  of  the  church  from  tem- 
poral oppression  the  chief  aim  of  his  pontifi- 
cate ;  but  his  famous  struggle  with  Henry  IV. 
resulted  in  no  accession  of  independence  to 
the  Roman  states,  though  during  his  time  the 
countess  Matilda  of  Tuscany,  Parma,  Modena, 
and  Mantua  granted  all  her  territories  to  the 
pope,  renewing  the  grant  afterward  to  Pas- 
chal II.  The  emperors  refused  to  sanction 
the  grant,  inasmuch  as  Matilda,  being  a  vassal 
of  the  empire,  could  not  alienate  her  rights 
of  sovereignty.  Innocent  III.  was  the  first 
pope  who  made  his  states  really  independent. 
After  the  death  of  Henry  VI.,  being  appointed 
guardian  of  that  monarch's  infant  son  Fred- 
erick II.,  he  sent  his  legates  to  many  of  the 
principal  cities  and  towns,  and  the  inhabitants 
joyfully  threw  open  their  gates,  took  the  oaths 
of  allegiance,  and  received  full  guarantees  of 
their  municipal  rights.  Otho  IV.  afterward 
ceded  to  him  the  disputed  territory  of  the 
countess  Matilda,  but  having  seized  several  of 
the  pope's  cities  he  was  excommunicated  in 
1210  and  deposed.  The  enemies  whom  In- 
nocent had  now  chiefly  to  fear  were  his  own 
subjects.  The  feudal  rights  of  the  nobles  and 
the  municipal  rights  of  the  cities  left  him  lit- 
tle direct  authority;  and  in  Rome  especially 
his  power  was  closely  circumscribed.  The  sen- 
ate was  abolished  about  this  time  by  the  Ro- 
mans themselves,  and  in  its  place  a  single 
officer  was  elected  with  the  title  of  senator, 
and  with  control  of  the  militia  and  judiciary. 
Innocent  contrived  to  have  an  oath  imposed 
upon  this  functionary  to  defend  the  rights  of 
the  Roman  pontiff,  and  took  into  his  own 
hands  the  appointment  of  the  prefect.  But 
in  other  parts  of  Italy  the  imperial  power 
was  little  if  at  all  weakened.  Bologna,  Pe- 
rugia, and  Ancona  were  virtually  republics; 
and  although  Pope  Nicholas  III.  in  1278  ob- 
tained from  Rudolph  of  Hapsburg  a  recogni- 
tion of  the  papal  sovereignty  over  a  certain 
specified  territory,  and  a  renunciation  of  all 
rights  within  the  same  which  might  still  per- 
tain to  the  imperial  crown,  the  popes  did  not 
thereby  acquire  any  real  authority.  In  1309 
the  papal  residence  was  removed  to  Avignon, 
and  the  Roman  states  were  torn  by  contend-, 
ing  factions,  of  which  the  Guelphs  were  sup- 


42 


PAPAL  STATES 


ported  by  the  popes  and  the  Ghibellines  by  the 
emperors.  In  the  midst  of  these  disorders 
Cola  di  Rienzi  succeeded  in  establishing  him- 
self at  Rome  (1347),  and  with  the  title  of  tri- 
bune of  the  people  enforced  the  laws,  curbed 
the  license  of  the  barons,  and  restored  peace 
and  prosperity  to  the  commonwealth.  But  his 
reign  was  short.  Driven  from  Rome  by  the 
citizens,  he  languished  several  years  in  prison 
at  Avignon,  until  the  disorders  in  Italy  became 
so  violent  that  Pope  Innocent  VI.  sent  him 
back  with  the  title  of  senator  in  1354,  in  com- 
pany with  the  legate  Cardinal  Gil  Albornoz. 
Rienzi  was  received  in  triumph  at  Rome,  but 
was  killed  in  a  popular  insurrection  at  the  end 
of  four  months.  Albornoz  gained  several  vic- 
tories in  the  field,  and  reduced  the  Romagna, 
the  Marches,  and  the  Oampagna  to  obedience ; 
but  his  successes  were  only  temporary.  The 
confusion  was  increased  soon  after  by  a  series 
of  antipopes,  who  for  many  years  divided  with 
the  legitimate  pontiffs  the  obedience  of  the 
Christian  world,  appointed  their  own  cardinals, 
and  were  sometimes  in  possession  of  Rome, 
whither  the  throne  was  carried  back  by  Greg- 
ory XI.  in  1377.  The  schism  was  healed  in 
1417  by  the  council  of  Constance,  which  award- 
ed the  tiara  to  Martin  V.,  and  the  Roman  states 
began  to  enjoy  a  more  regular  form  of  gov- 
ernment. But  Eugenius  IV.  (1431-47)  was 
driven  from  his  capital  by  a  popular  insurrec- 
tion, and  a  short-lived  republic  was  instituted, 
which  his  minister  Vitelleschi  suppressed  with 
great  cruelty.  Alexander  VI.  (1492-1503)  sub- 
dued the  turbulent  nobles  of  the  Marches ;  and 
a  still  further  advance  toward  the  consolidation 
of  the  state  was  made  by  the  warrior  pontiff 
Julius  II.  (1503-13),  who  reduced  the  barons 
to  obedience,  joined  the  league  of  Cambrai 
with  France,  Austria,  and  Aragon  against  the 
Venetians,  and,  having  secured  his  objects,  then 
united  with  Venice  to  expel  the  French.  At 
the  time  of  his  death  the  great  sources  of  dis- 
turbance in  central  Italy  were  the  wars  of  the 
French  and  Spaniards  in  the  N".  and  S.  extrem- 
ities of  the  peninsula.  His  successor  Leo  X. 
(1513-21)  not  only  restored  peace,  but  made 
some  additions  to  his  territory ;  and  from 
this  time  the  States  of  the  Church  acquired 
a  more  compact  and  homogeneous  character. 
Clement  VII.  (1523-'34)  formed  a  league  with 
Venice,  France,  and  England  against  the  em- 
peror Charles  V.,  which  entailed  numerous 
misfortunes  upon  him.  Rome  in  1527  was 
stormed  and  pillaged  by  the  imperial  troops 
under  the  constable  de  Bourbon,  and  the  pope 
was  seven  months  a  prisoner.  Under  Clem- 
ent XL  (1700-'21)  the  States  of  the  Church 
were  invaded  by  the  Austrian  archduke 
Charles,  and  Sicily,  Sardinia,  Parma,  and  Pia- 
cenza,  ancient  nominal  fiefs  of  the  holy  see, 
were  transferred  to  other  hands.  Clement 
XIII.  (1758-'69)  was  deprived  of  Avignon, 
Benevento,  and  other  places,  and  involved  in 
contests  with  nearly  every  state  in  Europe  on 
account  of  his  protection  of  the  Jesuits ;  but 


Clement  XIV.  (1769-'74),  by  suppressing  the 
obnoxious  order,  recovered  what  his  prede- 
cessor had  lost.  The  liberality  and  virtues 
of  Pius  VI.  (1 775-' 99)  were  no  safeguard 
against  the  violence  of  revolutionary  France ; 
and  after  Bonaparte  had  wrested  from  him 
Bologna,  Ferrara,  and  Ravenna,  and  added 
them  to  the  Cisalpine  republic,  he  was  de- 
throned in  February,  1798,  and  carried  captive 
to  France,  where  he  died.  A  republic  was  pro- 
claimed at  Rome  by  the  French  general  Ber- 
thier,  but  it  came  to  an  end  in  1799.    In  March, 

1800,  Pius  VII.  was  elected  at  Venice,  Rome 
being  then  in  a  state  of  anarchy ;  and  in  July, 

1801,  after  the  peace  of  Luneville,  he  made  a 
concordat  with  Bonaparte.     The  refusal  of  Pius 

VII.  to  expel  from  his  dominions  the  subjects 
of  all  those  powers  who  were  at  war  with 
France  led  to  a  fresh  invasion;-  in  February, 
1808,  Bonaparte's  troops  took  possession  of 
Rome;  in  April,  Ancona,  Macerata,  Fermo, 
and  Urbino  were  united  to  the  "kingdom  of 
Italy;"  in  May,  1809,  Napoleon  declared  the 
remainder  of  the  Roman  states  annexed  to  the 
French  empire ;  and  soon  afterward  the  pope 
was  carried  prisoner  to  France,  and  did  not 
return  till  1814.  The  congress  of  Vienna  re- 
stored to  him  all  the  territories  of  the  church. 
The  pontificates  of  Leo  XII.  (1823-'9)  and  Pius 

VIII.  (1829-31)  were  comparatively  tranquil. 
In  February,  1831,  soon  after  the  accession  of 
Gregory  XVI.,  an  insurrection  broke  out  in 
Bologna  and  other  places,  but  by  the  assistance 
of  Austrian  troops  it  was  speedily  suppressed. 
Pius  IX.  was  elected  June  16,  1846,  and  at 
once  inaugurated  a  series  of  reforms  and  con- 
cessions. The  revolution  which  broke  out  in 
France  and  northern  Italy  in  1848  produced  a 
powerful  effect  at  Rome.  The  pope  in  March 
issued  a  proclamation  promising  a  constitution 
on  a  liberal  basis,  with  deliberative  chambers, 
and  at  the  same  time  formed  a  new  cabinet 
composed  of  ten  laymen  and  only  three  eccle- 
siastics. He  could  not  avoid  taking  part  with 
Charles  Albert  in  hostilities  against  Austria ; 
and  in  September  it  became  necessary  to  con- 
struct a  new  ministry.  On  Nov.  15,  the  day 
appointed  for  the  opening  of  the  chambers, 
the  prime  minister  Rossi  was  assassinated,  and 
the  next  day  the  populace,  assisted  by  the 
civic  guard,  forced  their  way  into  the  Quirinal 
and  compelled  the  pope  to  accept  a  radical 
ministry.  On  the  24th  he  escaped  in  disguise 
to  Gaeta,  and  after  some  ineffectual  negotia- 
ting to  induce  him  to  return,  the  chambers  at 
Rome  appointed  a  triumvirate;  a  constituent 
assembly  was  called,  which  on  Feb.  9,  1849, 
dethroned  the  pope  and  proclaimed  a  repub- 
lic. The  Roman  states  now  entered  heartily 
into  the  Italian  war  of  independence.  The 
government  was  nominally  administered  by 
Mazzini,  Armellini,  and  Saffi,  but  the  power 
was  really  shared  between  Mazzini,  Garibaldi, 
and  Avezzana.  The  French  government  re- 
solved upon  restoring  Pius  IX.,  and  in  April 
an  army  under  Gen.  Oudinot  landed  at  Civitd 


PAPAL  STATES 


43 


Vecchia,  and  by  July  1  the  French  were  com- 
plete masters  of  the  city ;  but  the  pontiff  did 
not  return  to  his  capital  until  April,  1850. 
Supported  by  the  French  army  of  occupation 
and  by  the  Austrians  who  held  the  Romagna, 
the  government  maintained  tranquillity  till 
1859,  when  the  withdrawal  of  the  Austrian 
garrison  from  Bologna,  June  12,  subsequent  to 
the  defeat  of  the  Austrians  at  Magenta,  was 
the  signal  for  a  peaceful  revolt  of  the  whole 
Romagna,  and  the  organization  of  a  provisional 
government,  which  offered  the  dictatorship  to 
the  king  of  Sardinia,  who  in  March,  1860,  for- 
mally declared  them  annexed  to  the  Sardinian 
monarchy  in  accordance  with  a  vote  of  the 
inhabitants.  They  now  constitute,  with  Par- 
ma and  Modena,  the  division  Emilia,  so  called 
from  the  ancient  Via  iEmilia,  which  traversed 
them.  The  pope  enlisted  a  considerable  force 
of  foreign  troops,  and  offered  the  command  of 
his  army  to  the  French  general  Lamoriciere, 
who  accepted  the  post  in  April.  Early  in 
September,  following  close  upon  the  successes 
of  Garibaldi  in  Sicily  and  Naples,  revolt  broke 
out  in  Umbria  and  the  Marches,  and  the  insur- 
gents on  the  11th  placed  themselves  under  the 
protection  of  Victor  Emanuel.  Accordingly  a 
Sardinian  force  under  Gen.  Fanti  took  posses- 
sion of  Perugia  and  Spoleto,  while  Cialdini  with 
50,000  men  made  himself  master  of  Pesaro  and 
Urbino,  and  defeated  Lamoriciere  at  Castel  Fi- 
dardo  (Sept.  18).  After  a  short  siege  Ancona 
capitulated  Sept.  29,  Lamoriciere  and  the  troops 
then  with  him  becoming  prisoners  of  war.  In 
November  a  vote  of  the  population  of  the  re- 
volted provinces  was  taken  on  the  subject  of 
annexation  to  Sardinia,  and  resulted  in  an  over- 
whelming majority  in  favor  of  that  measure. 
The  proclamation  of  Victor  Emanuel  as  king 
of  Italy  by  the  parliament  of  Turin,  Feb.  26, 
1861,  was  followed  on  March  27  by  a  reso- 
lution affirmative  of  Oavour's  declaration  that 
it  was  essential  to  Italian  unity  that  Rome 
should  become  the  capital  of  Italy.  The  pon- 
tifical government  vainly  protested  in  April 
against  the  title  of  king  of  Italy  assumed  by 
Victor  Emanuel ;  he  was  recognized  as  such 
by  the  great  powers,  and  it  now  became  the 
fixed  purpose  of  the  Italian  patriots  to  ob- 
tain the  withdrawal  of  the  French  troops  from 
Rome  and  to  annex  that  city  and  its  territory 
to  the  new  kingdom.  A  proclamation  was 
issued  by  Garibaldi  in  August,  1862,  and  an 
expedition  which  he  made  to  Calabria  toward 
the  end  of  that  month  to  organize  a  general 
rising  against  the  French  in  Rome  and  the 
temporal  sovereignty  of  the  pope,  was  defeat- 
ed by  the  Italian  government.  The  king  and 
his  ministers  from  that  moment  entered  into 
more  active  negotiations  with  France  for  the 
withdrawal  of  the  French  flag  from  Italian 
territory,  while  the  pope  by  allocutions  and 
encyclicals  appealed  to  the  conservative  sense 
of  Christendom.  On  Sept.  15,  1864,  a  treaty 
was  concluded  with  Napoleon  III.,  stipulating 
for  the  evacuation  of  Rome  by  the  French 


within  two  years.  Florence  became  the  seat 
of  the  Italian  government  in  May,  1865.  A 
special  envoy  sent  by  the  king  to  the  pope  in 
April,  and  again  in  June,  failed  to  effect  either 
a  reconciliation  or  a  compromise;  the  pope 
feeling  bound  to  fulfil  the  oath  made  at  his 
coronation  of  preserving  his  temporalities  in 
their  entirety,  and  securing  thereby  the  inde- 
pendence of  his  spiritual  government.  The  lib- 
eration of  Venetia  by  the  war  against  Austria, 
in  alliance  with  Prussia  (June  and  July),  now 
almost  completed  the  unity  of  Italy.  On  Oct. 
2.9  the  pope  issued  a  solemn  protest  against  the 
aggressions  of  the  Italian  government.  The 
French  army  began  to  leave  the  Roman  terri- 
tory on  Dec.  2,  a  small  garrison  being  left  at 
Rome  and  Civita  Vecchia  till  such  time  as  the 
holy  see  could  recruit  a  sufficient  volunteer 
force  of  Italians  and  foreigners  to  hold  the  few 
remaining  fortresses.  The  advance  of  Gari- 
baldi in  October,  1867,  was  counteracted  by 
the  Italian  ministry,  and  a  French  contingent 
was  sent  to  Rome  for  the  defence  of  the  papal 
territory.  But  the  defeat  of  Garibaldi  at  Men- 
tana  on  Nov.  3  only  increased  the  agitation 
and  fury  against  the  foreigners,  the  flame  be- 
ing fanned  by  the  presence  and  publications  of 
Mazzini.  At  length,  after  the  withdrawal  of 
the  last  French  soldier,  Aug.  21,  1870,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  French  reverses  in  the  Ger- 
man war,  Victor  Emanuel  wrote  to  Pius  IX. 
declaring  that  the  occupation  of  Rome  by  Ital- 
ian troops  had  become  an  imperative  necessity. 
This  event  took  place  on  Sept.  20,  the  pontifical 
garrison  making  but  a  brief  resistance.  The 
great  powers  were  notified  of  it  on  Oct.  18 ;  in 
December  the  Italian  chambers  at  Florence  de- 
clared Rome  the  capital  of  Italy,  and  on  May 
13,  1871,  passed  a  law  known  as  uthe  bill  of 
the  papal  guarantees."  By  this  law  the  pope 
is  permitted  to  enjoy  the  rank  of  a  sovereign, 
and  occupy  the  palace  and  basilica  of  the  Vati- 
can, with  a  yearly  revenue  from  the  Italian 
treasury  of  $625,000.  All  church  property  in 
Rome  and  its  immediate  territory  became  the 
property  of  the  nation  in  1873,  and  a  large 
portion  of  the  numerous  establishments  have 
since  been  sold  to  help  pay  the  heavy  pub- 
lic debt.  This  complete  change  was  vigorous- 
ly resisted  by  Pius  IX.  Refusing  to  accept  any 
portion  of  the  revenue  assigned  to  him,  he 
continues  to  depend  for  his  support  and  that 
of  his  court  on  gifts  collected  for  him  among 
Roman  Catholics  everywhere.  With  the  ex- 
ception of  a  mutual  understanding  between 
the  Vatican  and  the  royal  court  established  in 
the  Quirinal,  for  the  appointment  of  bishops  to 
the  vacant  sees  in  Italy,  no  direct  intercourse 
had  taken  place  between  the  pope  and  the 
Italian  government  up  to  April,  1875. — See 
Calindri,  Saggio  geogrqfico,  statistico  e  storico 
dello  Stato  Pontrficio  (Perugia,  1829)  ;  Sugen- 
heim,  GescMchte  der  Entstehung  und  Ausbil- 
dung  des  Kirchenstaats  (Leipsic,  1855) ;  and 
Cardinal  Manning,  "Temporal  Power  of  the 
Pope  "  (London,  1874). 


4A 


PAPAW 


PAPAW  (Fr.  papayer),  a  name  applied  to  two 
very  different  trees  and  their  fruits,  the  one 
purely  tropical,  the  other  North  American, 
and  especially  belonging  to  the  middle  states. 
The  common  papaw  of  this  country  is  asimi- 
na triloba,  of  the  custard-apple  family  or  ano- 
nacece,  a  family  of  trees  and  shrubs  having 
alternate  leaves,  without  stipules ;  flower  of  a 
calyx  with  three  sepals,  and  six  petals  in  two 
rows;  stamens  numerous,  with  short  filaments 
and  several  pistils,  separate  or  coherent,  ripen- 
ing into  a  fleshy  or  pulpy  fruit.  The  family, 
except  one  genus,  is  tropical;  the  soursop, 
cherimoyer,  and  other  favorite  fruits  of  warm 
countries  belong  to  it.  (See  Custaed  Apple.) 
Our  genus  asimina  derives  its  name  from  the 
fact  that  the  papaw  was  called  asiminier  by 
the  French  colonists;  in  the  older  botanical 
works  it  is  variously  called  anona,  porcelia, 
orchidocarpum,  and  uvaria  ;  there  are  four 
species  of  asimina,  all  except  the  papaw  (A. 
triloba)  being  low  shrubs,  a  form  in  which  this 
is  frequently  found,  but  in  favorable  localities 
in  the  southwestern  states  it  is  a  tree  30  ft. 
high,  with  a  diameter  of  6  in.  or  more;  the 
presence  of  large  papaw  trees  is  regarded  as 
indicative  of  a  soil  of  great  fertility.  The 
trunk  has  a  gray  smooth  bark,  and  the  young 
shoots  are  covered  with  a  rusty  down,  but  soon 
become  smooth;  the  thin  obovate-lanceolate 
leaves  are  6  to  9  in.  long  with  short  petioles ; 
the  flowers,  which  appear  before  or  with  the 
leaves,  are  an  inch  and  a  half  across,  the  outer 
petals  three  or  four  times  as  long  as  the  calyx, 
dull  purple  and  veiny  when  fully  developed,  but 
greenish  or  yellowish  at  first ;  the  pistils  few, 
ripening  from  one  to  four  large  pulpy  fruits, 
which  contain  numerous  horizontal  seeds.  The 
wood  is  soft,  spongy,  and  of  no  value ;  but  the 
inner  bark,  which  is  very  tough,  is  a  strong 
tying  material.     The  fruit,  ripening  usually  in 


Papaw  (Asimina  triloba). 

September,  is  3  or  4  in.  long  and  about  a  third 
as  thick,  uneven  as  if  slightly  swollen  in  places, 
its  rather  tender  skin  yellow  when  quite  ripe ; 
within  are  large  flat  seeds,  arranged  in  two 


rows  of  four  to  nine  in  each ;  these  at  matu- 
rity are  invested  by  a  fleshy  arillus,  and  all 
imbedded  in  the  flesh  of  the  fruit,  which  when 
completely  ripened  is  of  a  soft,  custard-like 
consistency  and  very  sweet;  the  albumen  of 


Papaw,  Fruit. 

the  seeds  is  divided  into  plates  by  the  projec- 
tion into  .its  substance  of  the  inner  seed  coat, 
producing  the  kind  of  albumen  called  rumina- 
ted, of  which  the  nutmeg  is  a  familiar  exam- 
ple. The  fruit  is  considered  too  sweet  and 
mawkish  by  many,  while  some  prefer  it  to  the 
banana.  Some  trees  produce  in  the  wild  state 
fruit  of  superior  size  and  excellence,  and  doubt- 
less it  could  be  greatly  improved  by  selection 
and  cultivation.  The  resemblance  in  the  taste 
of  the  fruit  to  that  of  the  tropical  papaw  is 
probably  the  reason  for  its  bearing  the  name. 
In  some  localities  the  fruit  has  been  ferment- 
ed and  distilled  to  produce  a  spirituous  liquor. 
The  tree  is  hardy  near  Boston,  Mass.,  and  in 
central  Michigan,  and  is  sufficiently  ornamental 
to  have  a  place  in  a  large  collection.  The  re- 
maining species  are  not  found  north  of  North 
Carolina,  and  extend  southward  to  Florida. 
The  small-flowered  papaw  (A.  parviflora)  is  2 
to  5  ft.  high,  with  greenish  purple  flowers  half 
an  inch  across,  and  a  fruit  the  size  of  a  plum. 
The  large-flowered  papaw  (A.  grandiflora)  is 
only  2  or  3  ft.  high,  with  leaves  3  in.  long,  and 
the  flowers,  about  4  in.  across,  yellowish  white. 
In  the  preceding  species,  the  flowers  appear  in 
the  axils  of  the  leaves  of  the  previous  year,  or 
rather  just  above  the  scars  left  by  them,  but 
in  the  dwarf  papaw  (A.  pygmaa)  they  are  pro- 
duced in  the  axils  of  the  present  leaves ;  this 
grows  in  pine  barrens  to  the  height  of  3  ft., 
but  often  flowers  when  less  than  1  ft.  high ;  its 
leaves  are  variable  in  size,  and  in  the  far  south 
nearly  evergreen ;  the  flowers  are  pale  yellow, 
the  inner  petals  purplish  within. — The  tropical 
papaw  is  Carica  papaya.  The  genus  Carica 
(so  named  because  thought  erroneously  to  be  a 
native  of  Caria)  was  formerly  placed  in  a  small 
family,  the  papayaceai ;  but  this,  with  several 
other  small  orders,  has  been  by  Hooker  and 


PAPAW 


PAPER 


45 


Bentham  merged  in  passifloracece.  (See  Pas- 
sion Flower.)  This  genus  consists  of  about  20 
trees  and  shrubs,  all  natives  of  tropical  Amer- 
ica.    This  papaw  is  seldom  over  20  ft.  high,  is 


JPUi,, 


Carica  papaya. 


a  foot  in  diameter  at  the  base,  and  gradually 
tapering  upward  without  branching,  bearing  at 
the  summit  a  crown  of  long-petioled  leaves,  the 
limb  to  which  is  often  2  ft.  across,  deeply  cut 
into  seven  irregularly  gashed  lobes,  which  gives 
the  tree  much  the  aspect  of  a  palm.  The  flow- 
ers, which  are  dioecious,  are  in  long  racemes, 
the  males  with  funnel-shaped  corollas,  and  the 
females  with  five  distinct  petals ;  the  fruit  is  a 
large  berry,  about  10  in.  long  and  half  as  broad, 
externally  ribbed,  and  of  a  dull  orange  color ; 
it  has  a  thick  fleshy  rind,  and  numerous  small, 
black,  wrinkled  seeds,  arranged  in  five  longitu- 
dinal lines  along  the  central  cavity ;  it  is  some- 
times eaten  raw  with  pepper  and  sugar,  but  is 
more  generally  cooked  with  sugar  and  lemon 
juice ;  the  unripe  fruit  is  boiled  and  eaten  as 
a  vegetable,  and  is  also  pickled.  The  juice  of 
the  ripe  fruit  is  said  to  be  used  as  a  cosmetic 
to  remove  freckles,  and  that  of  the  green  fruit 
is  a  remarkably  efficient  vermifuge ;  the  leaves 
are  used  in  the  French  West  Indies  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  soap  for  washing  linen.  The  tree 
abounds  in  a  milky,  bitter  juice,  which  is  re- 
markable as  containing  fibrine,  a  principle 
otherwise  found  only  in  the  animal  kingdom  ; 
Yauquelin  compares  the  juice  to  blood  de- 
prived of  its  coloring  material.  Endlicher  says 
that  a  few  drops  of  this  juice  mixed  with 
water  will  in  a  few  moments  render  recently 
killed  or  old  and  tough  meat  tender,  and  that 
the  same  effect  is  produced  by  wrapping  a 
piece  of  meat  in  a  leaf  of  the  tree  and  keep- 
ing it  thus  over  night.  It  is  also  said  that  if 
old  swine  or  poultry  be  fed  upon  the  leaves 
of  the  tree,  their  flesh  will  be  tender  when 
killed.  The  root  has  the  odor  of  decaying 
radishes.  The  tree  is  found  in  the  extreme 
southern  part  of  Florida,  probably  introduced 
from  the  West  Indies,  and  it  is  cultivated  in 


various  tropical  countries.  Some  other  spe- 
cies are  mentioned  under  Carica. 

PAPENBIRG,  a  town  of  Prussia,  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Hanover,  near  the  right  bank  of  the 
Ems,  with  which  it  is  connected  by  canals,  23 
m.  S.  E.  of  Emden ;  pop.  in  1871,  6,077.  It  is 
situated  in  the  midst  of  a  moorland,  and  is 
neatly  built  in  the  Dutch  style.  It  is  the  seat 
of  an  active  commerce,  and,  after  Emden,  the 
chief  port  in  the  province,  its  shipping  em- 
bracing about  200  sea-going  vessels.  It  con- 
tains a  school  of  navigation,  numerous  ship 
yards,  and  manufactories  of  sails,  chains  and 
anchors,  lime  and  tobacco.  The  principal  ex- 
port is  oak. 

PAPER  (Gr.  naizvpoQ,  papyrus),  a  material 
made  in  thin  sheets  from  a  pulp  prepared  from 
vegetable  fibre  and  cellular  tissue. — Materials. 
The  first  paper  was  probably  made  in  Egypt 
from  papyrus,  a  species  of  reed.  The  stem  of 
the  plant  in  growing  is  covered  at  its  lower 
portion  by  mud,  and  the  layers  of  the  outer 
skin  at  this  point  are  whiter  and  more  compact. 
Under  these  layers  are  thin  pellicles,  which 
being  removed  and  laid  side  by  side,  their  over- 
lapping edges  may  be  cemented  together  by 
pressure,  the  thickness  of  the  sheet  depending 
upon  the  number  of  layers  placed  one  upon  an- 
other. (See  Papyrus.)  The  ancient  Mexicans 
used  a  kind  of  paper  prepared  from  the  agave 
Americana,  or  maguey  plant,  which  grows  upon 
the  table  lands.  It  resembled  the  Egyptian  pa- 
pyrus, and  took  ink  and  color  well,  as  preserved 
specimens  attest.  The  Chinese  rice  paper  is 
prepared  from  the  pith  of  the  aischynomene 
paludosa,  cut  spirally  into  a  thin  slice,  which 
spread  out  and  compressed  forms  a  sheet  of  pa- 
per, sometimes  a  foot  in  length  and  five  or  six 
inches  in  breadth.  The  Chinese  were  the  first 
to  form  from  vegetable  fibre  the  web  which 
constitutes  modern  paper.  They  used  the  in- 
ner bark  of  several  trees,  especially  the  mul- 
berry, the  bamboo  reduced  to  pulp  by  beating, 
rice  and  other  straws,  silk,  cotton,  and  rags. 
The  Japanese  exhibited  in  the  Paris  universal 
exposition  of  1867  beautiful  specimens  of  paper 
made  from  the  bark  of  the  paper  mulberry  tree 
(Broussonnetia  papyri/era).  Among  the  nu- 
merous materials  of  which  paper  has  been  made 
are  acacia,  althaea,  American  aloe  or  maguey, 
artichoke,  asparagus,  aspen,  bamboo,  banana, 
basswood,  bean  vines,  blue  grass,  broom,  buck- 
wheat straw,  bulrushes,  cane,  cattail,  cedar, 
China  grass,  clematis,  clover,  cork,  corn  husks 
and  stalks,  cotton,  couch  grass,  elder,  elm,  es- 
parto grass,  ferns,  fir,  flags,  flax,  grape  vine, 
many  grasses,  hemp,  hop  vines,  horse  chestnut, 
indigo,  jute,  mulberry  bark  and  wood,  mummy 
cloth,  oak,  oakum,  oat  straw,  osier,  palm,  pal- 
metto, pampas  grass,  papyrus,  pea  vines,  pine, 
plantain,  poplar,  potato  vines,  rags  of  all  kinds, 
reeds,  rice  straw,  rope,  rye  straw,  sedge  grass, 
silk,  silk  cotton  (bombax),  sorghum,  spruce,  this- 
tles, tobacco,  wheat  straw,  waste  paper,  willow, 
and  wool.  The  principal  materials  are:  1,  cot- 
ton and  linen  rags ;  2,  waste  paper ;  3,  straw ;  4, 


46 


PAPER 


esparto  grass ;  5,  wood ;  6,  cane ;  7,  jute  and  ma- 
uila. — Peepaeation  of  Papee  Pulp.  In  the 
manufacture  of  paper,  the  first  object  is  to  pre- 
pare the  raw  materials  for  the  processes  by 
which  they  are  brought  into  a  pulpy  condition. 
1.  Cotton  and  linen  rags.  These  are  placed  in 
cylindrical  machines  and  tossed  about  by  long 
teeth  fixed  on  revolving  cylinders,  an  operation 
called  thrashing.  They  are  then  sorted  accord- 
ing to  texture,  fibre,  and  color ;  next  they  are 
passed  through  the  rag  cutter,  a  machine  which 
somewhat  resembles  a  straw  cutter,  and  are 
then  placed  in  the  duster,  an  octagonal  drum 
covered  with  wire  netting  and  revolving  in  a 
box,  one  end  being  a  little  elevated.  After  this 
they  are  usually  washed  preparatory  to  boiling. 
In  boiling,  an  alkaline  solution  is  used  of  varia- 
ble composition,  according  to  the  nature  of  the 
rags,  those  more  highly  colored,  or  contaminated 
with  grease,  resin,  or  pitch,  requiring  a  strong 
lye.  Ordinarily,  for  100  lbs.  of  rags  from  6  to 
10  lbs.  of  carbonate  of  soda  is  used,  with  half 
as  much  quicklime.  The  lye  reduces  the  fine 
hard  particles  of  the  vegetable  fibre,  which  if 
allowed  to  remain  would  cause  knotty  places  in 
the  paper,  removes  much  of  the  dust  which  still 
adheres  to  the  rags,  and  partially  whitens  them. 
The  solution  is  best  heated  by  steam  pipes. 
Large  cylindrical  iron  boilers  are  in  use  in  the 
best  mills  in  Europe  and  the  United  States. 
These  are  provided  with  compartments  perfo- 
rated with  holes  for  draining  off  the  water,  and 
they  are  charged  at  the  ends  with  several  hun- 
dred weight  of  rags  at  a  time,  and  then  the 
steam  is  admitted  under  a  pressure  usually  of 
about  50  lbs.  to  the  square  inch.  The  opera- 
tion for  the  full  charge  requires  from  eight  to 
ten  hours,  when  the  rags  are  ready  for  the  pro- 
cess by  which  they  are  to  be  converted  into 
pulp.  This  is  done  in  what  is  called  the  engine 
or  hollander,  a  Dutch  invention  substituted  for 
what  was  previously  known  as  the  beating  ma- 
chine.   An  oblong  vat  of  the  shape  represented 


Fig.  1.— Horizontal  Section  of  Engine. 

in  figs.  1  and  2,  in  both  horizonatal  and  vertical 
section,  is  divided  longitudinally  in  the  middle 
by  a  partition  so  that  a  continuous  channel  is 
formed,  as  shown  by  the  arrows.  In  one  side 
is  placed  a  solid  wooden  cylinder,  a,  fig.  2, 
armed  with  blunt-edged  knives  placed  longi- 
tudinally upon  the  periphery.    This  cylinder  is 


turned  by  a  shaft  resting  in  journals,/^.  Be- 
neath the  cylinder  is  a  block,  also  armed  with 
knives  similar  to  those  in  the  cylinder,  and  hav- 
ing very  nearly  the  same  direction,  the  action 


Fig.  2. — Vertical  Section  of  Engine. 

of  the  two  sets  being  such  as  to  tear  and  sepa- 
rate the  fibres.  On  the  other  side  of  the  vat, 
opposite  the  beating  cylinder,  there  is  a  hollow 
drum  or  prism  of  eight  sides,  covered  at  the  ends 
with  wire  gauze  for  the  purpose  of  discharging 
the  water  from  the  machine,  so  constructed 
that  a  slow  revolution  raises  the  water  into 
the  hollow  shaft  from  which  it  is  discharged. 
This  is  the  general  construction  of  the  engine 
or  hollander,  and  in  nearly  the  same  form  it 
is  used  for  three  distinct  purposes,  washing, 
bleaching,  and  beating  or  reducing  to  pulp; 
and  in  these  three  uses  it  is  respectively  called 
the  washing  engine,  the  bleaching  engine,  and 
the  beating  engine.  The  rags  are  first  placed 
in  the  washing  engine,  the  knives  in  the  cylin- 
der of  which  are  not  brought  down  so  closely 
upon  the  block  as  in  the  beater,  but  still  close 
enough  to  tear  the  rags  and  separate  the  fibres 
to  a  considerable  extent.  Water  is  turned  in 
at  the  cock  W,  and  the  engine  set  in  motion, 
the  cylinder  a  making  about  150  revolutions  a 
minute.  The  rags  are  carried  around  the  cir- 
cuit of  the  vat,  passing  beneath  both  cylinder 
and  drum,  the  latter  of  which  discharges  the 
water  as  fast  as  it  is  received  at  the  cock.  A 
pipe  covered  with  gauze  in  the  bottom  of  the 
vat  is  also  often  used  to  convey  away  water, 
either  during  the  process  of  washing  or  at  its 
close.  The  washing  usually  takes  three  or  four 
hours,  when  the  rags  are  drained  and  placed 
in  the  bleaching- engine,  which  differs  from  the 
other  two  in  not  having  a  drum  for  discharg- 
ing water,  because  the  bleaching  solution  is 
retained  in  the  vat  till  the  operation  is  com- 
pleted. The  bleaching,  which  is  performed 
with  a  solution  of  chloride  of  lime,  usually  oc- 
cupies about  three  hours.  The  material  is  at 
the  same  time  made  finer,  and  the  fibres  further 
separated,  so  that  they  will  be  fitted  for  the 
action  of  the  beating  engine.  The  half  stuff, 
as  it  is  called  while  on  its  way  from  the  washer 
to  the  beater,  is  then  let  down  into  cisterns  to 
drain,  after  which  it  is  carried  to  the  beat- 
ing engine,  and  subjected  to  its  action  after 
the  chlorine  and  chloride  of  lime  and  salts 
associated  with  it  have  been  neutralized  with 
a  solution  of  soda  or  of  "  antichlore,"  a  com- 
pound of  sulphite  of  soda,  chloride  of  tin,  and 


PAPEE 


47 


hyposulphite  of  soda;  sulphite  of  calcium  is 
also  used.  The  engine  being  put  in  motion, 
the  cylinder  is  brought  down  upon  the  block 
by  degrees,  so  that  in  the  course  of  three  or 
four  hours  the  rags  are  beaten  into  a  fine  pulp. 
"When  the  operation  is  nearly  completed,  the 
paper  may  be  colored  or  given  a  bluish  tint,  by 
the  use  of  ultramarine,  Prussian  blue,  indigo, 
aniline  blue,  or  oxide  of  cobalt.  Paper  may  be 
sized  in  the  engine  or  in  the  paper-making 
machine ;  the  materials  used  are  different  in 
the  two  cases.  There  are  various  prescriptions 
for  engine  size ;  the  most  common  is  called 
resin  size,  made  by  adding  a  solution  of  alum 
to  a  resin  soap  dissolved  in  soda.  It  is  beaten 
up  and  mixed  with  the  pulp  in  the  beating 
engine  before  being  delivered  to  the  vat  from 
whence  it  is  distributed  to  the  paper-making 
machine.  Sizing  for  the  machine,  where  the 
size  is  applied  to  the  paper,  is  made  of  gelatine ; 
and  manufacturers  generally  make  their  own 
size,  in  a  room  adjoining  that  which  contains 
the  machine,  so  that  it  may  be  used  while  in 
solution,  by  which  time  in  dissolving  and  pre- 
paring and  other  expense  is  saved.  It  is  made 
of  the  best  hide  clippings,  which,  being  soft- 
ened and  soaked  several  days  in  large  wood- 
en tubs  of  water,*  are  then  put  into 'wooden 
cylinders  from  4  to  6  ft.  in  diameter  and  about 
10  ft.  long,  revolving  on  a  horizontal  shaft,  by 
which  means  they  are  washed  and  cleansed  of 
dirt.  They  are  then  put  into  a  tub  6  or  8  ft. 
in  diameter,  made  of  wood  or  galvanized  iron, 
and  having  a  perforated  false  bottom,  beneath 
which  steam  is  introduced  through  a  coil  of 
pipe  perforated  with  many  holes.  The  water 
is  not  boiled,  but  raised  to  about  185°  F.  and 
kept  at  that  point  for  12  or  18  hours,  dissolving 
the  gelatine.  The  latter  being  strained,  enough 
alum  is  added  to  it  to  give  a  slight  astringent 
taste,  which  prevents  fermentation  and  also 
stickiness,  and  adds  body  to  the  paper.  Within 
a  few  years  clay,  china  clay,  and  kaolin  have 
been  added  to  the  pulp,  mainly  to  increase  the 
weight  of  the  paper.  The  alumina  of  these 
substances  has  a  strong  affinity  for  vegetable 
matter  and  adheres  closely  to  the  fibres.  The 
clay  must  be  put  into  the  engine  before  the 
size,  as  it  will  then  reach  the 'fibres,  and  the 
size  surrounding  both  will  better  fasten  the 
clay.  All  kinds  of  paper  will  carry  from  5 
to  15  per  cent,  of  clay  without  size,  and  it  is 
asserted  that  a  small  addition  of  it  to  the  pulp 
improves  some  kinds  of  paper,  making  them 
smoother  and  more  opaque ;  but  too  great  a 
quantity  weakens  the  paper  and  makes  it  brittle. 
2.  Waste  paper  is  dusted  and  sorted  in  the  same 
way  as  rags.  It  is  then  boiled  and  printers' 
ink' stains  removed  by  soda,  which  unites  with 
the  oil,  leaving  the  color  to  subside.  The  boil- 
ers are  stationary,  so  that  the  paper  shall  not 
be  reduced  to  pulp  too  soon,  and  thus  incorpo- 
rate the  coloring  matter  of  the  ink.  The  wa- 
ter is  continually  changed,  producing  a  current 
which  after  a  while  removes  the  dirt.  The 
material  is  put  through  the  washing,  bleach- 

VOL.  XIII. — 4 


ing,  and  beating  engines  as  in  the  reduction  of 
rags,  although  the  bleaching  and  beating  pro- 
cesses occupy  much  less  time.  3.  Straw  is  cut 
into  short  lengths  with  cylindrical  cutters  and 
then  boiled  with  caustic  soda.  (See  Soda.)  It 
may  here  be  stated  that  straw,  wood,,  and  other 
coarse  vegetable  fibre  is  generally  boiled  with 
caustic  soda  under  high  pressure  to  dissolve  the 
resinous  and  gummy  matters  which  hold  the 
fibres  together.  The  caustic  soda,  or  soda  ash 
of  commerce,  contains  too  much  carbonic  acid 
to  answer  the  purpose  of  the  paper  maker.  It 
must  be  made  more  caustic,  and  this  is  ac- 
complished by  the  addition  of  caustic  lime,  by 
which  the  carbonic  acid  is  removed  in  the  form 
of  carbonate  of  lime.  The  soda  solution,  after 
having  been  sufficiently  acted  upon  by  cream  of 
lime,  and  the  resulting  carbonate  having  sub- 
sided, is  let  into  revolving  boilers  (which  may 
be  heated  by  steam  or  by  the  direct  application 
of  fire,  the  latter  being  preferred),  which  have 
been  previously  carefully  packed  full  of  the 
cut  straw.  A  boiler  16  ft.  long  and  6  ft.  in  di- 
ameter will  hold  about  2,500  lbs.  of  the  straw, 
if  carefully  packed.  Two  or  three  boilers  are 
sometimes  connected  for  the  purpose  of  saving 
fuel  by  blowing  out  the  steam  from  one  to 
another.  After  digestion  the  material,  which 
answers  to  half  stuff,  is  washed,  bleached,  and 
reduced  to  pulp  in  engines  in  much  the  same 
way  as  with  rags.  This  process  is  known  as 
Mellier's;  more  recent  ones  by  Dixon,  Ladd, 
Cresson,  Keene,  and  others,  by  which  the  boil- 
ing is  performed  under  much  greater  pressure, 
thus  shortening  the  time,  have  been  introduced. 
The  pulp  is  usually  made  into  paper  on  a  cyl- 
inder machine.  4.  Esparto  grass,  a  spontane- 
ous growth  of  the  gravelly  and  sandy  soils  of 
eastern  Spain  and  northern  Africa,  where  it 
has  for  centuries  been  made  into  matting  and 
baskets,  is  treated  in  a  similar  manner  to  straw, 
but  makes  a  superior  paper,  as  its  fibres  are 
tougher.  It  may  be  made  into  paper  either  on 
a  cylinder  or  a  Fourdrinier  machine.  5.  Wood. 
Paper  was  made  from  wood  as  early  as  from 
straw,  but  only  on  a  small  scale  till  the  erec- 
tion of  the  works  of  the  American  wood  paper 
company.  Charles  Watt  and  Hugh  Burgess 
patented  the  invention  in  England  in  1853 
and  in  the  United  States  in  1854.  One  of  the 
establishments  of  the  company,  at  Manayunk, 
Pa.,  has  .a  capacity  for  making  15  tons  of  wood 
pulp  a  day.  The  works  were  built  in  1865,  at 
a  cost  of  $500,000.  The  wood  used  is  chiefly 
American  poplar  or  whitewood.  •  It  is  cut  into 
slices  about  half  an  inch  thick,  across  the  grain, 
being  fed  to  a  rotary  disk  cutter  armed  with 
strong  knives  in  the  form  of  cord  wood  5  ft. 
long.  One  of  the  cutters  will  daily  reduce  40 
cords  of  wood  to  chips.  The  chips  are  placed 
in  upright  cylindrical  boilers  about  5  ft.  in 
diameter  and  16  ft.  high,  with  hemispheri- 
cal ends,  and  provided  inside  with  perforated 
diaphragms,  each  space  holding  a  quantity  of 
chips  equal  to  a  cord  of  wood.  A  solution  of 
caustic  soda  having  a  strength  of  12°  Baum6  is 


48 


PAPER 


then  introduced,  and  fires  are  started  under- 
neath. The  digestion  is  completed  in  about 
six  hours,  when  the  contents  are  suddenly- 
emptied  with  violence,  under  a  pressure  of  65 
lbs.  to  the  square  inch,  into  a  sheet-iron  cylin- 
der at  the  side  of  the  boiler.  It  is  now  in  the 
form  or  condition  of  half  stuff,  and  is  passed 
through  a  washing  engine  ;  and  if  it  is  imme- 
diately used  upon  the  spot,  it  is  also  passed 
through  a  bleaching  engine  and  mingled  with 
rag  pulp  in  the  beating  engine,  in  the  propor- 
tion of  from  60  to  80  per  cent.,  when  it  is 
formed  into  paper  in  the  same  way  as  pure 
rag  pulp.  If  the  wood  pulp  is  to  be  trans- 
ported to  a  distance,  it  is  only  passed  through 
the  washing  engine,  and  made  temporarily  into 
a  thick  kind  of  paper  on  a  cylinder  machine 
for  the  purpose  of  drying  and  giving  it  a  con- 
venient form  for  transportation.  A  method  of 
mechanically  making  wood  pulp  was  invented 
several  years  ago  by  Heinrich  Voelter  of  Wur- 
temberg,  and  there  are  in  Germany  more  than 
30  establishments  using  his  machines.  The 
defibrer  or  mill  consists  of  a  coarse  cylindrical 
stone,  revolving  rapidly,  against  which  billets 
of  wood  are  held  by  springs.  The  action  of 
water  which  flows  through  the  mill  assists  in 
reducing  the  fibre  so  finely  that  the  subsequent 
chemical  treatment  is  simple.  The  mechanical 
is,  however,  inferior  to  the  chemical  method, 
as  it  breaks  up  the  fibres  into  shorter  particles, 
so  that  not  half  as  much  can  be  mixed  with 
rag  pulp.  The  woods  which  furnish  the  best 
fibre,  that  is,  the  longest  and  the  best  adapted 
to  felting,  are  pine  and  fir ;  but  it  is  more  diffi- 
cult to  separate  the  resin  from  them  than  from 
other  woods;  and  as  poplar  and  basswood, 
among  the  soft  woods,  make  the  whitest  pulp, 
they  are  usually  preferred.  6.  Cane.  The  drun- 
dinaria  macrosperma,  the  kind  of  cane  which 
grows  in  the  Dismal  swamp  and  along' the 
rivers  of  North  and  South  Carolina,  and  also 
along  the  Mississippi,  is  about  12  ft.  high,  near- 
ly white,  and  composed  of  tough  strong  fibres. 
The  supply  of  this  material  is  immense,  and  the 
American  fibre  company  have  patented  meth- 
ods for  converting  it  into  paper  pulp.  The 
Norfolk  fibre  company,  near  Norfolk,  Va.,  and 
the  Cape  Fear  fibre  company,  near  Wilmington, 
N.  C,  are  working  under  these  patents.  The 
Norfolk  company's  works  are  on  the  Dismal 
swamp  canal  and  Norfolk  and  Weldon  railroad, 
about  4  m.  from  Portsmouth.  The  cane  is  dis- 
integrated by  the  Lyman  process,  patented  in 
August,  1858.  Strong  cast-iron  cylinders,  22  ft. 
long  and  12  in.  inside  diameter,  having  strong 
heads  at  both  open  ends,  are  laid  horizontally 
on  heavy  frames.  Each  cylinder  has  a  dome 
on  the  top  to  give  steam  room.  The  cane,  after 
having  been  stripped  and  cleaned,  is  introduced 
into  both  ends,  and  the  covers  fastened,  when 
steam  is  admitted  into  the  cylinders,  or  "guns" 
as  they  are  called,  until  a  pressure  of  180  lbs. 
to  the  square  inch  is  reached.  This  pressure 
is  maintained  for  about  12  minutes,  when  by 
pulling  a  trigger  the  covers  are  suddenly  un- 


mendous  explosion,  carrying  the  disintegrated 
cane  before  it.  A  target  placed  about  30  ft. 
from  the  guns  receives  the  charge,  which  is 
reduced  to  a  mass  of  brown  sugary-smelling 
fibre.  The  report  is  equal  to  that  of  a  large 
cannon,  and  may  be  heard  many  miles.  The 
concussion  of  the  air  is  so  great  that  it  is  im- 
possible to  stand  in  the  gun  room  without  sup- 
port. A  gun  loaded  with  100  lbs.  of  cane  can 
be  discharged  every  15  minutes.  Eour  guns  of 
the  size  above  described  can  turn  out  from  16 
to  24  tons  of  stuff  in  24  hours.  Nearly  the 
full  weight  of  the  dry  cane  is  obtained  in  fibres 
having  somewhat  the  appearance  of  oakum, 
and  in  this  form  will  make  a  strong  spongy 
paper,  easily  saturated  with  liquids,  and  suitable 
for  roofing  and  wrapping  paper,  boards,  &c. 
The  material  may  also  be  bleached  and  treat- 
ed after  the  manner  of  rags,  and  made  into 
a  strong  white  paper.  7.  Manila  and  jute. 
These  fibres  are  products  of  eastern  Asia,  and 
are  made  into  ropes  and  coarse  bagging,  which 
after  being  worn  reach  the  paper  maker.  The 
raw  material  of  course  may  also  be  used.  The 
buts  of  the  jute  have  recently  been  utilized. 
The  process  of  manufacture  for  both  materials 
is  much  the  same.  They  are  boiled  in  rotary 
boilers,  although  for  jute  buts  some  prefer 
stationary  boilers  like  those  for  waste  paper, 
believing  that  the  revolving  motion  injures 
the  fibre.  The  material  is  usually  treated 
with  milk  of  lime,  from  15  to  25  lbs.  of  lime, 
and  sometimes  50  lbs.,  being  used  for  every 
100  lbs.  of  raw  material.  If  boiled  with  caus- 
tic soda,  like  straw,  the  fibres  may  be  obtained 
pure  and  bleached  and  made  into  white  paper. 
For  ordinary  brown  paper  the  pulp  may  be 
washed  and  beaten  ready  for  the  machine  in 
one  engine.  By  partial  bleaching  a  fine  buff 
color  may  be  imparted.  Both  Fourdrinier  and 
cylinder  machines  are  used  in  making  manila 
and  jute  papers.  The  cylinder  machine  causes 
the  fibres  to  be  laid  in  one  direction,  so  that  the 
paper  has  much  less  strength  in  one  than  in 
the  other  direction. — Manufacture  of  Paper. 
For  wrapping,  writing,  or  printing  paper,  the 
pulp,  prepared  with  or  without  size,  is  carried 
to  a  vat  and  mingled  with  sufficient  water  to 
make  it  thin  enough  for  spreading.  Up  to 
nearly  the  beginning  of  the  present  century 
paper  was  made  by  hand.  In  this  process  the 
workman  uses,  holding  it  in  both  hands,*  a 
shallow  mahogany  box  somewhat  larger  than 
the  sheet  of  paper,  covered  with  parallel  wires 
placed  near  together,  and  crossed  by  a  few 
others.  The  wires  thus  arranged  produced  what 
is  called  "laid  paper,"  but  with  a  woven  wire 
cloth  the  product  is  known  as  "wove  pa- 
per." The  "  water  mark  "  upon  paper,  used  to 
designate  the  peculiar  kinds,  is  produced  by 
coarse  wires  of  the  required  figures  attached  to 
the  moulds,  so  as  to  cause  the  layer  of  fibre  to 
be  somewhat  thinner  on  their  lines.  Various 
devices  formerly  made  use  of  in  this  way  gave 
names  to   the  sorts  of  paper  to  which  they 


PAPER 


49 


were  applied,  and  the  papers  have  retained 
these  names.  Thus  "cap"  or  "foolscap  pa- 
per "  was  so  called  from  the  water  mark  rep- 
resenting a  fool's  cap  and  bells  ;  "post  paper," 
from  the  design  of  a  postman's  horn ;  what 
was  called  "pot  paper"  had  the  design  of  a 
pot  or  jug;  and  "hand  paper"  was  distin- 
guished by  the  figure  of  a  hand.  Water  marks 
on  bank  notes,  checks,  and  other  commercial 
papers  rendered  forgeries  more  difficult.  With 
the  mould  in  the  workman's  hands,  a  loose 
frame  called  a  deckle,  of  the  exact  size  of  the 
mould,  is  held  down  upon  its  upper  surface, 
serving  as  a  margin  to  the  wires,  and  deter- 
mines the  size  of  the  sheet.  A  proper  quan- 
tity of  pulp  being  dipped  up  and  shaken  with 
a  peculiar  motion  acquired  by  experience,  the 
fibre  is  spread  evenly  over  the  wires,  and  the 
water  in  great  part  flows  through.  The  vat- 
man  then  slips  off  and  retains  the  deckle  as 
he  slides  the  mould  along  the  edges  of  the  vat 
to  another  workman  called  the  coucher,  and 
taking  another  mould  to  which  he  adjusts  the 
deckle,  he  repeats  the  operation.  The  coucher 
meantime  sets  the  mould  on  its  edge  to  drain 
while  he  arranges  on  the  table  close  by  a  sheet 
of  felt  cloth  on  which  he  lays  the  sheet  of  fibre 
by  overturning  the  mould.  This  is  returned 
to  the  vatman,  who  passes  along  another  mould 
and  sheet,  and  this  is  laid  upon  another  felt 
with  which  the  first  sheet  is  covered.  About 
130  sheets  are  thus  piled  up  alternately  with  as 
many  felts,  and  the  whole  pile  is  then  slipped 
under  a  press,  by  the  action  of  which  much 
water  is  squeezed  out  and  the  sheets  acquire 
tenacity.  These  are  then  separated  and  piled 
up  by  themselves,  and  again  pressed ;  and  being 
again  separated,  or  parted,  they  are  piled  and 
pressed  a  third  time.  Thus  the  marks  of  the 
felts  are  removed,  and  the  paper  is  in  good  con- 
dition for  drying,  which  is  effected  by  hang- 
ing the  sheets  on  hair  lines  in  lofts  or  rooms 
specially  devoted  to  this  purpose.  In  favor- 
able weather  the  drying  may  be  completed  in 
24  hours,  after  which  the  paper  is  sized  by  dip- 
ping it  several  times  in  a  preparation  of  glue 
and  alum.  The  sheets  are  again  pressed  to  re- 
move the  superfluous  size,  and  are  returned  to 
the  drying  rooms,  where  they  are  suspended 
upon  the  lines  and  dried  much  more  gradually 
than  before,  several  days'  time  being  requisite 
for  the  size  to  become  well  incorporated  with 
the  paper.  The  finishing  is  effected  by  passing 
the  sheets  laid  alternately  with  glazed  paper 
boards  with  some  hot  metal  plates  interspersed 
through  the  piles.  This  gives  the  name  of 
"  hot  pressed."  It  may  instead  be  rolled  with 
smooth  copper  plates  between  the  sheets.  By 
this  method  it  was  often  three  weeks  before 
the  paper  was  finally  finished  from  the  first 
treatment  of  the  rags,  and  for  every  vat,  from 
which  about  150  lbs.  of  paper  might  be  made 
in  a  day,  there  were  employed  eight  men  and 
about  as  many  women. — Paper  making  by  hand 
has  been  wholly  abandoned  in  the  United 
States,  where  even  the  finest  bank-note  paper 


is  manufactured 
by  machinery.  In 
this  process  the 
pulp  is  thinned 
with  water  suffi- 
ciently for  spread- 
ing it  on  the  web 
of  the  machine. 
There  are  several 
forms  of  machines 
in  use,  but  the 
Fourdrinier  is  the 
most  common.  As 
improved  by  Bry- 
an Donkin  and 
others,  its  action 
is  described  as  fol- 
lows in  Knight's 
"  American  Me- 
chanical Diction- 
ary:" "Pulp  from 
the  beating  cyl- 
inder is  admitted 
to  the  chest  a 
through  a  strain- 
er 5,  consisting  of 
a  sheet  of  metal 
through  which 
strips  are  cut;  it 
is  here  constantly 
agitated  by  a  stir- 
rer c,  and  is  caused 
to  flow  into  a 
second  and  small- 
er chamber  provi- 
ded with  a  small- 
er stirrer,  which 
delivers  it  (after 
passing  over  a 
channelled  plate 
by  which  extra- 
neous matters  of 
greater  specific 
gravity  than  the 
pulp  are  arrested) 
on  to  the  endless 
wire  web  or  apron 
d ;  to  this  a  sha- 
king movement 
is  imparted,  dis- 
tributing the  pulp 
fibre  evenly  over 
its  surface.  It  is 
supported  on  a  se- 
ries of  small  roll- 
ers, and  the  width 
of  the  paper  is 
governed  by  dec- 
kle straps  e  at  each 
side,  which  are 
carried  by  rollers 
//,  their  tension 
being  regulated 
by  the  arrange- 
ment shown  atg  ; 
h  is  a  vacuum  box 


50 


PAPER 


from  which  the  air  is  partially  exhausted  by 
a  set  of  air  pumps,  and  which  withdraws  in 
part  the  moisture  from  the  paper  as  it  passes 
over  the  box.  It  is  then  carried  between  the 
cloth-covered  rollers  i  i,  by  the  lower  one  of 
which  and  the  rollers  jjj  the  wire  apron  re- 
turns to  receive  a  fresh  supply  of  pulp,  the 
paper  being  transferred  to  the  blanket  felt  &, 
which  conveys  it  to  the  press  rolls  11;  these 
are  solid,  and  over  the  upper  one  is  a  thin 
edge  bar,  which  removes  adhering  particles  of 
fibre  from  the  roll,  and  also  serves  to  arrest 
the  progress  of  the  paper  should  it  stick  to 
the  roll,  thus  preventing  injury  to  the  blan- 
ket. The  rolls  are  adjusted  in  their  bearings 
by  the  screw  my  so  as  to  exert  greater  or 
less  pressure.  The  blanket  then  conveys  the 
sheet  to  a  position  where  it  may  be  received 
by  the  second  press  rolls  n  n,  which  further 
compress  and  expel  the  moisture  from  it,  and 
the  blanket  returns  by  way  of  the  rollers  ooo 
to  the  point  whence  it  set  out.  After  pass- 
ing the  press  rolls  the  paper  is  received  on 
a  second  endless  blanket,  which  carries  it  to 
the  first  of  a  series  of  steam-heated  cylinders, 
1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  between  which  it  is  partially  dried 
and  conveyed  between  other  pressure  rollers, 
s,  and  thence  to  a  second  set  of  drying  cyl- 
inders, 6,  7,  8,  whence,  after  being  subjected 
successively  to  the  pressing  and  stretching  ac- 
tion of  the  rolls  2>P,  it  is  delivered  on  to  the 
cylinder  or  reel  r.  Registering  mechanism  in- 
dicates when  a  certain  quantity  has  been  de- 
livered on  to  the  reel,  which  is  then  removed 
and  a  fresh  one  substituted.  The  number  of 
drying  cylinders  in  a  machine  of  this  class  may 
be  indefinitely  increased.  In  some  cases  more 
than  100  are  employed,  the  object  being  to 
allow  the  sizing  material  to  become  thorough- 
ly incorporated,  and  to  form  a  product  resem- 
bling hand-laid  paper  in  quality." — Several  im- 
provements have  been  made  by  which  the  Four- 
drinier machine  has  been  brought  almost  to 
perfection,  and  is  one  of  the  most  admirable 
pieces  of  mechanism  in  the  arts.  But  it  is  very 
expensive,  for  which  reason  others  have  been 
constructed  for  making  the  cheaper  kinds  of 
paper  from  coarse  material,  such  as  straw  aud 
cane.  Of  such  is  the  cylinder  machine  of  Dick- 
enson, invented  in  England  in  1809,  improved 
from  time  to  time,  and  attaining  its  present 
form  in  184V.  A  cylinder  covered  with  wire 
cloth  revolves  in  the  chest  which  receives  the 
pulp  from  the  beating  engine,  and  performs  the 
office  of  the  wire  web  in  the  Fourdrinier  ma- 
chine. Scanlan's  machine  unites  the  principles 
of  the  cylinder  and  Fourdrinier  machines,  and 
makes  a  double-web  paper,  the  opposite  sides 
of  which  may  be  of  different  colors.  Harris's 
is  a  two-cylinder  machine,  which  makes  a  two- 
web  paper.  Mr.  James  Harper  of  New  Haven, 
Conn.,  has  also  patented  a  combination  of  the 
cylinder  and  Fourdrinier,  for  which  he  claims 
several  advantages  over  other  machines.  Some 
of  the  latest  English  machines  include  a  drying 
apparatus  consisting  of  numerous  large  cylin- 


ders of  wire  net,  each  having  a  revolving  fan 
in  the  inside.  The  wet  web  of  paper  passes 
around  all  the  cylinders  in  turn,  deprived  of 
some  of  its  moisture  by  each  fan,  so  that  when 
it  leaves  the  last  cylinder  it  is  thoroughly  dry. 
It  is  said  that  the  paper  is  harder  and  stronger 
dried  in  this  way  than  by  steam-heated  cylin- 
ders.— Not  many  years  ago  paper  received  its 
finished  surface  by  being  placed  between  cop- 
per plates  and  then  passed  several  times  be- 
tween powerful  iron  rollers  or  calenders.  But 
this  method  has  been  superseded  by  what  are 
known  as  sheet  super-calenders,  in  which  the 
paper  is  passed  between  rollers,  one  of  which 
is  made  of  iron  and  the  other  of  compressed 
paper  surrounding  an  iron  shaft.  The  paper 
used  in  the  preparation  of  the  cylinders  is  of 
the  strongest  kind,  usually  manila,  and  when 
placed  on  the  shaft  is  subjected  to  immense 
hydraulic  pressure. — The  varieties  of  paper  are 
numerous.  They  may  be  classed  in  general  as 
writing  (including  drawing),  printing,  and  wrap- 
ping ;  and  besides  these  are  the  filtering  and 
blotting  papers,  which  differ  from  the  other 
kinds  in  an  admixture  of  woollen  rags,  by  which 
the  product  is  rendered  absorbent.  Cartridge 
paper  is  a  thick  variety  of  white  paper  used  for 
making  cartridges.  Bank-note  paper  is  a  very 
strong,  flexible,  and  thin  paper,  made  of  the 
best  linen  rags ;  and  tissue  paper  is  a  thin  trans- 
parent paper  used  for  tracing  drawings,  mani- 
fold writing,  and  many  other  purposes.  The 
distinctions  of  the  varieties  of  writing  paper 
are  based  on  the  paper  being  wove  or  laid,  and 
on  the  shades  of  color  and  degree  of  finish. 
The  cream  laid  and  cream  wove  are  of  a  slight- 
ly yellowish  white,  and  are  now  regarded  as 
the  choicest  varieties.  Papers  of  a  bluish  tint 
are  prepared  by  mixing  ultramarine  with  the 
pulp.  A  very  small  amount  of  ultramarine 
counteracts  the  natural  yellow  color,  and  pro- 
duces the  nearest  approach  to  white.  The  light 
buff  color  is  produced  by  oxide  of  iron  of  a  low 
degree  of  oxidation,  and  paper  of  this  shade 
has  been  recommended  as  more  grateful  to  the 
eye  than  the  glaring  surface  of  the  white  varie- 
ties. The  trade  names  of  the  different  sorts 
of  paper  designate  the  different  sizes  furnished 
from  the  mills.  The  smaller  sheets  of  letter 
and  note  paper  are  prepared  from  the  com- 
mercial sheets  by  the  stationers.  The  smallest 
sheets  furnished  by  the  mills,  termed  pot  pa- 
per, measure  12£  by  15  inches ;  foolscap,  the 
next  size,  13£  by  17  ;  post,  15£  by  18| ;  copy, 
16  by  20;  large  post,  16^  by  20|;  medium 
post,  18  by  23;  sheet  and  a  third  foolscap,  13J 
by  23  ;  sheet  and  a  half  foolscap,  13J  by  24£ ; 
double  foolscap,  17  by  27 ;  double  pot,  25  by 
30  ;  double  post,  19  by  30f- ;  double  crown,  20 
by  30 ;  double  medium,  24  by  38 ;  demy,  15£ 
by  20;  ditto  printing,  17|  by  22£;  medium, 
17£  by  22 ;  ditto  printing,  18£  by  23  ;  royal, 
19  by  24 ;  ditto  printing,  20  by  25  ;  superroyal, 
19  by  27;  ditto  printing,  21  by  27;  imperial, 
22  by  30  ;  elephant,  23  by  28  ;  atlas,  26  by  34; 
columbier,  23£  by  34£ ;  double  elephant,  26£  by 


PAPER 


51 


40 ;  antiquarian,  31  by  53. — Uses.  Besides  the 
manufacture  of  ordinary  paper,  the  pulp,  pre- 
pared from  whatever  materials,  maybe  devoted 
to  an  infinite  variety  of  uses,  such  as  paper 
hangings,  pasteboard,  boards  of  different  kinds, 
boxes,  papier  mach6,  sheathing  for  vessels, 
boats,  furniture,  car  wheels,  tubs,  water  buck- 
ets, and  other  household  utensils.  Both  the 
Chinese  and  Japanese  make  furniture,  cloth- 
ing, hats,  shoes,  umbrellas,  handkerchiefs,  nap- 
kins, twine,  and  many  other  useful  articles  from 
this  material.  The  Japanese  make  a  paper  cloth, 
known  as  shifu,  which  is  said  to  bear  washing. 
Boxes,  trays,  and  even  saucepans  are  made  of 
it,  and  it  is  also  made  into  bags  for  holding 
wine.  The  oil  paper  for  water-proof  clothing 
is  prepared  from  a  kind  called  seuJca.  The 
pieces  are  joined  together  by  a  cement  made 
of  young  fern  shoots,  ground  and  boiled  into 
a  paste  and  thinned  with  the  juice  of  unripe 
persimmons.  The  paper  is  softened  by  rub- 
bing in  the  hands,  and  is  coated  with  an  oil 
from  a  seed  called  ye-no-abura.  In  England 
paper  used  for  water  pipes  and  tanks  has  been 
found  to  preserve  water  from  freezing  longer 
than  lead  will  do.  In  1868  Col.  Muratori  of 
the  French  army  began  experiments  with  a 
paper  cuirass,  light  to  wear,  but  tough  enough 
to  resist  bullets.  In  the  London  international 
exhibition  of  1872  there  was  shown  a  model 
house  made  of  paper,  with  water  flowing  over 
it.  In  the  United  States  the  consumption  of 
paper  for  collars  and  cuffs  is  enormous. — His- 
tory. Papyrus,  chiefly  of  Egyptian  manufac- 
ture, continued  in  use  in  European  countries 
for  some  centuries  after  the  Christian  era,  and 
was  finally  displaced  by  the  charta  bombycina, 
or  paper  made  of  cotton,  the  Greek  word  p6fipvij 
being  in  ancient  times  used  either  for  silk  or 
cotton.  According  to  Gibbon,  who  cites  the 
authority  of  the  librarian  Casiri,  in  the  Biblio- 
theca  jLrabico-Hispana,  the  art  of  manufac- 
turing paper  from  vegetable  fibre  was  derived 
from  Samarcand,  where  it  was  introduced  from 
China  in  the  year  651,  and  thence  spread  over 
Europe,  having  been  introduced  at  Mecca  in 
707.  About  the  same  time  the  Saracens  are 
said  to  have  learned  to  make  paper  from  cot- 
ton, and  they  brought  it  to  Spain  in  711.  The 
bulls  of  the  popes  in  the  8th  and  9th  centuries 
were  written  upon  cotton  paper.  The  #oldest 
manuscript  written  on  it  in  England  is  in  the 
Bodleian  collection  of  the  British  museum,  hav- 
ing the  date  1049.  The  most  ancient  manu- 
script on  cotton  paper  in  the  library  of  Paris 
is  dated  1050.  In  1085  the  Christian  successors 
of  the  Spanish  Saracens  made  paper  of  rags  in- 
stead of  raw  cotton.  Linen  rags  appear  to  have 
been  used  at  a  somewhat  later  period,  probably 
first  in  Spain.  The  oldest  specimen  of  linen 
paper  having  a  date  is  said  to  be  a  treaty  of 
peace  between  the  kings  of  Aragon  and  Castile 
of  1177.  As  stated  in  the  "  Chronology  of  Pa- 
per and  Paper  Making,"  by  J.  Munsell  (Albany, 
1857),  paper  mills  were  in  operation  at  Toledo 
in  Spain  in  1085,  making  paper  from  rags  with 


the  use  of  moulds  for  forming  the  sheets ;  and 
in  1151  the  best  paper  was  made  at  Jativa  from 
raw  cotton  and  rags,  which  were  reduced  to 
pulp  by  stamping  them  in  mills  instead  of  grind- 
ing after  the  Moorish  method.  In  France  the 
manufacture  dates  as  far  back  as  1314,  and 
about  the  same  time  in  Germany;  and  in  Italy 
it  was  conducted  in  1367.  Linen  paper  seems 
to  have  been  common  in  Germany  in  1324  and 
afterward.  Though  paper  had  long  been  known 
in  England,  parchment  or  vellum  was  in  the 
time  of  Edward  II.  the  writing  material  com- 
monly employed.  In  1390  Ulmann  Strother  es- 
tablished a  paper  mill  at  Nuremberg,  in  which 
the  fibre  was  reduced  to  pulp  by  the  operation 
of  18  stampers.  In  1498  this  entry  appears 
among  the  privy  expenses  of  Henry  VII. :  "For 
a  rewarde  yeven  at  the  paper  mylne,  16s. 
8c?."  This  mill  was  probably  that  spoken  of  in 
Wynkin  de  Worde's  Be  Proprietatibus  Rerum 
as  belonging  to  John  Tate.  Tate's  mill  was 
at  Harford,  and  he  used  a  water  mark,  which 
was  an  eight-pointed  star  within  a  double 
circle.  John  Tate  died  in  1514.  The  first 
mill  of  which  there  is  any  particular  account 
is  one  built  at  Dartford  in  Kent,  by  a  German 
named  John  Spilman  or  Spielman,  jeweller  to 
Queen  Elizabeth.  This  is  celebrated  in  a  poem 
on  paper  of  the  date  of  1588.  The  business 
made  but  slow  progress,  and  during  the  17th 
century  the  supplies  were  chiefly  from  France, 
which  country,  with  Holland  and  Genoa,  main- 
tained a  decided  superiority  in  this  produc- 
tion. As  late  as  1663  England  imported  from 
Holland  £100,000  worth  of  paper.  In  Eng- 
land great  improvements  were  introduced  by 
the  French  refugees  of  1685;  and  from  this 
time  the  business  advanced  in  importance.  In 
1690  particular  attention  began  to  be  directed 
to  the  production  of  white  paper,  almost  all 
that  was  previously  made  being  brown.  The 
celebrated  manufacturer  James  Whatman  had 
his  mill  in  operation  at  Maidstone  in  1770 ;  and 
from  that  time  to  the  present  its  product  has 
been  famous  for  its  superior  quality.  About 
the  same  period  important  improvements  were 
made  in  the  manufacture  in  Holland  and  Ger- 
many. Cylinders  armed  with  steel  blades  for 
reducing  the  pulp  were  substituted  by  the 
Dutch,  about  the  year  1750,  for  the  stampers 
which  were  before  in  use.  They  were  run  with 
far  greater  ease  by  their  windmills,  and  proved 
much  more  effectual.  The  Germans  attempted 
the  use  of  straw  in  1756;  and  in  France  in 
1776  a  book  was  printed  upon  paper  of  good 
white  appearance  made  from'  the  bark  of  the 
linden  (basswood).  As  early  as  1719  Reaumur 
had  printed  an  essay  suggesting  wood  as  a  ma- 
terial, his  hint  being  derived  from  observing 
that  the  fabric  of  wasps'  nests  was  from  that 
material.  The  greatest  advances  in  the  manu- 
facture were  now  made  by  the  French.  In 
1799  Louis  Robert,  an  employee  of  Francois 
Didot  of  Essonnes,  France,  introduced  an  in- 
vention, which  was  patented  the  same  year,  by 
which  paper  12  ft.  wide  and  of  an  indefinite 


52 


PAPER 


length  could  be  made.  In  1801  the  machine 
was  again  patented  by  Mr.  Gamble,  a  brother- 
in-law  of  M.  Didot,  and  was  exhibited  in  Eng- 
land, where  the  stationery  firm  of  Messrs.  Four- 
drinier  made  arrangements  for  its  purchase,  at 
the  same  time  expending  £60,000  for  improve- 
ments. The  first  machine  was  put  into  opera- 
tion by  Mr.  Donkin,  who  devised  the  improve- 
ments in  1803,  and  in  1804  the  patents  of  Didot 
and  Gamble  were  transferred  to  the  Messrs. 
Fourdrinier.  The  expense  incurred  by  this 
public-spirited  firm  was  never  returned  in  earn- 
ings of  the  machine.  A  bill  for  assistance  was 
introduced  into  parliament,  but  was  not  passed, 
and  the  Messrs.  Fourdrinier  were  obliged  at 
last  to  go  into  bankruptcy.  In  1800  good  white 
paper  to  the  amount  of  700  reams  a  week  was 
made  for  the  first  time  from  old  waste  and 
written  and  printed  paper,  such  as  had  always 
before  been  thrown  away.  This  was  done 
in  England  by  Matthias  Koops.  He  also  made 
better  paper  from  straw,  wood,  and  other  vege- 
table matters,  without  the  addition  of  any  other 
known  paper  stuff,  than  had  ever  before  been 
produced.  He  obtained  a  patent  for  the  use  of 
straw,  hay,  thistles,  waste  and  refuse  of  hemp 
and  flax,  &c.  Notwithstanding  the  largely  in- 
creased use  of  other  materials,  in  Great  Britain, 
as  elsewhere,  rags  are  the  chief  material,  the 
import  in  1871  amounting  to  26,757  tons,  val- 
ued at  £442,030,  which  was  the  largest  impor- 
tation ever  known  in  that  country. — William 
Rittinghuysen  (now  spelled  Rittenhouse),  a 
native  of  Holland,  was  among  the  early  set- 
tlers of  Germantown,  Pa.  In  1690,  in  company 
with  William  Bradford  the  printer,  he  estab- 
lished the  first  paper  mill  in  America  at  Rox- 
borough  near  Philadelphia,  on  a  stream  called 
Paper  Mill  run,  a  branch  of  the  Wissahickon, 
about  2  m.  above  its  junction  with  the  Schuyl- 
kill. This  mill  supplied  Bradford  with  paper 
while  he  lived  in  Philadelphia  and  after  he  set- 
tled in  New  York.  The  paper  was  made  of 
linen  rags.  The  second  paper  mill  in  America 
was  erected  in  that  part  of  Germantown  called 
Crefield,  on  a  small  stream  that  empties  into 
the  Wissahickon  near  the  manor  of  Springfield, 
by  William  De  Wers,  a  brother-in-law  of  Nich- 
olas Rittenhouse,  son  of  the  first  paper  maker, 
in  1710.  A  paper  mill  was  erected  in  1714 
upon  Chester  creek  in  Delaware.  It  was  after- 
ward owned  by  a  Mr.  Wilcox,  who  furnished 
Franklin  with  paper  from  it.  In  the  colony  of 
Massachusetts  Bay,  as  appears  from  the  state- 
ment of  Salmon  in  his  "Modern  History"  (vol. 
iii.,  p.  494),  a  paper  mill  was  set  up  about  the 
year  1717,  and  in  1720  was  making  paper  to 
the  value  of  about  £200  per  annum.  But  oth- 
er authorities  give  the  year  1730  as  the  date 
of  the  first  paper  mill  in  Massachusetts,  which 
was  built  at  Milton  under  the  encouragement 
of  the  bounty  offered  by  the  legislature  in  1728. 
There  was  in  1728  a  paper  mill  at  Elizabeth- 
town,  N.  J.,  owned  by  William  Bradford.  In 
1768  a  mill  was  completed  at  Norwich,  Conn., 
by  Christopher  Leffingwell,  under  official  en- 


couragement. Another  was  in  operation  in 
1776  at  East  Hartford,  belonging  to  Watson 
and  Ledyard,  which  supplied  about  8,000  sheets 
weekly  for  the  press  at  Hartford,  and  most  of 
the  writing  paper  used  in  the  state  and  the 
continental  army.  There  were  at  this  time 
three  small  mills  in  Massachusetts  and  one  in 
Rhode  Island,  and  not  long  after  one  at  Ben- 
nington, Vt.  The  manufacture  had  made  more 
rapid  progress  in  Pennsylvania,  New  Jersey, 
and  Delaware,  where  in  1770  the  total  num- 
ber of  paper  mills  was  about  40,  and  the  annual 
product  of  paper  was  worth  about  £100,000. 
In  New  England  and  New  York  the  supply 
was  far  short  of  the  demand,  and  it  was  with 
the  greatest  difficulty  that  rags  were  procured 
for  the  mills.  The  first  paper  mill  in  north- 
ern New  York  was  built  in  1793  at  Troy  by 
Websters,  Ensign,  and  Seymour,  in  which  from 
five  to  ten  reams  were  made  daily.  The  next 
year  one  was  constructed  at  Fairhaven,  Vt.,  by 
Col.  Lyon,  and  the  bark  of  the  basswood  was 
employed  in  it  for  making  wrapping  paper.  In 
1810  the  number  of  mills  in  the  United  States 
was  estimated  at  185,  of  which  7  were  in  New 
Hampshire,  38  in  Massachusetts,  4  in  Rhode 
Island,  17  in  Connecticut,  9  in  Vermont,  28  in 
New  York,  60  in  Pennsylvania,  4  in  Delaware, 
3  in  Maryland,  4  in  Virginia,  1  in  South  Caro- 
lina, 6  in  Kentucky,  and  4  in  Tennessee.  They 
produced  annually  50,000  reams  of  news  paper, 
worth  about  $3  a  ream;  70,000  reams  of  book 
paper,  worth  $3  50  a  ream ;  111,000  reams  of 
writing  paper,  worth  $3  a  ream ;  and  100,000 
reams  of  wrapping  paper,  worth  83  cents  a 
ream.  In  1828  the  consumption  of  paper  by 
the  newspapers  throughout  the  United  States 
was  estimated  at  104,400  reams,  costing  $50t),- 
000 ;  and  the  total  value  of  all  paper  made  was 
nearly  $7,000,000,  and  of  the  rags  and  other 
materials  used  about  $2,000,000.  The  Four- 
drinier machine,  imported  from  England,  was 
in  use  in  a  number  of  mills,  Massachusetts 
in  1829  having  six  of  them,  or  one  for  every 
ten  mills.  These,  and  improved  methods  of 
cleansing  and  bleaching,  principally  by  the  use 
of  chlorine,  gave  a  great  impulse  to  the  busi- 
ness. The  importation  of  rags  continued  to  in- 
crease, their  value  in  1839  and  1840  exceeding 
$560,000  a  year.  The  imports  of  paper  in  each 
of  the^same  years  amounted  to  about  $150,000 
and  the  exports  to  $85,000.  In  1850  the  value 
of  rags  imported  was  $748,707,  and  of  paper 
$496,563.  Three  fourths  of  the  rags  were  from 
Italian  and  Austrian  ports,  and  their  cost  was 
$3  61  for  100  lbs.  The  capital  invested  in  the 
manufacture  was  about  $18,000,000,  the  an- 
nual product  of  paper  about  $17,000,000,  and 
the  number  of  mills  about  700,  all  but  two  of 
which  had  Fourdrinier  machines.  The  town  of 
Lee  in  Berkshire  co.,  Mass.,  became  celebrated 
for  its  paper  mills,  having  25  mills  in  1851, 
which  produced  about  25,000  lbs.  of  paper 
daily  and  $2,000,000  worth  per  annum.  The 
consumption  of  paper  in  1852  equalled  that  of 
England  and  France  together.    In  1870  there 


PAPER  HANGINGS 


PAPHOS 


were  in  the  United  States,  exclusive  of  pa- 
per-hanging manufactories,  669  establishments, 
mainly  manufacturing  printing,  writing,  and 
wrapping  paper,  with  a  capital  of  $34,365,014, 
and  products  valued  at  $48,676,935.  Of  these, 
174  in  New  York  produced  $10,301,563;  65 
in  Massachusetts,  $6,661,886;  75  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, $5,176,646 ;  43  in  Ohio,  $3,799,505 ;  and 
60  in  Connecticut,  $2,715,630. 

PAPER  HANGINGS,  a  covering  for  interior 
walls  of  buildings,  made  of  paper  and  usually 
printed  with  figures  and  devices,  as  a  substitute 
for  hangings  of  tapestry  or  cloth.  They  came 
into  use  in  Europe  about  200  years  ago,  but 
have  been  used  by  the  Chinese  for  many  cen- 
turies. Since  the  invention  of  the  Fourdrinier 
paper  machine,  by  means  of  which  strips  of  pa- 
per of  indefinite  length  may  be  made  cheaply, 
they  have  been  common  in  Europe  and  the  Uni- 
ted States.  Previous  to  this  time  squares  of 
hand-made  paper  were  pasted  together.  For 
most  of  the  period  during  which  paper  hang- 
ings have  been  used  they  have  been  printed 
with  blocks  by  hand,  after  the  manner  of  calico 
printing  or  the  printing  of  oil  cloth  by  hand. 
The  colors  are  opaque  and  mixed  with  size. 
In  the  better  kinds  of  hangings  the  whole  of 
the  paper  is  covered  and  the  figures  are  then 
applied.  In  the  cheaper  kinds  a  colored  paper 
is  used  to  print  on.  As  many  blocks  are  used 
as  there  are  colors  in  the  pattern,  each  block 
having  the  part  of  the  pattern  upon  it  which 
is  of  one  color.  One  block  is  printed  the 
whole  length  of  the  paper  by  a  succession  of 
impressions;  the  piece  is  then  dried,  and  the 
next  color  applied.  Cylinder  printing  ma- 
chines are  now  in  use,  which  facilitate  and 
cheapen  the  process.  The  pattern  is  engraved 
in  parts  on  a  series  of  copper  cylinders,  to 
each  one  of  which  a  particular  color  is  applied 
as  the  cylinder  revolves.  As  the  paper  reach- 
es each  cylinder  in  succession,  it  receives  an 
impression  of  one  part  of  the  pattern  in  one 
color,  the  figure  being  completed  by  the  last 
cylinder.  The  paper  is  dried  after  passing 
each  printing  cylinder  by  the  back  surface 
passing  over  plain  heated  cylinders.  Copper, 
silver,  and  gold  leaf  are  often  applied,  making 
some  of  the  hangings  very  expensive.  Pow- 
dered steatite  or  French  chalk  is  used  as  the 
ground  for  satin  papers,  the  gloss  being  pro- 
duced by  polishing.  A  kind  called  flock  pa- 
pers are  made  by  coating  the  surface  with  a 
composition  callefl  encaustic,  made  of  linseed 
oil  boiled  with  litharge  and  ground  up  with 
white  lead.  The  flock,  made  by  cutting  and 
grinding  woollen  colored  fabrics,  is  sifted  over 
the  paper  as  it  passes  along  covered  with  the 
encaustic,  and  is  dried  by  warmed  cylinders. 
Some  of  the  finest  French  papers  have  the 
colors  applied  by  hand. — Many  of  the  colors 
used  upon  paper  hangings  are  prepared  from 
mineral  substances,  some  of  which  are  of  high- 
ly poisonous  character.  This  is  especially  the 
case  with  the  rich  greens  of  the  flock  papers, 
which  are  chiefly  what  is  called  Schweinfurt 


green,  a  very  dangerous  compound  of  arsenic 
and  copper.  Costly  and  elegant  paper  hang- 
ings of  this  character  are  now  in  use,  the 
noxious  influence  of  which  seriously  affects 
the  workmen  who  put  them  up,  and  occasion- 
ally so  vitiates  the  atmosphere  of  the  apart- 
ments as  to  impair  the  health  of  the  inmates 
of  the  house. 

PAPER  NAUTILUS.     See  Nautilus. 

PAPHLAGONIA,  in  ancient  geography,  a  coun- 
try in  the  north  of  Asia  Minor,  bounded  N.  by 
the  Euxine  sea,  E.  by  Pontus,  from  which  it 
was  separated  by  the  river  Halys  (the  modern 
Kizil  Irmak),  S.  by  Galatia,  and  W.  by  Bithynia. 
The  chief  city  was  Sinope,  founded  by  a  Greek 
colony,  on  the  Euxine;  and  other  important 
places  were  Cytorus  and  Amastris  on  the  coast, 
and  Pompeiopolis  and  Gangra  in  the  interior. 
The  only  important  rivers,  besides  the  Halys, 
were  the  Amnias  (Kara-su),  its  tributary,  and 
the  Parthenius  (Bartan-su),  on  the  Bithynian 
border.  The  Olgassys  mountains  (Ilkaz  Dagh) 
in  the  centre,  an  extension  of  the  chain  run- 
ning from  Armenia  to  the  Hellespont,  send  up 
to  the  northern  part  of  the  country  numerous 
branches..  Generally  the  surface  is  mountain- 
ous and  rugged,  especially  in*  the  southern  por- 
tion, the  northern  containing  many  wide  and 
fertile  valleys.  Paphlagonia  was  celebrated 
for  its  horses,  and  also  produced  mules  and 
antelopes,  and  in  some  parts  sheep  breeding 
was  common,  while  the  vast  forests  in  the 
south  afforded  an  ample  supply  of  timber.  A 
kind  of  red  ochre  was  obtained  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Pompeiopolis.  The  Paphlagonians 
appear  to  have  been  a  Syrian  race,  and  were 
rude  and  superstitious.  The  chase  was  a  favor- 
ite pursuit  in  peace,  and  their  cavalry  was  cele- 
brated in  war.  —  Paphlagonia  was  originally 
governed  by  native  princes,  but  was  annexed 
to  Lydia  by  Croesus;  and  after  the  conquest 
of  that  kingdom  by  Cyrus,  it  formed  a  portion 
of  the  third  satrapy  of  the  Persian  empire, 
though  various  satraps  made  themselves  inde- 
pendent rulers.  After  the  death  of  Alexander, 
Paphlagonia  fell  into  the  hands  of  Eumenes ; 
but  after  his  fall  it  was  again  independent  until 
it  became  a  part  of  the  dominions  of  Mithri- 
dates,  king  of  Pontus.  The  Romans  united  the 
coast  districts  with  Bithynia,  and  subsequently 
incorporated  the  whole  country  with  the  prov- 
ince of  Galatia ;  but  Constantine  erected  it  into 
a  separate  province.  It  is  now  embraced  in 
the  Turkish  vilayet  of  Kastamuni. 

PAPHOS,  the  name  of  two  ancient  towns  in 
the  S.  W.  part  of  Cyprus,  one  of  which  was 
called  Old  Paphos,  the  other  New  Paphos,  the 
former  being  the  one  usually  denoted  by  the 
poets,  the  latter  by  the  prose  writers.  Old 
Paphos,  the  seat  of  the  worship  of  Venus,  and 
reputed  the  place  where  she  landed  after  hav- 
ing risen  out  of  the  sea,  was  about  1 J  m.  from 
the  shore,  and  owes  its  legendary  foundation 
to  Cinyras,  the  father  of  Adonis.  Here  her 
worship  was  early  established,  and  the  huge 
foundations  of  the  temple  are  still  visible.    New 


54 


PAPIAS 


PAPINEAU 


Paphos,  the  modern  Baffa,  was  between  7  and 
8  m.  N.  W.  of  the  old  city,  and  was  said  to  have 
been  founded  by  Agapenor,  chief  of  the  Ar- 
cadians at  the  siege  of  Troy.  It  was  also  re- 
markable for  the  worship  paid  to  Venus.  This 
place  is  mentioned  in  the  Acts  in  the  account 
of  St.  Paul  and  Elymas  the  sorcerer. 

PAPIAS,  an  early  Christian  writer,  bishop  of 
Hierapolis  in  Phrygia.  He  wrote  an  "  Explica- 
tion of  the  Speeches  of  the  Lord,"  of  which 
only  a  few  fragments  remain.  He  entertained 
the  idea  that  there  will  be  for  1,000  years  after 
the  resurrection  from  the  dead  a  bodily  reign 
of  Christ  on  earth ;  and  from  him  millenarians 
were  sometimes  called  Papianists.  According 
to  the  Alexandrian  chronicle,  he  suffered  mar- 
tyrdom in  Pergamus  in  A.  D.  163.  For  the 
fragments  of  his  writings  see  the  Reliquiae 
Sacrce  of  Routlv(8vo,  Oxford,  1814). 

PAPIER  MACHE,  the  pulp  of  paper  mixed 
with  glue  or  gum  arabic,  moulded,  and  dried, 
or  paper  pasted  in  sheets  upon  models.  The 
cheaper  articles  of  papier  mache  are  made  of 
white  or  brown  paper  mashed  in  water  and 
pressed  in  oiled  moulds.  The  better  articles 
are  produced  by  pasting  or  gluing  together 
sheets  of  paper,  which,  when  a  proper  degree 
of  thickness  is  attained,  are  powerfully  pressed 
and  dried.  While  moist  the  preparation  may 
be  moulded  into  any  form,  and  when  dry  it 
may  be  planed  and  rasped  to  shape.  Several 
coats  of  varnish  are  next  applied,  and  the  ine- 
qualities are  rubbed  down  with  pumice  stone. 
It  is  ornamented  with  gold,  bronze  powder,  or 
colors,  after  which  a  varnish  of  shell  lac  is  ap- 
plied and  dried  at  a  temperature  of  280°.  A 
brilliant  surface  is  obtained  by  polishing  with 
rotten  stone  and  oil,  and  by  hand  rubbing. 
For  architectural  ornaments,  the  sheets  of  pa- 
per prepared  in  layers  with  glue  are  pressed 
into  metal  moulds.  When  removed,  a  compo- 
sition of  paper  pulp  mixed  with  rosin  and  glue 
is  put  into  the  moulds,  and  the  paper  impres- 
sions being  again  inserted,  the  composition  ad- 
heres to  them  permanently.  Cartonpierre  or- 
naments are  similarly  prepared,  whiting  being 
used  in  place  of  rosin,  and  are  lighter  and  more 
durable  than  plaster  of  Paris.  Papier  mache 
is  rendered  to  a  great  extent  water-proof  by 
mixing  with  the  pulp  a  preparation  of  sulphate 
of  iron  and  glue,  and  nearly  fire-proof  by  add- 
ing to  this  borax  and  phosphate  of  soda. — 
Papier  mach6  is  now  used  as  a  substitute  for 
other  materials  in  interior  decorations.  From 
a  model  made  in  clay'or  plaster  a  plaster  mould 
is  taken,  into  which  a  thin  layer  of  the  finest 
pulp  is  poured,  which  is  backed  by  a  thick, 
coarser  pulp,  generally  made  of  bamboo.  The 
casts  are  so  strong  that  they  can  be  made  of 
great  extent,  and  screwed  to  the  walls  or  ceil- 
ings. When  mixed  with  clay,  glue,  and  an 
alkali,  the  material  is  fire-proof ;  and  if  silicates 
are  added,  it  is  impervious* to  moisture.  One 
of  the  most  important  properties  of  papier 
mache  is  the  rapidity  with  which  moulds  can 
be  taken  with  it  from  type,  whereby  the  stereo- 


typing of  daily  newspapers  has  been  rendered 
possible  and  common.     (See  Peinting.) 

PAPILL01V,  Fernand,  a  French  physiologist, 
born  in  Belfort  in  1847,  died  in  Paris,  Jan.  2, 
1874.  He  studied  at  the  lyceum  in  Colmar 
and  at  the  college  de  France,  attracting  much 
attention  by  the  ability  displayed  in  his  chemi- 
cal work.  In  1864  he  became  attached  to  the 
staff  of  the  Moniteur  scientifique,  and  from 
that  time  was  a  frequent  contributor  to  scien- 
tific periodicals.  Several  of  his  essays  were 
also  published  in  the  Revue  des  Deux  Mondes. 
His  original  investigations  were  chiefly  in  chem- 
ical physiology,  but  he  also  wrote  on  partly, 
metaphysical  topics.  His  principal  writings 
have  been  translated  into  English  and  pub- 
lished in  a  volume  entitled  "  Nature  and  Life" 
(New  York,  1875). 

PAPIN,  Denis,  a  French  physicist,  born  in 
Blois  in  1647,  died  in  Marburg,  Germany,  about 
1712.  He  practised  medicine  in  Paris  for 
some  time,  but  turned  his  attention  to  mechan- 
ics, and  became  the  assistant  of  Huygens.  He 
visited  England  in  1680,  and  while  there  pre- 
pared his  Dissertation  sur  la  maniere  d'amollir 
les  os,  et  de  /aire  cuire  toutes  sortes  de  viandes 
en  fort  peu  de  temps  et  dpeu  de  frais,  avec  la 
description  de  la  machine  (Paris,  1682).  In 
this  work  he  explained  his  digesteur  or  mar- 
mite,  a  contrivance  for  softening  bones,  the 
principle  of  which  is  still  in  use  under  the 
name  of  "  Papin's  digester."  Having  removed 
to  Germany  on  account  of  the  persecution  to 
which  he  was  exposed  in  France  as  a  Protes- 
tant, he  was  appointed  in  1687  professor  of 
mathematics  in  the  university  of  Marburg,  and 
devoted  his  leisure  to  researches  upon  the  use 
of  steam.  As  early  as  1690  he  published  the 
results  of  his  labors  in  the  Acta  Eruditorum 
of  Leipsic,  proposing  steam  as  a  universal 
motive  power,  and  describing  a  steam  engine 
and  even  a  rude  paddle  steamer.  It  appears 
from  documents  discovered  by  Prof.  Kuhlmann 
in  1852  in  the  public  library  at  Hanover,  that 
in  1707  he  had  a  vessel  built  in  conformity 
with  his  invention,  and  tried  it  on  the  Fulda. 
His  last  published  work  was  a  Latin  "Essay 
upon  a  new  System  for  raising  Water  by  the 
Action  of  Fire"  (Frankfort,  1707). 

PAPINEAU,  Louis  Joseph,  a  Canadian  politi- 
cian, born  near  Montreal  in  October,  1789, 
died  at  Montebello,  near  Quebec,  Sept.  23, 
1871.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  but  never 
practised.  At  the  age  of  22  he  entered  the 
provincial  parliament,  and  in  1815  was  elected 
speaker  of  the  house.  He  was  the  leader  of 
the  radical  party,  and  in  order  to  neutralize 
his  influence,  the  governor  general,  Lord  Dal- 
housie,  appointed  him  one  of  the  executive 
council ;  but  he  never  appeared  at  its  sittings, 
and  continued  his  opposition  to  the  govern- 
ment. In  1823  he  went  to  England  to  remon- 
strate against  the  union  of  Upper  and  Lower 
Canada.  In  1827  he  was  reelected  to  the  house 
and  rechosen  speaker.  Rather  than  sanction 
this  choice,  Lord  Dalhousie  adjourned  the  par- 


PAPINIANUS 


PAPPENHEIM 


55 


liament,  and  it  was  not  till  1828  that  Papineau 
could  take  his  seat.  He  prepared  a  list  of  the 
demands  and  grievances  of  his  countrymen, 
which  was  introduced  to  the  house  in  1834  by 
B6dard,  and  known  afterward  as  the  92  resolu- 
tions. After  supporting  them  in  the  house,  at 
the  close  of  the  session  he  went  through  the 
country  urging  a  constitutional  resistance  to  the 
imperial  government.  He  advised  the  colonists 
not  to  vote  subsidies  for  more  than  six  months, 
and  this  measure  was  carried  out  in  the  session 
of  1836 ;  but  the  new  governor,  Lord  Gosford, 
vetoed  it,  and  decided  upon  administering  the 
province  without  the  assistance  of  parliament. 
While  the  other  provinces  were  conciliated  by 
concessions  and  favors,  Lower  Canada  was 
threatened  with  harsh  measures.  Papineau 
strenuously  advocated  peaceful  resistance,  but 
the  libera]  party  took  up  arms,  and  he  was  not 
heeded.  He  remained  with  the  rebels,  but  did 
not  share  in  their  military  operations.  As  the 
engagements  of  St.  Denis,  St.  Charles,  and  St. 
Eustache,  in  November  and  December,  1837, 
had  demonstrated  the  futility  of  armed  resis- 
tance, and  as  his  arrest  for  high  treason  was 
ordered,  he  took  refuge  in  the  United  States, 
and  afterward  lived  in  Paris  eight  years,  en- 
gaged in  literary  pursuits.  In  1847  he  re- 
turned, under  the  general  amnesty  of  1840,  was 
again  elected  to  parliament,  retired  in  1854, 
and  thereafter  took  no  part  in  public  affairs. 

PAPIMANUS,  iEmilius,  a  Roman  jurist,  born 
about  A.  D.  170,  put  to  death  in  212.  He  suc- 
ceeded Septimius  Severus  as  advocatus  fisc%  and 
when  the  latter  became  emperor  (193)  received 
the  office  of  libellorum  magister,  and  subse- 
quently that  of  prmfectus  prcetorio.  In  the 
second  year  of  the  reign  of  Caracalla  he  was 
beheaded  by  order  and  in  the  presence  of  that 
tyrant.  Papinian  was  one  of  the  most  eminent 
of  the  Roman  jurists.  Among  his  pupils  were 
Ulpian,  Paulus,  and  others ;  and  in  the  Digests 
are  595  extracts  from  his  works. 

PAPIRIUS  CURSOR,  a  Roman  family  of  the 
Papiria  gens,  supposed  to  have  derived  its  name 
from  the  fleetness  of  foot  of  its  founder.  The 
following  are  its  chief  members.  I.  Lucius,  mas- 
ter of  the  horse  under  the  dictator  L.  Papirius 
Crassus  in  340  B.  C,  the  date  of  the  first  historic 
mention  of  his  name.  In  333  he  was  consul  with 
Poetelius  Libo,  and  according  to  some  author- 
ities held  the  consulship  again  in  326.  In  the 
second  year  of  the  second  Samnite  war  (325) 
he  was  made  dictator  during  the  illness  of  Lucius 
Camillus,  the  consul.  He  had  taken  the  field, 
and  was  about  to  engage  the  enemy,  when  some 
reason  arising  to  throw  doubt  upon  the  aus- 
pices which  he  had  taken  before  opening  the 
campaign,  he  returned  temporarily  to  Rome, 
giving  strict  orders  to  Q.  Fabius  Maximus,  his 
master  of  the  horse,  not  to  join  battle  in  his 
absence.  Fabius  violated  the  order,  and  won 
the  signal  victory  of  Imbrinium.  Papirius,  a 
strict  disciplinarian,  and  unpopular  with  the 
army  on  this  account,  hastened  back  to  pun- 
ish his  disobedient  lieutenant;  but  the  latter 


was  sustained  by  the  troops,  and,  on  appeal- 
ing to  them,  by  the  senate  and  people.  The 
ill  feeling  of  the  army  toward  Papirius  caused 
his  defeat  in  his  first  battle,  but,  having  con- 
ciliated his  soldiers,  he  conducted  the  rest 
of  the  campaign  with  great  success,  and  re- 
ceived a  triumph.  In  320,  when  consul  for 
the  second  or  third  time,  he  again  conducted 
a  campaign  against  the  Samnites  in  Apulia, 
which,  though  he  w^as  at  one  time  hard 
pressed,  was  ultimately  successful,  Luceria  be- 
ing captured.  He  received  a  second  triumph  ; 
and  he  was  afterward  thrice  reelected  consul, 
the  Samnite  war  continuing  through  all  his 
terms.  In  309  he  was  again  made  dictator 
under  very  peculiar  circumstances,  his  old  lieu- 
tenant Fabius,  naturally  hostile  to  him,  being 
ordered  to  nominate  him  for  the  post.  Fabius 
sacrificed  his  personal  hate  and  made  the  nomi- 
nation ;  and  Papirius  hastened  to  the  relief  of 
the  hard-pressed  Roman  army  under  Marcius 
in  Apulia.  After  some  little  manoeuvring  he 
gained  a  decisive  and  final  victory  over  the 
Samnites,  and,  returning  to  Rome,  celebrated 
a  third  triumph  of  peculiar  magnificence.  His 
death  is  believed  to  have  occurred  soon  after. 
II.  Lucius,  son  of  the  preceding^  possessed  mili- 
tary ■  talents  hardly  inferior  to  his  father's ; 
and,  having  been  made  consul  in  293,  con- 
ducted much  of  the  third  Samnite  war,  as  his 
father  had  of  the  second.  He  ended  a  suc- 
cessful campaign  in  Campania  by  great  victo- 
ries near  Aquilonia,  and  celebrated  a  triumph. 
Soon  afterward  he  dedicated  a  temple  erected 
by  his  father  in  honor  of  Quirinus,  and  placed 
near  it  the  first  sun  dial  set  up  at  Rome.  In 
272  he  was  elected  consul  a  second  time,  sub- 
dued the  Bruttians  and  Lucanians,  and  was 
granted  the  honor  of  a  second  triumphal  entry 
into  the  city. 

PAPPENHEIM,  Gottfried  Heinrich,  count,  an  im- 
perial general  in  the  thirty  years'  war,  born 
May  29,  1594,  died  at  Leipsic,  Nov.  7  (new 
style  17),  1632.  He  received  a  liberal  educa- 
tion at  Altdorf  and  Tubingen,  and  travelled 
extensively.  His  zeal  for  the  Roman  Catholic 
faith  leading  him  to  adopt  the  profession  of 
arms,  he  became  a  captain  of  cavalry,  and  was 
soon  distinguished  for  his  daring  and  courage. 
At  Linz  he  joined  the  Bavarian  army,  and 
was  made  lieutenant  colonel.  At  the  battle  of 
Prague,  in  1620,  he  received  20  wounds,  and 
was  left  for  dead  on  the  field.  In  1623  the 
emperor  appointed  him  commander  of  a  regi- 
ment of  cuirassiers,  afterward  celebrated  under 
the  name  of  Pappenheimers.  He  fought  in 
Lombardy  till  1626,  when  he  was  recalled  to 
put  down  an  insurrection  of  Protestant  peas- 
ants in  Upper  Austria,  who  had  resorted  to 
arms  to  defend  their  faith.  This  revolt,  in 
which  40,000  peasants  perished,  he  crushed  in 
a  month ;  the  history  of  it  he  himself  wrote. 
He  assisted  Tilly  in  his  campaign  in  northern 
Germany  against  Christian  IV.  of  Denmark, 
and  in  May,  1631,  bore  a  leading  part  in  the 
storming  of  Magdeburg.     In  the  sack  of  this 


56 


PAPPUS 


PAPUA 


city  his  troops  acted  with  the  greatest  ferocity. 
In  the  defeat  at  Leipsic,  Pappenheim  received 
seven  wounds  and  owed  his  life  to  a  peasant. 
After  the  death  of  Tilly  he  joined  Wallenstein, 
and  in  the  battle  of  Lutzen  (Nov.  6)  received  a 
mortal  wound,  and  was  carried  to  Leipsic. — 
See  Hess,  Gottfried  Heinrich,  Graf  von  Pap- 
penheim (Leipsic,  1855). 

PAPPUS,  Alexandriims,  a  Greek  geometer,  who 
flourished  according  to  Suidas  in  the  latter  part 
of  the  4th  century  of  our  era,  though  by  some 
modern  critics  he  has  been  placed  in  the  latter 
half  of  the  2d.  He  wrote  several  works,  all 
of  which  have  perished  except  the  last  six 
out  of  the  eight  books  of  the  "  Mathematical 
Collections."  There  is  no  edition  of  the  Greek 
text,  but  two  have  been  printed  of  the  Latin 
version ;  a  portion  of  the  original  was  printed 
by  Dr.  Wallis  (London,  1688). 

PAPUA,  or  New  Guinea,  the  largest  island  in 
the  world,  with  the  exception  of  Australia 
and  possibly  Borneo.  It  is  included  in  the 
Australasian  division  of  Oceania,  and  lies  be- 
tween lat.  0°  6'  and  10°  45'  S.,  and  Ion.  130° 
45'  and  151°  E.,  directly  E.  of  the  Indian  archi- 
pelago and  N.  of  Australia,  from  which  it  is 
separated  by  Torres  strait,  bounded  S.  W.  by 
those  portions  of  the  Indian  ocean  known  as 
the  Banda  and  Arafura  seas,  and  elsewhere 
by  the  Pacific.  Its  length  N.  W.  and  S.  E.  is 
about  1,500  m.,  maximum  breadth  400  m. ;  es- 
timated area,  from  260,000  to  upward  of  300,- 
000  sq.  m.  Papua  is  less  known  to  civilized 
man  than  any  other  region  of  equal  extent  on 
the  earth.  Until  recently  even  the  principal 
features  of  the  coast  had  not  been  accurately 
determined,  and  no  European  had  ever  been 
able  to  advance  more  than  a  few  miles  into 
the  interior.  The  island  is  of  irregular  out- 
line and  deeply  indented  by  several  large  bays, 
which  form  extensive  peninsulas  of  its  eastern 
and  western  extremities,  while  the  more  com- 
pact portion  is  situated  between  the  135th  and 
145th  meridians.  Thus  on  the  N.  coast,  near 
Ion.  135°,  Geelvink  bay,  over  150  m.  wide  at 
its  mouth,  penetrates  120  m.  southward,  ap- 
proaching within  some  30  m.  of  the  waters  of 
Etna  bay  on  the  S.  side  of  the  island.  The 
peninsula  so  formed  trends  W.  N.  W.  from 
the  narrow  isthmus  between  these  bays,  and  is 
indented  in  turn  by  McOlure  inlet  from  the 
Banda  sea,  which  extends  inland  to  within  18 
m.  of  Geelvink  bay  on  the  opposite  coast.  A 
second  peninsula  stretches  thence  westward  to 
Galewo  strait,  2  to  3  m.  wide,  between  Papua 
and  the  neighboring  island  of  Salawaty,  and 
northward  to  a  point  called  the  cape  of  Good 
Hope,  in  lat.  0°  6'  S.,  Ion.  132°  30'  E.  The 
great  peninsula  forming  the  eastern  end  of  the 
island  may  be  considered  as  beginning  at  a  line 
drawn  from  Astrolabe  bay  on  the  N.  coast, 
near  Ion.  146°,  directly  S.  to  the  head  of  the 
gulf  of  Papua,  on  the  S.  coast,  a  body  of  wa- 
ter about  equal  in  extent  to  Geelvink  bay.  It 
terminates  near  the  Louisiade  archipelago,  not 
in  a  single  point,  as  represented  on  all  but  the 


latest  maps,  but  in  a  broad  fork  consisting  of 
two  promontories,  of  which  the  northern  is 
much  the  narrower,  separated  by  Milne  bay, 
an  arm  of  the  sea  20  m.  long  and  about  8  m. 
wide.  This  appears  by  the  survey  made  in 
1873  by  Oapt.  Moresby  of  the  British  navy. 
The  N.  E.  coast  of  this  large  peninsula  borders 
on  Dampier  strait,  between  Papua  and  the  isl- 
and of  New  Britain,  and  is  indented  by  Huon 
gulf.  The  most  important  inlet  on  the  N.  side 
of  ^the  main  body  of  the  island  is  Humboldt 
bay,  near  the  141st  parallel  of  E.  longitude,  W. 
of  which  the  Dutch  claim  dominion  over  the 
whole  country.  Jobie  and  several  other  islands 
of  considerable  size  are  situated  near  the  mouth 
of  Geelvink  bay ;  and  Prince  Frederick  Hen- 
ry's island,  close  to  the  S.  coast,  from  which  it 
is  separated  by  Dourga  strait,  is  about  as  large 
as  the  Moluccan  island  of  Booro.  The  Key 
and  Arroo  groups  lie  S.  of  the  western  portion 
of  Papua.  The  sea  surrounding  the  island  is 
deep  on  the  Pacific  side,  but  shallow  toward 
Australia,  in  which  direction  it  does  not  ex- 
ceed 100  fathoms  in  depth. — Papua  is  a  moun- 
tainous island,  subject  to  a  hot,  damp  climate, 
and  clothed  with  a  luxuriantly  rich  forest  ve- 
getation throughout  its  known  extent.  But 
few  large  rivers  have  been  discovered.  Moun- 
tains are  visible  in  the  interior  from  all  parts 
of  the  coast.  The  principal  chains  are  the  Ar- 
f  ak  range,  in  the  N.  W.  peninsula,  with  a  maxi- 
mum altitude  variously  calculated  at  from  7,000 
to  9,500  ft.;  the  Snowy  mountains,  E.  of 
Geelvink  bay  toward  the  middle  of  the  island, 
of  similar  altitude,  and  so  called  because  snow 
is  said  to  have  been  seen  upon  their  summits ; 
and  the  Stanley  range,  from  9,000  to  13,000 
ft.  high,  in  the  S.  E.  peninsula.  Volcanic  ac- 
tion is  not  known  to  occur  in  Papua,  although 
Dampier  reported  volcanoes  on  the  N.  E. 
coast  opposite  New  Britain  in  1699.  Earth- 
quakes are  infrequent,  and  seldom  severe.  The 
coast  of  the  N.  W.  peninsula  is  of  coral  forma- 
tion, as  also  are  the  adjacent  islands,  but  noth- 
ing is  known  of  the  geology  of  the  interior. 
The  great  height  of  the  Papuan  mountains 
and  their  distance  from  the  coast  have  led  to 
the  inference  that  there  must  be  large  streams 
in  the  country;  among  the  most  considerable 
as  yet  known  is  the  Amberno,  described  by 
the  German  traveller  Meyer  as  sending  vol- 
umes of  fresh  water  into  the  sea  at  the  N.  E. 
end  of  Geelvink  bay. — The  climate  of  Papua 
is  warm  and  moist.  During  the  wet  season 
the  rains  on  the  coast  are  exceedingly  heavy, 
and  malarial  fevers  are  prevalent.  The  flora 
resembles  that  of  Borneo  in  the  varied  and 
luxuriant  vegetation  of  the  hot  and  damp  tropi- 
cal forests.  Little  is  known,  however,  of  the 
natural  history  of  the  island  except  what  re- 
lates to  its  fauna.  A  dense  growth  of  man- 
groves lines  much  of  the  S.  coast  W.  of  Torres 
strait,  and  the  forest  trees  here  reach  a  height 
of  200  to  250  ft.  Of  the  17  Papuan  mammals, 
all  are  marsupials  but  three,  of  which  two  are 
bats  and  one  is  a  species  of  pig  (sus  Papuensis). 


PAPUA 


PAPUAN  PACE 


57 


The  tree  kangaroo  is  the  most  characteristic  of 
the  marsupials,  which  order  is  represented  fur- 
ther by  the  flying  opossum  and  four  species 
of  cuscus.  According  to  Wallace,  the  birds  of 
Papua  are  more  numerous,  more  beautiful,  and 
afford  more  new,  curious,  and  elegant  forms 
than  those  of  any  other  island  on  the  globe. 
Eleven  species  of  birds  of  paradise  are  known 
to  inhabit  the  island,  of  which  eight  are  not 
found  elsewhere  except  in  the  closely  contigu- 
ous island  of  Salawaty.  There  are  30  species 
of  parrots,  among  them  the  largest  and  small- 
est parrots  known  to  ornithologists ;  40  species 
of  pigeons,  including  the  beautiful  crowned 
pigeons;  and  16  species  of  kingfishers.  The 
cassowary  is  also  included  among  the  108 
genera  of  Papuan  land  birds.  Meyer's  recent 
researches  on  the  herpetology  of  this  region 
show  that  there  are  63  different  forms  of  rep- 
tiles and  batrachians  in  Papua  and  the  ad- 
jacent islands,  comprising  more  than  30  spe- 
cies of  lizards,  16  serpents,  of  which  one  is 
allied  to  the  Australian  carpet  snake,  and  one 
tortoise  besides  the  marine  tortoise.  Insects 
are  exceedingly  numerous  and  noted  for  their 
beauty  of  form  and  color.  "Wallace  collected 
1,000  distinct  sorts  of  beetles  in  a  space  of  one 
square  mile  during  a  three  months'  residence  at 
Dorey.  The  zoological  affinities  of  Papua  and 
Australia,  together  with  the  shallowness  of  the 
intervening  sea,  have  been  regarded  as  strong 
evidence'  of  the  former  existence  of  land  com- 
munication between  these  two  vast  islands. — 
There  is  no  means  of  forming  any  trustworthy 
estimate  of  the  population  of  Papua.  The  in- 
habitants belong  to  the  typical  Papuan  race, 
and  have  a  facial  expression  not  unlike  that 
of  Europeans.  (See  Papuan  Pace  and  Lan- 
guages.) No  other  indigenous  race  has  been 
met  with  on  the  island.  The  double  extremity 
of  the  S.  E.  peninsula,  visited  by  Capt.  Mores- 
by in  1873,  although  very  rugged  and  moun- 
tainous, is  intersected  by  fertile  valleys,  which 
are  well  cultivated  by  the  natives,  who  there 
excel  as  agriculturists.  Their  villages  in  this 
region  are  described  as  singularly  neat,  in 
which  respect  they  contrast  favorably  with 
those  in  the  N.  W.  part  of  the  island  near 
Dorey,  where  the  houses  are  built  on  poles  15 
ft.  above  the  ground.  Recent  travellers  re- 
port the  prevalence  of  cannibalism  in  numer- 
ous localities,  but  its  existence  does  not  seem 
to  be  proved. — The  government  of  the  Nether- 
lands is  the  only  European  power  having  co- 
lonial possessions  in  Papua.  ■  The  area  under 
Dutch  control  is  said  to  be  about  29,000  sq. 
m.,  with  an  estimated  population  of  200,000. 
The  territory  which  has  long  been  claimed 
by  the  Netherlands,  however,  is  much  more 
extensive,  comprising  nearly  half  the  island. 
Dorey,  a  small  village  situated  on  a  fine  harbor 
on  the  N.  side  of  the  N.  W.  peninsula,  is  one 
of  the  principal  Dutch  stations  frequented  by 
European  and  Mohammedan  traders.  There 
are  missionary  posts  in  this  part  of  Papua. 
Birds  of  paradise,  tripang,  wild  nutmegs,  and 


tortoise  shell  are  among  the  chief  articles  of 
export  in  the  active  trade  carried  on  with  the 
Moluccas. — Papua  was  discovered  in  the  early 
part  of  the  16th  century  by  the  Portuguese, 
by  whom  it  was  named  New  Guinea  from  the 
striking  resemblance  between  its  inhabitants 
and  those  of  Guinea  in  Africa.  The  Dutch 
in  1828  built  a  fort  called  Dubus  on  the  S. 
E.  coast,  but  the  climate  proved  so  unhealthy 
that  they  were  forced  to  abandon  it.  They 
subsequently  succeeded,  however,  in  establish- 
ing trading  stations  at  various  localities.  The 
S.  E.  coast  was  explored  in  1845  by  the  Fly, 
a  British  government  vessel,  and  in  1846  by 
the  schooner  Bramble.  Another  expedition  in 
the  British  ship  Rattlesnake  in  1848  discover- 
ed the  Stanley  range,  one  peak  of  which  was 
ascertained  to  be  13,205  ft.  above  the  sea.  A 
successful  effort  to  complete  this  survey  was 
made  in  1873  and  1874  by  Capt.  Moresby  of 
the  British  navy,  in  the  ship  Basilisk,  who 
carefully  examined  the  S.  coast  from  Torres 
strait  to  the  E.  end  of  the  island,  and  the  N. 
coast  thence  westerly  to  Astrolabe  bay.  A 
Dutch  scientific  commission  visited  the  W.  part 
of  Papua  in  1858.  The  natural  history  of  that 
region  was  investigated  by  A.  R.  Wallace  in 
the  same  year;  by  D'Albertis  and  Beccari  in 
1872;  and  by  Meyer,  the  German  naturalist, 
in  1873. — The  most  recent  work  on  Papua  is 
"  Wanderings  in  the  Interior  of  New  Guinea," 
by  J.  H.  Lawson  (London,  1875),  whose  state- 
ments, however,  have  been  called  in  question. 
PAPUAN  RACE  AND  LANGUAGES.  The  Papuans 
are  the  original  inhabitants  of  the  islands  of 
the  Indian  and  Pacific  oceans,  but,  driven  out 
or  extirpated  from  the  coasts  by  the  Malayo- 
Polynesian  races,  they  are  generally  in  pos- 
session of  only  the  interior  and  inaccessible 
portions.  The  name  Papua  is  derived  from 
the  Malay  papuvah,  crisp-haired,  a  descriptive 
term  applied  to  the  people.  The  Indian  archi- 
pelago is  considered  the  primitive  home  of  the 
Papuans.  Though  the  Malays  have  intermixed 
but  little  with  the  Papuan  race,  it  is  necessary 
to  distinguish  between  pure  Papuans  and  mix- 
ed Papuans.  In  the  former  class  are  counted 
the  inhabitants  of  Papua,  of  the  Key,  Arroo, 
Mysol,  Salawaty,  and  Waigioo  islands,  as  well 
as  the  Aetas  or  negritos  of  the  Philippines. 
(See  Negeitos.)  It  is  still  doubtful  whether 
also  the  inhabitants, of  Borneo,  Celebes,  and 
Gilolo  belong  to  the  pure  division  of  the  race, 
but  most  ethnologists  agree  in  considering  as 
such  the  Semangs  on  the  peninsula  of  Ma- 
lacca, as  well  as  the  Andaman  and  Nicobar 
islanders.  To  the  class  of  mixed  Papuans 
really  belong  all  the  tribes  of  Oceania  east  of 
the  aboriginal  home  of  the  Papuans.  Conse- 
quently Wallace  is  inclined  to  treat  all  the  Po- 
lynesian races  as  mixed  Papuans,  yet  this  des- 
ignation should  be  applied  to  them  only  where 
there  has  been  a  nearly  complete  typical  change. 
As  such  are  reckoned  the  Alfuros  on  the  north- 
ern peninsula  of  Gilolo,  the  aboriginal  popula- 
tion of  Ceram,  Booro,  Timor,  the  islands  west 


58 


PAPUAN  PACE  AND  LANGUAGES 


of  Timor  as  far  as  Flores,  and  the  Sandalwood 
islands  as  far  as  Timorlaut.  The  principal  seat 
of  the  mixed  Papuans  is  Melanesia,  and  espe- 
cially the  Feejee  islands,  where  the  straight- 
haired  Malay  has  heen  totally  absorbed  by  the 
crisp-haired  Papuan.  Wallace  describes  the 
typical  Papuan  as  of  a  deep  sooty  brown  or 
black,  and  having  crisp  hair,  growing  in  tufts, 
attaining  such  a  length  as  to  permit  the  ma- 
king of  a  sort  of  peruke.  The  face  has  a  crisp 
beard,  and  even  the  arms,  legs,  and  chest  are 
more  or  less  covered  with  such  hair.  The 
stature  equals  or  exceeds  that  of  the  average 
European.  The  legs  are  long  and  thin,  and 
the  hands  and  feet  are  large.  The  nose  is 
bent,  and  the  wide  nostrils  are  somewhat  con- 
cealed by  the  prolonged  tip.  The  mouth  is 
large,  and  the  lips  are  thick  and  puffed  up. 
The  Papuan  is  impulsive  and  demonstrative  in 
language  and  -action.  He  is  intellectually  su- 
perior to  the  Malay,  and  his  inferior  position 
in  civilization*  must  be  ascribed  to  a  lack  of 
contact  with  cultured  races.  A  very  wide 
difference  seems  to  exist  in  the  state  of  society 
in  different  parts  of  Papua.  The  inhabitants 
of  the  S.  and  W.  coasts,  having  been  for  ages 
in  communication  with  the  people  of  the  In- 
dian archipelago,  more  especially  with  those  of 
the  Moluccas,  live  in  comparatively  comfort- 
able dwellings,  and  are  decently  clothed ;  they 
build  large  rowing  and  sailing  boats,  and  have 
a  knowledge  of  iron;  they  cultivate  some 
ground,  and  have  two  domestic  animals,  the 
hog  and  the  dog.  Toward  the  north  the  tribes 
become  gradually  more  barbarous,  and  in  some 
districts  wear  little  or  no  clothing,  though  a 
covering  of  shells  or  leaves' for  the  loins  is  not 
uncommon.  They  are  very  elaborate  in  their 
coiffures,  and  some  apply  a  sort  of  caustic 
which  turns  the  hair  red  or  flaxen.  Though 
tattooing  with  the  needle  is  seldom  practised, 
they  produce  little  scars  on  the  body  which 
they  burn  black  or  red  with  a  hot  coal.  Nose, 
ears,  neck,  and  arms  are  adorned  with  rings, 
shells,  bones,  and  similar  appendages.  Their 
villages,  commonly  on  the  banks  of  rivers, 
resemble  the  recently  discovered  lake  dwell- 
ings of  central  Europe.  The  huts  are  built  on 
poles,  and  are  generally  5  ft.  high,  6  ft.  broad, 
and  about  100  ft.  long,  and  covered  by  a  steep 
roof  about  20  ft.  high.  The  floor  is  laid  with 
bamboo  canes,  but  so  widely  apart  that  the 
river  is  seen  flowing  underneath.  The  interior 
is  generally  divided  by  a  corridor  into  halves, 
and  these  again  into  various  apartments.  In 
several  villages  they  have  tracts  of  cultivated 
land  planted  with  tobacco,  palms,  &c.  Their 
arms  consist  of  a  bow  and  arrow,  a  lance,  and 
a  peculiar  kind  of  club,  4  ft.  long,  very  thin 
and  narrow  at  one  end,  and  broad  and  many- 
cornered  at  the  other.  They  use  a  blow-gun 
made  of  a  bamboo  reed  of  considerable  length, 
with  which  they  blow  dust  into  the  air  as  a 
signal.  Every  man  has  as  many  wives  as  he 
can  buy  and  maintain ;  but  it  is  said  that  the 
negritos  live  in  monogamy,  and  that  the  women 


may  refuse  their  suitors.  After  the  dead  have 
been  buried  two  years  their  bones  are  unearthed 
and  put  into  a  grotto  or  cave,  and  until  this 
has  been  done  no  widow  is  allowed  to  marry 
again.  Of  their  religious  conceptions  but  lit- 
tle is  known.  Their  musical  instruments  are 
of  the  rudest  kind,  and  the  height  of  their 
art  is  to  play  very  loudly  on  them. — The  lan- 
guages spoken  by  the  Papuans  are  not  suffi- 
ciently known  to  admit  of  treating  them  for 
comparative  purposes,  or  to  form  a  hypothesis 
as  to  their  connection  with  other  families  of 
speech.  The  dialects  spoken  in  Papua  seem 
to  possess  a  certain  degree  of  relationship  to 
each  other,  but  to  what  degree  they  are  re- 
lated to  the  negrito  idioms  cannot  be  deter- 
mined. In  the  districts  of  Minahasa  and  Go- 
rontalo  in  Celebes,  and  on  the  coasts  of  Tomini 
bay,  no  fewer  than  23  dialects  have  been  in- 
vestigated by  Riedel,  and  on  the  whole  island 
there  are  at  least  100  dialects.  The  variety  of 
the  dialects  in  Papua  is  still  greater,  for,  with 
the  exception  of  the  S.  W.  coast,  no  political 
organization  has  been  formed  on  the  island. 
Every  village  has  its  own  dialect,  and  the 
terms  for  the  commonest  objects  are  entirely 
different.  Dr.  A.  B.  Meyer's  treatise  Ueber  die 
Mafoor'sche  und  einige  andere  Papua- Sprachen 
auf 'JSFeu-  Guinea,  read  in  1874  before  the  Vi- 
enna academy  of  sciences,  is  the  first  attempt 
at  a  grammar  of  a  Papuan  dialect.  Previous 
to  this  the  only  material  furnished  was  a  few 
short  vocabularies  of  some  dialects,  like  those 
contained  in  Otto w-Orooke wit's  Nieuw-  Guinea 
ethnographisch  en  natuurhundig  onderzocht  en 
beschreven  (Amsterdam,  1862),  which  good  au- 
thority pronounces  untrustworthy,  and  the  117 
words  given  in  A.  E.  Wallace's  "Malay  Archi- 
pelago" (London,  1869),  comparing  Papuan  and 
Malayo-Polynesian  dialects.  The  vocabularies 
added  to  his  treatise  by  Dr.  Meyer  are  so  far 
the  largest  given.  The  Maf  oor  language  is  spo- 
ken by  Papuans  originally  inhabiting  the  island 
of  Mafoor,  but  now  occupying  the  island  of 
Manasvari,  usually  called  Mansinam  after  the 
chief  town,  on  the  island  of  Rohn  or  Rulm,  and 
in  Papua  near  the  bay  of  Dorey.  It  is  very 
rich,  always  having  several  terms  for  one  and 
the  same  thing.  In  words  denoting  abstractions 
it  is  necessarily  poor.  There  is  no  definite  ar- 
ticle. The  nouns  are  mostly  stems ;  but  few  are 
derived  or  compound.  Gender  is  confined  to 
the  sex  of  organic  beings.  The  plural  number 
is  formed  by  adding  to  the  noun  the  personal 
pronoun  of  the  third  person  plural.  The  gen- 
itive is  formed  by  prefixing  ro,  and  the  dative 
by  be.  Adjectives  follow  their  nouns,  and  are 
themselves  followed  by  weer  for  the  compara- 
tive, and  by  Tcahu  for  the  superlative  degree. 
The  first  ten  cardinal  numbers  are :  osseer,  suru, 
Tcior,fiaJc,  rim,  onem,fiek,  waar,  si'6,  and  sam- 
fur.  The  personal  pronouns  are :  aja,  j,  f,  I ; 
awe,  wa,  w\  au,  thou ;  de,  d\  i,  he ;  inko,  ho, 
F,  we ;  imgu,  ongu,  mg,  you  ;  si,  s',  they.  There 
are  also  dual  forms :  nu,  n\  we  two ;  mu,  m\ 
you  two ;  su,  «',  they  two.     Possessive,  demon- 


PAPYRUS 


59 


strative,  and  interrogative  pronouns  are  also 
used.  Verbs  are  always  used  in  connection 
with  a  personal  pronoun  affixed,  but  do  not 
admit  of  inflection.  Tense  and  mood  are  indi- 
cated by  special  words,  and  only  the  present, 
past,  and  future  are  distinguished.  There  are 
also  various  adverbs  of  place,  time,  affirma- 
tion, negation,  and  doubt,  as  well  as  a  large 
number  of  prepositions,  conjunctions,  and  in- 
terjections.— See  Friedrich  Muller,  Allgemeine 
Ethnographie  (Vienna,  1873);  Peschel,  All- 
gemeine Volkerkunde  (2d  ed.,  Leipsic,  1875) ; 
and  the  works  cited  above. 

PAPYRUS,  the  ancient  name  for  paper,  and  for 
the  plant  which  furnished  the  material  from 
which  it  was  made.  The  papyrus  plant  or  pa- 
per reed  belongs  to  the  family  of  cyperacew  or 
sedges,  nearly  related  to  the  grasses,  and  as  re- 
markable for  the  small  number  of  its  useful 
plants  as  the  grasses  are  for  their  many  valua- 
ble species.  The  papyrus  was  named  by  Lin- 
naeus cyperus  papyrus  ;  but  later  botanists,  re- 
garding this  and  several  other  species  as  suffi- 
ciently distinct,  admit  the  genus  papyrus,  and 
call  it  P.  antiquorum,  a  name  which  is  gen- 
erally adopted.  It  was  called  papu  by  the 
Egyptians,  whence  the  Greek  irdizvpog  and  our 
paper.  Herodotus  calls  it  byblus  (fivfiXog, 
whence  the  Greek  fiLfiliov,  book,  and  our  word 
Bible),  and  Strabo  biblus  hieraticus.  It  grows 
on  the  marshy  banks  of  rivers  in  Abyssinia, 
Syria,  and  Sicily,  and  formerly  abounded  on 
the  banks  of  the  Nile ;  but  according  to  Sir 
Gardner  Wilkinson,  it  has  disappeared  from 
Egypt,  and  some  think  it  never  was  indige- 
nous there,  but  was  a  native  of  Syria  and 
Abyssinia,  and  has  become  extinct  from  want 
of  culture.  It  has  been  seen  in  modern  times 
in  Abyssinia,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Jaffa,  on 
the  banks  of  the  Anapus  near  Syracuse,  and 
according  to  some  on  the  borders  of  Lake  Men- 
zaleh  in  the  delta  of  the  Nile;  but  the  last 
was  probably  another  species,  and  it  is  doubt- 
ful if  the  Sicilian  plant  is  the  papyrus  anti- 
quorum,  although  it  closely  resembles  it.  The 
plant  has  large  and  abundant  rootstocks,  which 
spread  in  the  mud  and  throw  up  numerous 
stems  from  5  to  10  ft.  hjgh,  the  lower  portion 
being  submerged;  the  stem  is  triangular  and 
smooth ;  the  leaves  all  spring  from  near  the 
base,  the  upper  part  of  the  stem  being  quite 
naked  and  bearing  its  inflorescence  at  the  apex 
in  the  form  of  a  large  compound  umbel ;  this 
consists  of  numerous  slender  branching  pedun- 
cles, bearing  at  their  extremities  the  flowers 
in  small  heads  or  spikes,  and  forming  a  grace- 
ful drooping  tuft,  which  has  at  its  base  an  in- 
volucre of  long  narrow  leaves ;  the  small  flat- 
tened spikes  consist  of  six  or  more  glumaceous 
flowers.  The  papyrus  is  frequently  cultivated 
as  a  stove  plant,  both  as  a  curiosity  and  for 
its  merits  as  a  decorative  plant,  its  tall  naked 
stems,  each  bearing  a  delicate  waving  green  um- 
bel at  the  top,  making  a  well  grown  specimen 
a  splendid  object.  Though  aquatic,  it  can  be 
cultivated  in  pots  if  freely  watered,  and  may  be 


planted  in  the  open  ground  in  summer  if  it  can 
have  a  moist  place  or  sufficient  water.  Anoth- 
er plant  is  sometimes  found  in  cultivation  as 
the  papyrus,  the  related  cyperus  alternifolius ; 
this  is  smaller  in  every  respect,  and  its  much 
smaller  heads  or  umbels  are  coarser  and  lack 
the  graceful  drooping  character  of  those  of 
the  papyrus,  but  it  is  much  more  hardy. — The 
right  of  growing  and  selling  the  papyrus  was 
a  government  monopoly  in  Egypt,  where  its 
cultivation  was  restricted  to  the  Sebennytic 
and  Saitic  nomes.  It  was  used  for  a  great  va- 
riety of  purposes  besides  paper.  Its  graceful 
plumes  crowned  the  statues  of  the  gods  and 
decorated  their  temples ;  its  pith  was  eaten  as 
food;  wickerwork  boats,  boxes,  and  baskets 


Papyrus. 

were  woven  of  its  stalk,  and  of  its  bark  were 
made  sails,  cordage,  cloth,  mats,  and  sandals 
for  the  priests ;  it  was  applied  as  medicine  to 
the  cure  of  fistulas  and  ulcers;  it  furnished 
material  for  torches  and  candles,  and  its  roots 
were  used  for  fuel  and  manufactured  into  furni- 
ture and  household  utensils.  "Wilkinson  thinks 
however  that  some  species  of  cyperus,  and  not 
the  P.  antiquorum,  was  used  for  many  of  these 
grosser  purposes.  In  making  paper  the  inner 
cuticle  of  the  stalk  was  separated  into  thin 
laminae  by  a  'sharp  point.  The  finest  were 
those  next  to  the  pith,  and  the  layers,  of  which 
there  were  about  20,  decreased  in  quality  as 
they  approached  the.  outer  integument,  which 
was  coarse  and  fit  only  for  making  cordage, 
mats,  &c.     The  slips  were  laid  side  by  side 


60 


PAPYRUS 


PARA 


on  a  smooth  flat  surface  and  covered  with  a 
second  layer  placed  at  right  angles  to  them, 
after  which  they  were  pressed  so  as  to  cause 
the  different  laminae  to  adhere  to  each  other 
and  form  a  single  sheet,  which  was  then  dried 
in  the  sun.  Pliny  says  the  laminae  were  made 
adhesive  by  wetting  them  with  Nile  water,  to 
which  he  ascribes  a  glutinous  quality,  but  their 
own  sticky  sap  was  sufficient  to  hold  them  to- 
gether. In  the  Roman  times  a  thin  sizing  was 
used  for  this  purpose.  The  sheets  were  finally 
beaten  smooth  with  a  mallet  and  polished  with 
a  piece  of  ivory  or  a  shell.  The  breadth  of  the 
sheet  was  limited  by  the  length  of  the  papy- 
rus slips,  but  its  length  could  be  extended  in- 
definitely by  placing  numbers  of  the  laminae 
beside  each  other.  When  finished,  the  papy- 
rus was  rolled  upon  a  wooden  cylinder  (sea- 
pus),  the  ends  of  which  projecting  beyond 
the  edges  of  the  sheet  were  neatly  finished 
and  ornamented.  Various  qualities  of  papy- 
rus were  manufactured,  of  which,  according 
to  Pliny,  the  hieratic,  11  digits  in  width,  used 
for  the  sacred  books,  was  formerly  the  best ; 
but  under  the  Roman  domination  two  finer 
kinds  of  13  digits'  breadth,  the  Augustine  and 
Livian,  were  made.  Another  quality,  the  Fan- 
nian,  10  digits  wide,  was  manufactured  from 
an  inferior  grade.  The  Saitic  papyrus,  made 
in  the  nome  of  that  name,  was  of  cheap  qual- 
ity, and  the  Tanitic  was  so  poor  as  to  be  sold 
by  weight.  An  eighth  grade,  not  more  than 
six  fingers  wide,  was  used  only  for  wrapping 
paper.  In  the  reign  of  Claudius  the  papyrus 
was  greatly  improved  in  fineness,  strength,  and 
color,  by  putting  a  new  layer  of  the  best  leaves 
over  a  sheet  of  coarser  quality.  The  papyrus 
rolls  taken  from  the  Egyptian  tombs  differ  in 
size  and  in  quality,  being  from  4  to  18  in.  in 
breadth,  and  varying  in  texture  and  color  from 
a  coarse  yellowish  brown,  in  which  the  fibre 
is  visible,  to  a  fine  silky  material  of  smooth 
surface  and  light  color.  In  1753  several  hun- 
dred papyri  were  taken  from  an  excavation  at 
Herculaneum,  a  part  of  which  are  Greek  and  a 
part  Latin  manuscripts.  The  former  are  from 
8£  to  12 J  in.  in  width,  and  the  latter  wider. 
They  are  nearly  reduced  to  carbon,  and  the 
pages  are  quite  black,  the  letters  being  distin- 
guishable only  in  a  favorable  light.  The  ut- 
most care,  patience,  and  ingenuity  have  been 
devoted  to  unrolling  and  deciphering  them, 
but  with  results  that  scarcely  repaid  the  trou- 
ble, as  no  works  of  any  consequence  have  yet 
been  recovered.  Attention  was  first  called  to 
the  papyri  of  Egypt  when  the  history  and  an- 
tiquities of  that  country  were  developed  by 
the  French  expedition.  A  great  number  have 
since  been  exhumed,  and  through  their  deci- 
pherment much  light  has  been  shed  on  the 
history,  manners  and  customs,  and  literature 
of  Egypt. — Papyrus  was  used  for  writing  at  a 
very  remote  period  in  Egypt,  as  early  probably 
as  the  third  or  fourth  dynasty.  It  was  an  ar- 
ticle of  commerce  before  the  time  of  Herodo- 
tus, but  it  did  not  come  into  universal  use  in 


Greece  before  the  time  of  Alexander.  Under 
his  successors  it  was  one  of  the  chief  articles 
of  Egyptian  commerce.  The  plant  was  raised 
also,  according  to  some  authorities,  in  Calabria 
and  Apulia,  and  in  the  marshes  of  the  Tiber ; 
but  according  to  others,  the  Romans  only  re- 
manufactured  and  improved  the  papyrus  im- 
ported from  Egypt.  In  the  time  of  the  repub- 
lic great  numbers  of  hieratic  papyri  which  had 
been  written  upon  were  sent  from  Alexandria 
to  Rome,  where  they  were  cleaned  and  pre- 
pared anew  for  writing.  Under  Augustus  the 
trade  in  both  books  and  papyrus  was  very 
large.  In  the  reign  of  Tiberius  the  demand 
often  exceeded  the  supply,  and  it  was  neces- 
sary to  appoint  a  committee  of  the  senate  to 
regulate  its  distribution.  In  the  7th  century 
the  conquest  of  Egypt  by  the  Saracens  put  an 
end  to  the  export,  and  western  Europe  was 
obliged  to  supply  its  place  with  parchment 
and  vellum  until  the  introduction  of  paper, 
although  papyrus  was  occasionally  used  for 
several  centuries  after.  To  this  general  sub- 
stitution of  parchment,  and  the  transferring  to 
it  of  works  written  on  the  perishable  papyrus, 
is  due  in  a  great  measure  the  preservation  of 
ancient  literature.  (See  Egypt,  Language  and 
Literature  of,  and  Manuscript.) 

PARA,  or  Grao  Parft,  a  N.  E.  province  of  Bra- 
zil, bounded  ST.  by  Guiana,  N.  E.  by  the  Atlan- 
tic, S.  E.  by  Maranhao  and  Goyaz,  S.  by  Mat- 
to  Grosso,  and  W.  by  Amazonas;  area,  460,- 
000  sq.  m. ;  pop.  in  1871,  320,000.  The  coast, 
which  is  about  600  m.  long  in  a  straight  line, 
comprises  the  most  irregular  portion  of  the 
Brazilian  seaboard,  being  indented  with  numer- 
ous bays  and  inlets,  the  principal  of  which  is 
the  vast  embouchure  of  the  Amazon  with  its 
hundred  islands,  the  most  noteworthy  of  these 
being  Maraj6,  Caviana,  and  Maxiana.  The  in- 
terior is  described  as  a  vast  plain  intersected 
by  mighty  rivers,  and  with  but  few  hills,  save 
in  the  N".  E.  and  S.  W.  corners,  those  in  the 
former  region  being  the  more  elevated.  The 
Almeirim  hills  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Ama- 
zon, some  200  m.  from  its  mouth,  are  of  sin- 
gular formation,  perfectly  level  on  the  top, 
and  separated  by  wide  openings  with  smooth 
sides.  Their  height  is  estimated  at  1,800  ft. 
above  the  level  of  the  river.  Besides  the 
Amazon,  the  more  important  rivers  are  the 
Tocantins,  Araguay,  Xingu,  Tapajos,  Trom- 
betas,  Oyapok,  Araguary,  Gurupi,  Majii,  Ca- 
pim,  Acara,  Anapti,  Pacaja,  Anajas,  Guama, 
Para,  and  Guajara.  The  climate  is  not  gen- 
erally unhealthy,  especially  in  the  comarcas 
or  districts  of  Braganca  and  Cameta.  On  the 
Amazon  rain  falls  almost  every  afternoon. 
The  soil  is  fertile,  and  the  vegetation  the  rich- 
est and  most  varied  in  the  world.  The  pri- 
meval forests  present  inexhaustible  supplies  of 
timber  and  precious  woods,  including  the  va- 
rious species  of  jacarandd  or  rosewood,  the 
itauba  or  stonewood,  p&o  ferro  or  ironwood, 
300  or  400  kinds  of  palms  and  medicinal  trees, 
dye  woods,  &c.    (See  Brazil.)    The  chief  culti- 


PARA 


PARADOXURUS 


61 


vated  products  are  rice,  cotton,  the  sugar  cane, 
coffee,  and  some  vegetables;  and  the  export 
staples  are  caoutchouc  in  prodigious  quanti- 
ties, cacao,  Maranhao  chestnuts,  rice,  sugar, 
honey,  hides,  tapioca,  with  urucu  (said  to  he 
superior  to  Brazil  wood  as  a  dye),  sarsaparilla, 
balsam  copaiba,  and  many  other  drugs,  isin- 
glass, &c.  Cattle  are  largely  reared.  Besides 
the  ocean  steamers  visiting  Belem,  there  are 
about  12  lines  of  steamers  plying  between  that 
city  and  the  more  important  towns  on  the 
Amazon  and  its  tributary  streams.  There  are 
about  250  primary  and  13  grammar  schools  in 
the  province.  Para  is  divided  into  nine  co- 
marcas  or  districts:  Para,  Cameta,  Maraj6, 
Braganca,  Gurupa,  Macapa,  Santarem,  Breves, 
and  Obidos.     Capital,  Belem  or  Para. 

PARA,  Rio.     See  Amazon. 

PARACELSUS    (Philippus    Aijkeolus    Theo- 

PHEASTUS      BOMBASTUS     VON     HOHENHEIM),      a 

Swiss  alchemist,  born  at  Einsiedeln,  Schwytz, 
in  1493,  died  in  Salzburg,  Sept.  23, 1541.  He 
was  the  son  of  a  physician,  from  whom  he 
learned  something  of  medicine,  alchemy,  and 
astrology,  and  made  himself  proficient  in  the 
arts  of  conjuring  and  juggling.  He  travelled 
on  foot  through  the  principal  cities  of  Europe, 
visited  Constantinople  in  the  suite  of  a  Tartar 
prince  to  learn  from  a  Greek  the  secret  of  the 
elixir  of  Trismegistus,  and,  having  become  ac- 
quainted with  some  remedies  not  in  common 
use  among  the  faculty,  returned  to  Switzer- 
land, where  he  became  celebrated  for  remark- 
able cures.  In  1526  he  was  appointed  profes- 
sor of  physic  and  surgery  in  the  university 
of  Basel.  He  proclaimed  himself  the  sole 
monarch  of  physic,  publicly  burned  the  works 
of  Galen  and  Avicenna,  and  professed  to  know 
the  art  of  prolonging  life  and  curing  all  dis- 
eases, and  to  hold  more  learning  in  the  hairs 
of  his  beard  than  was  possessed  by  all  the 
universities  and  medical  writers  united.  To 
the  four  elements  of  Aristotle  he  opposed  the 
three  compound  principles  of  salt,  sulphur,  and 
mercury.  The  soul,  according  to  him,  was 
united  to  the  body  by  an  animal  fluid.  Man 
was  an  image  of  the  Trinity,  his  intellect 
representing  God,  his  body  the  world,  and  the 
fluid  the  stars.  He  recognized  a  mysterious 
harmony  between  the  body  and  the  earth  and 
salt,  between  the  soul  and  water  and  mercury, 
and  between  the  intellect  and  the  air  and  sul- 
phur. His  lectures  were  delivered  sometimes 
in  Latin,  but  generally  in  German,  which  made 
him  popular  and  for  a  while  attracted  large  au- 
diences. Erasmus  consulted  him  for  the  stone, 
and  the  correspondence  between  the  quack  and 
the  philosopher  has  been  preserved.  In  his 
personal  habits  as  well  as  his  language  Para- 
celsus affected  oddity.  He  slept  in  his  clothes, 
and  in  later  life  became  very  intemperate. 
After  the  first  year  his  lectures  were  deserted. 
About  the  end  of  1527  he  was  compelled  to 
leave  Basel  for  abusing  a  magistrate,  and  after 
wandering  through  Germany  for  several  years 
obtained  a  temporary  success  in  Moravia.     He 


next  visited  successively  Vienna,  Villach,  Min- 
delheim,  and  Salzburg,  where  he  closed  his  life 
in  poverty.  He  published  a  few  works,  and 
left  several  which  were  printed  posthumously. 
One  of  the  latest  editions  of  his  writings  is  in 
Latin  in  3  vols.  fol.  (Geneva,  1658). 

PARADISE  (Sans,  para-dega,  a  foreign  coun- 
try ;  Heb.  pardes,  park ;  Arab.  Jlrdaus ;  Gr. 
Trapadeicog),  literally,  a  garden  or  pleasure 
ground  planted  with  trees  and  flowers,  whence 
the  term  is  used  metaphorically  to  express  the 
abstract  idea  of  perfect  felicity  and  heavenly 
blessedness.  In  the  Septuagint  it  is  employed 
to  express  the  Hebrew  "garden  of  Eden." 
The  nature  and  locality  of  the  Biblical  paradise 
have  been  discussed  under  Eden.  Metaphori- 
cally the  word  expresses  the  happiness  of 
the  righteous  in  a  future  state,  an  application 
adopted  by  the  later  Jews,  and  the  general 
idea  of  which  is  to  be  found  in  the  mytholo- 
gies of  various  races.  The  mediaeval  rabbini- 
cal literature  contains  various  fanciful  descrip- 
tions of  an  earthly  and  a  heavenly  paradise, 
the  latter  being  reserved  for  the  final  abode 
of  the  souls  of  the  blessed.  The  celestial  para- 
adise  is  generally  regarded  as  identical  with 
heaven,  or  the  place  of  future  bliss  accord- 
ing to  the  Christian  dispensation;  but  Bibli- 
cal critics  have  differed  as  to  the  signification 
to  be  given  to  the  term  in  Luke  xxiii.  43, 
where  Christ  says  to  the  penitent  thief,  "  To- 
day shalt  thou  be  with  me  in  paradise  ;"  some 
considering  the  existence  of  a  distinct  abode 
for  the  reception  of  the  blessed  previous  to 
the  last  judgment  to  be  indicated,  while  oth- 
ers have  found  a  stumbling  block  in  the  state- 
ment elsewhere  made  in  Scripture  that  be- 
tween his  death  and  resurrection  the  Saviour 
descended  into  hell.  In  the  later  history  of 
the  word  it  is  to  be  observed  that  the  nartJiex 
or  atrium  in  which  those  who,  on  account  of 
not  being  of  the  faithful  in  full  communion, 
were  assembled,  was  known  as  the  paradise  of 
the  church;  and  Athanasius,  speaking  scorn- 
fully of  Arianism,  represents  it  as  creeping 
into  paradise,  implying  that  it  was  befitting  the 
low  and  ignorant.  The  paradise  of  the  Moham- 
medans, termed  in  the  Koran  Gannah,  or  the 
happy  gardens,  is  a  place  of  infinite  sensual 
delights  conceived  with  all  the  warmth  of  ori- 
ental fancy,  where  devout  followers  of  the 
prophet  are  received  after  death. 

PARADISE,  Bird  of.    See  Bied  of  Paeadise. 

PARADOXURUS,  a  carnivorous  mammal,  allied 
to  the  ichneumons,  inhabiting  Asia  and  the 
neighboring  southern  islands.  It  has  the  habit 
of  tightly  coiling  in  a  spiral  manner  its  long 
tail,  which  however  is  not  prehensile,  whence 
the  generic  name  given  by  Cuvier ;  the  claws 
are  retractile  and  cat-like,  and  the  teeth  like 
those  of  the  civets.  In  the  best  known  species, 
the  luwack  (P.  typus),  about  the  size  of  a  cat, 
the  general  color  is  yellowish  black,  with  three 
longitudinal  rows  of  dark  spots  on  each  side  of 
the  back ;  it  is  plantigrade,  and  quick  in  its 
movements  both  on  the  ground  and  in  trees; 


62 


PARAFFIXE 


it  is  nocturnal  in  habit,  and  preys  npon  small 
mammals  and  birds  and  eggs.     The  musang  of 


Luwack  (Paradoxurus  typus). 

Java  (P.  musanga)  is  an  allied  species,  which 
does  much  mischief  in  the  coffee  plantations. 

PARAFFINE  (Lat.  parum  affinis,  of  weak  af- 
finity), a  white,  waxy  substance,  which  was  dis- 
covered in  1830  by  Reichenbach  among  the 
products  of  the  distillation  of  wood.  It  has 
since  been  produced  by  the  distillation  of  many 
organic  substances,  such  as  resins,  bituminous 
shales,  peat,  and  boghead  coal,  and  has  been 
found  ready  formed  in  some  varieties  of  petro- 
leum, in  the  mineral  ozokerite,  in  bitumen,  and 
in  earth  wax.  That  paraffine  existed  in  petro- 
leum was  noticed  by  Buckner  in  Bavarian  oil 
as  early  as  1820  ;  but  as  he  did  not  pursue  the 
inquiry  to  practical  results,  the  credit  of  the 
discovery  is  assigned  to  Reichenbach,  who  ten 
years  later  fully  described  its  properties  and 
gave  it  its  name.  It  was  found  in  Rangoon 
petroleum  in  1831,  by  Christison  of  Edin- 
burgh, who  had  no  knowledge  of  Reichen- 
bach's  discovery,  and  was  named  by  him  petro- 
line.  American  petroleum  contains  very  lit- 
tle, but  the  Rangoon  and'  Java  oil  affords  from 
10  to  40  per  cent. — Various  methods  are  em- 
ployed for  the  preparation  of  paraffine,  de- 
pending upon  whether  it  is  a  direct  or  an  in- 
cidental product.  Crude  petroleum  is  distilled 
until  25  per  cent,  has  gone  over ;  the  remain- 
ing portion  is  caught  in  tanks  surrounded  by 
ice  or  refrigerating  mixtures,  and  the  paraffine 
cake  condensed  by  the  cold.  Enormous  quanti- 
ties of  paraffine  are  made  from  ozokerite,  which 
is  a  yellow  vegetable  wax,  of  fibrous  structure 
and  light  specific  gravity,  found  in  Austria,  Mol- 
davia, the  Caucasus,  and  near  the  Caspian  sea. 
In  its  natural  state  it  will  melt  readily,  but  it 
requires  to  be  wrapped  around  a  wick  before 
it  will  burn.  In  the  manufacture,  300  lbs.  of 
ozokerite  are  subjected  at  a  time  to  fractional 
distillation  in  an  iron  still,  provided  with  cool- 
ers and  condensers ;  the  yield  is  8  per  cent,  of 
oil  and  60  per  cent,  of  paraffine.  The  oil  is 
reserved  for  illuminating  purposes.  A  portion 
of  the  light  oil,  which  boils  below  212°  F.,  is 
used*  in  refining  paraffine.  The  crude  paraffine 
contains  an  oil  which  is  removed  under  a  hy- 


draulic press  and  distilled  to  save  adhering 
paraffine  and  for  other  purposes.  The  press 
cakes  are  melted  and  treated  with  sulphuric 
acid ;  the  acid  is  neutralized  with  lime,  and  the 
paraffine  distilled  off.  The  product  is  again 
pressed,  melted  with  the  light  oil  mentioned 
above,  and  once  more  pressed.  The  final  re- 
sult is  a  perfectly  white,  transparent,  hard  sub- 
stance, ready  for  the  manufacture  of  candles. 
The  manufacture  of  paraffine  by  the  dry  distil- 
lation of  peat  and  boghead  coal  is  divided  into 
two  operations :  1,  the  production  of  tar ;  2, 
the  working  up  of  the  tar  for  illuminating  oil 
and  paraffine.  Before  the  discovery  of  petro- 
leum in  Pennsylvania,  this  industry  was  re- 
garded as  one  of  great  importance.  The  illu- 
minating oil  was  called  kerosene,  a  trade  name 
which  has  since  been  applied  to  refined  petro- 
leum. After  the  introduction  of  petroleum  this 
industry  declined  in  the  United  States,  but  in 
Scotland  it  is  still  extensively  practised  under 
the  patent  of  Mr.  Young.  (See  Keeosene.) — 
Pure  paraffine  is  a  white,  inodorous,  tasteless 
substance,  resembling  spermaceti,  harder  than 
tallow,  softer  than  wax,  and  having  a  specific 
gravity  of  0'877.  Its  melting  point  depends 
somewhat  on  its  origin,  and  ranges  from  109° 
to  149°  F.  An  ultimate  analysis  yields  car- 
bon 85  and  hydrogen  15  per  cent.  It  is  in- 
soluble in  water,  but  readily  soluble  in  warm 
alcohol,  ether,  oil  of  turpentine,  olive  oil,  ben- 
zole, chloroform,  and  carbon  disulphide.  It 
is  indifferent  to  the  most  powerful  acids  and 
alkalies,  and  can  be  distilled  unchanged  with 
strong  oil  of  vitriol.  It  readily  combines  in  all 
proportions  with  wax,  stearine,  palmitine,  and 
resin.  "When  required  for  candles,  its  melting 
point  is  raised  by  fusing  it  with  stearine,  wax, 
or  spermaceti. — Besides  the  consumption  of  pa- 
raffine in  the  manufacture  of  candles,  its  ap- 
plication in  the  arts  is  extensive.  Meat  several 
times  immersed  in  a  bath  of  melted  paraffine 
will  keep  for  a  long  time  ;  and  when  wanted  it 
is  only  necessary  to  melt  off  the  adhering  film 
to  prepare  it  for  cooking.  Further  uses  of  pa- 
raffine are  for  stoppers  to  acid  bottles,  to  coat 
paper  for  photographic  uses,  as  a  lubricator,  as 
burning  oil,  to  coat  pills,  to  refine  alcohol  and 
spirits,  for  the  preservation  of  timber,  to  pre- 
serve fruit,  for  oil  baths  of  constant  temper- 
ature, to  prevent  the  oxidation  of  metals,  to 
render  fabrics  water-proof,  in  the  manufacture 
of  matches,  as  a  disinfecting  agent,  and  as  a 
varnish  for  leather.  It  is  introduced  into  the 
sugar  vacuum  pans  to  prevent  the  frothing  of 
the  sirup.  In  some  forms  of  the  galvanic  bat- 
tery paraffine  is  introduced  to  prevent  the  evap- 
oration of  the  liquid,  and  paraffine  insulators 
are  employed  on  telegraph  lines.  If  paraffine  be 
heated  with  sulphur,  it  is  decomposed,  and  sul- 
phuretted hydrogen  is  evolved.  This  reaction 
is  now  employed  in  the  preparation  of  sulphu- 
retted hydrogen  gas  for  laboratory  use.  Heat- 
ed for  about  60  hours  with  nitro -sulphuric 
acid,  paraffine  yields  a  liquid  called  paraffinic 
acid,  which  has  the  specific  gravity  of  1*14,  is 


PARAGUAY 


63 


insoluble  in  water,  soluble  in  ether  and  alco- 
hol, combines  with  alkalies,  and  burns  with  an 
illuminating  flame.  Chlorine  gas  decomposes 
paraffine,  yielding  hydrochloric  acid.  In  medi- 
cine the  preservative  and  protecting  properties 
of  paraffine  are  brought  into  frequent  requisi- 
tion ;  and  in  general,  its  chemically  indifferent 
properties  and  permanent  character  render  it 
one  of  the  most  useful  products  of  industry. 

PARAGUAY,  a  republic  of  South  America,  ex- 
tending from  lat.  21°  57'  to  27°  30'  S.,  and 
from  Ion.  54°  33'  to  58°  40'  W.,  bounded  K 
and  N.  E.  by  Brazil,  S.  E.,  S.,  and  S.  W.  by 


the  Argentine  Republic,  and  N".  "W.  by  Bolivia; 
area  (exclusive  of  the  triangular  section  of  the 
Gran  Ohaco  lying  mainly  between  the  rivers 
Paraguay  and  Bermejo  and  the  22d  parallel, 
one  portion  of  which  is  claimed  by  Bolivia 
and  the  remainder  by  the  Argentine  Republic) 
variously  estimated  at  from  57,000  {Almanack 
de  Goiha,  1875)  to  90,000  sq.  m.  The  area 
was  much  larger  before  the  war  of  1865-'70, 
at  the  termination  of  which  Paraguay  ceded 
1,329  sq.  m.  of  its  territory  as  a  war  indem- 
nity to  Brazil,  the  limits  being  fixed,  by  the 
terms  of  the  treaty  of  March  26,  1872,  as  fol- 


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lows :  "  The  bed  of  the  Parana  river  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Iguazu  (lat.  25°  30'  S.)  to  the 
Salto  Grande  (lat.  24°  7').  From  these  falls 
the  line  runs  (about  due  W.)  along  the  highest 
divide  of  the  Sierra  de  Maracayu  to  the  termi- 
nation of  the  latter ;  thence  as  nearly  as  pos- 
sible in  a  straight  line  (northward)  along  the 
highest  ground  to  the  Sierra  de  Amambay,  fol- 
lowing the  highest  divide  of  that  sierra  to  the 
principal  source  of  the  Apa,  and  along  the  bed 
of  that  river  (westward)  to  its  junction  with 
the  Paraguay.  All  the  streams  flowing  K  and 
E.  belong  to  Brazil,  and  those  S.  and  W.  to 

VOL.  XIII.— 5 


Paraguay."  Paraguay  was  thus  constrained  to 
surrender  the  very  portion  of  her  territory  so 
long  claimed  by  Brazil,  and  the  northern  limit 
of  which  was  the  mouth  of  the  Rio  Blanco,  80 
m.  above  that  of  the  Apa.  The  computations 
of  the  population  range  from  100,000  to  1,300,- 
000.  A  census  ordered  by  Dr.  Francia  in  1840, 
and  regarded  as  tolerably  accurate,  returned 
220,000.  The  natural  rate  of  increase  till  1865 
would  have  doubled  this  number  (440,000) ; 
but  in  the  subsequent  five  years'  war  the  losses 
may  fairly  be  estimated  at  half  the  population : 
170,000  males  by  battle  and  disease  (chiefly 


64 


PARAGUAY 


the  latter),  and  50,000  women  and  children  by 
famine  and  exposure  in  the  forests.  Thus  the 
census  returns  of  Jan.  1,  1873,  were  probably 
nearly  correct,  viz.,  221,079.  Of  this  number 
28,746  were  males  and  106,254  females  over 
15  years  of  age,  and  86,079  of  both  sexes  under 
that  age.  The  average  proportion  of  male  to 
female  births  is  nearly  as  8  to  9.  The  popu- 
lation is  chiefly  Indian  (Guaranis  and  a  few 
other  tribes),  the  Guarani  being  the  dominant 
language  throughout  the  republic.  The  few 
hundred  white  natives  preserve  their  blood  tol- 
erably pure  by  intermarriage  or  by  marriage 
with  Europeans,  and  are  for  the  most  part 
gathered  in  or  around  Asuncion,  the  capital. 
Next  to  the  Indians,  the  most  numerous  ele- 
ment is  the  mulatto  or  hybrid  from  the  union 
of  the  early  Spanish  settlers  and  the  Indian 
women,  and  further  modified  by  Mamalucos 
from  southern  Brazil,  and  by  the  introduction 
of  African  slaves.  The  number  of  pure-blood- 
ed Africans  is  now  inconsiderable.  In  1873 
there  were  2,300  foreigners  resident  in  Para- 
guay, including  2,000  Italians,  100  Germans, 
100  English,  and  the  remainder  Austrians, 
Dutch,  and  Swiss. — The  face  of  the  country 
comprises  two  great  valleys  :  one,  on  the  west, 
from  the  Apa  to  the  Parana  southward,  forms 
a  part  of  the  basin  of  the  Paraguay  river; 
and  the  other,  on  the  east,  by  far  the  smaller, 
extends  from  lat.  24°  S.  to  the  extreme  S.  E. 
limits  of  the  republic.  The  Serra  de  Sao  Joze, 
approaching  Paraguay  from  the  north,  consti- 
tutes, under  the  name  of  Cordillera  de  Amam- 
bay,  the  N".  E.  boundary  with  Brazil  as  far  as 
lat.  24°;  whence,  taking  successively  the  ap- 
pellations of  Cordillera  de  Urucuty,  Caaguazti, 
and  Villarica,  the  last  (called  Cuchilla  Grande 
in  its  S.  half)  beginning  W.  of  the  town  of 
the  same  name,  it  divides  the  country  into  two 
unequal  portions.  In  lat.  24°  an  extensive 
branch  known  as  the  Cordillera  de  Maracayti 
is  detached  due  E.,  and  crossing  the  Parana 
forms  the  magnificent  cataract  of  Guayra,  the 
noise  of  which  is  said  to  be  distinctly  audible 
at  a  distance  of  30  m.  The  greatest  elevation, 
supposed  nowhere  to  exceed  3,500  ft.  above 
the  sea,  is  attained  in  the  lower  extremity  of 
the  Cordillera  de  Amambay,  and  in  the  Mara- 
cayti and  Caaguazii  systems.  The  upper  part 
of  the  Paraguay  river  basin,  like  the  Gran 
Chaco  territory  on  the  opposite  bank,  is  for 
the  most  part  flat,  save  in  the  extreme  north, 
where  the  serrated  ridge  of  Quince  Puntas 
traverses  the  plain,  and  sends  down  the  waters 
of  the  Barriego  and  La  Paz,  and  the  diminu- 
tive southern  tributaries  of  the  Apa.  In  this 
region  are  comprised  the  celebrated  yerbales, 
or  mate  fields.  Low  hills,  thrown  off  rib-like 
from  either  side  of  the  central  chain,  are  sepa- 
rated by  well  watered  and  extremely  fertile 
valleys,  rich  in  primeval  forests  of  valuable 
timber,  and  abounding  in  game.  The  south- 
ern portion  of  the  republic  is  a  vast  expanse  of 
swampy  ground,  closely  resembling  the  allu- 
vial detritus  from  the  Andes  which  prevails  in 


the  pampas.  The  swamps  are  variously  desig- 
nated, according  to  their  nature  and  extent, 
as  lagunas,  cafladas,  pantanos,  or  esteros.  The 
lagunas  are  genuine  lakes  or  lakelets,  with  solid 
clay  beds  and  replenished  by  floods ;  the  cafla- 
dos,  tracts  of  deep  adhesive  mud  and  stagnant 
water;  the  pantanos,  mere  morasses  with  less 
water  than  the  last;  and  the  esteros,  sluggish 
streams  flowing  through  extensive  swamps. 
These  marshy  regions,  sometimes  termed  car- 
rizales,  are  intersected  at  intervals  by  wave- 
like mounds  of  inconsiderable  height,  and  are 
covered  with  compact  jungles,  interspersed, 
with  woody  copses,  shrubberies,  cafiaverales 
or  patches  of  reed  grass  of  giant  growth, 
and  palm  groves.  No  traces  of  volcanic  ac- 
tion have  been  found  in  Paraguay. — The  riv- 
ers Paraguay  and  Parana  are  described  in  sep- 
arate articles.  The  largest  river  belonging 
exclusively  to  the  republic  is  the  Tibicuari, 
which  rises  by  two  branches  in  the  Cordillera 
de  Villarica,  or  more  properly  the  Cuchilla 
Grande,  and  after  a  tortuous  course  of  about 
250  m.,  and  collecting  the  waters  of  numerous 
minor  streams,  discharges  into  the  Paraguay 
in  lat.  26°  39'  S.,  Ion.  58°  10'  W.  Page  says 
that  this  stream,  which  for  100  m.  from  its 
embouchure  has  a  mean  width  of  300  yards, 
might  with  a  small  outlay  be  made  naviga- 
ble for  many  leagues  in  all  seasons  for  steam- 
ers of  2  ft.  draught,  and  Lopez  II.  ordered 
small  steamers  in  England  for  that  purpose ; 
but  in  1868  a  light-draught  monitor  grounded 
about  15  m.  up.  Other  well  known  Paraguay 
feeders  are  the  Jejuy,  whose  numerous  head 
streams  descend  from  the  central  mountain 
chain,  and  which  coursing  through  the  yerlales 
might  afford  easy  means  of  transport  for  mate 
to  San  Pedro,  below  which  town  it  empties 
into  the  Paraguay,  about  lat.  24°  15'  S.,  but  in 
the  dry  season  is  only  navigable  by  boats  or 
canoes  above  the  town ;  the  Ypane,  5  m.  S.  of 
Concepcion,  only  available  for  boat  navigation ; 
and  the  Apa,  formerly  called  the  Corrientes, 
the  northern  limit  with  Brazil,  having  a  width 
of  300  yards  and  a  depth  of  about  9  ft.  for 
several  miles.  Many  streams  flow  from  the 
mountains  to  the  Parana,  but  all  have  precipi- 
tous courses  and  are  unfit  for  navigation.  Of 
the  lakes,  which  are  numerous,  the  most  im- 
portant is  the  laguna  Ypua,  about  100  sq.  m. 
in  extent,  and  drained  by  a  branch  of  the  Ti- 
bicuari and  another  small  river. — The  mineral 
resources  of  Paraguay  are  but  imperfectly 
known.  Mr.  Twite  reports  the  occurrence  of 
precious  metals  in  several  places,  and  a  great 
abundance  of  iron.  The  iron  of  Caapucu  and 
Quioquio  yields  from  30  to  36  per  cent,  of  pure 
metal ;  and  the  iron  works  of  Ibicuy,  with  up- 
ward of  100  operatives,  were  of  great  service 
to  Lopez  during  the  recent  war.  Copper  has 
been  found  in  several  places.  The  scarcity  of 
salt  has  frequently  been  sensibly  felt  in  Para- 
guay, especially  in  1865-70,  when  the  lack  of 
it  had  so  enfeebled  the  constitutions  of  the 
soldiers  that  their  simplest  wounds  could  not 


PARAGUAY 


65 


be  healed.  The  climate  is  hot  from  Novem- 
ber to  February  inclusive,  when  the  mean  tem- 
perature is  90°  F.  in  the  shade,  but  the  maxi- 
mum seldom  higher  than  100° ;  in  the  winter 
months,  June,  July,  and  August,  the  average 
temperature  is  50°,  the  minimum  being  40°. 
In  the  absence  of  sea  breezes,  the  nearest  point 
of  the  Atlantic  from  the  centre  of  the  state  be- 
ing 500  m.  and  of  the  Pacific  900  m.  distant, 
the  only  modifying  winds  are  those  from  the 
north  and  the  south,  the  former  having  a  re- 
laxing tendency,  and  the  latter  being  the  pre- 
cursor of  rain  and  storms.  Goitre  is  report- 
ed by  Burton  to  be  common  at  Asuncion,  one 
case  occurring  in  almost  every  family;  but 
yellow  fever  and  other  epidemics  are  almost 
unknown  in  Paraguay,  whose  climate,  particu- 
larly in  the  cultivated  regions,  has  been  pro- 
nounced one  of  the  most  salubrious  in  the 
world. — The  soil  is  uniformly  fertile,  and  every 
species  of  vegetation  most  luxuriant.  A  large 
portion  of  the  country  is  covered  with  forests ; 
and  Du  Graty  enumerates  upward  of  50  dis- 
tinct species  of  excellent  building  timber,  some 
almost  as  hard  as  iron,  as  the  lapacho,  quebra- 
cho (axe-breaker),  urunday,  and  catigua,  and 
so  heavy  as  to  sink  in  water.  The  firm  tex- 
ture of  the  morosimo,  palo  amarillo,  tataiba, 
palo  de  rosa,  and  many  others,  peculiarly  adapts 
them  to  the  purposes  of  the  cabinet  maker. 
The  fruits  of  the  araJian  and  nangapare  are 
pleasant  and  nutritious.  The  Indians  powder 
the  fruit  of  the  algarroba  and  preserve  it  in 
skins,  and  from  its  juice  they  make  a  favorite 
beverage.  The  seringar  yields  India  rubber, 
and  the  palo  santo  gum  guaiacum.  One  species 
of  cactus  furnishes  the  food  of  the  cochineal 
insect.  The  bark  of  many  trees  is  useful  for 
tanning,  and  is  an  important  article  of  export. 
From  a  parasite,  the  guembe,  and  from  an  aloe, 
the  curuguaty,  ropes  and  cables  are  extensive- 
ly manufactured ;  and  the  guembetaya  bears  a 
fruit  similar  in  appearance  and  taste  to  Indian 
corn,  and  used  like  the  latter  for  bread  by  the 
natives.  The  caranday  palm  (Copernicia  ceri- 
fera)  affords  an  excellent  roofing  material, 
flinty,  and  impervious  to  moisture,  and  lasting 
30  years.  The  varieties  of  the  bamboo  are 
numerous.  The  flora  produces  also  many  im- 
portant medicinal  drugs,  as  copaiba,  rhubarb, 
sassafras,  jalap,  sarsaparilla,  nux  vomica,  dra- 
gon's blood,  and  liquorice,  and  many  dyestuffs. 
FlecMlla  or  arrow-cane  grass,  very  common 
along  the  banks  of  the  rivers,  affords  a  seed 
somewhat  like  oats,  said  to  be  as  good  as 
lucerne  for  fattening  cattle.  The  yerbales, 
covering  about  3,000,000  acres  far  in  the  in- 
terior, were  for  many  years  worked  by  the 
Indians  under  the  Jesuits,  through  whom  the 
yerba  mate,  or  Paraguay  tea,  became  known 
in  most  parts  of  South  America  as  a  substi- 
tute for  tea  and  coffee.  Of  late  years  the  con- 
sumption of  mate  has  much  diminished  in 
Buenos  Ayres,  where  it  now  brings  25  cents  a 
pound.  The  quantity  shipped  in  the  time  of 
Lopez  never  exceeded  4,463,425  lbs.  per  an- 


num, worth  about  $800,000.  The  exports  for 
1870  were  reported  at  4,500,000  lbs.,  valued 
at  $1,450,000 ;  but  these  figures  are  consid- 
ered exaggerated.  (See  MatI.)  Several  varie- 
ties of  parasitic  orchids,  and  the  mais  del  agua, 
somewhat  resembling  the  magnificent  Victoria 
regia,  are  among  the  most  remarkable  of  the 
flowering  plants.  In  prosperous  times,  before 
the  war  of  1865-70,  there  were  few  landed 
proprietors,  three  fourths  of  the  cleared  coun- 
try having  been  confiscated  by  the  govern- 
ment from  the  Jesuits  at  the  time  of  their  ex- 
pulsion, and  rented  at  nominal  rates  to  small 
cultivators,  whose  plantations  of  maize,  man- 
dioca,  cotton,  and  tobacco  were  to  be  met  at 
intervals  along  the  principal  highways.  In 
1870  a  survey  of  the  republic  was  made,  with 
the  following  results  : 

(  Arable 42,600  sq.  m. 

Public  lands.-;  Mountain  and  forest 27,000  *    " 

(Yerbales 5,040  «    " 

Total 74,640  sq.  m. 

Private  lands 15,360  »    " 

Total 90,000  sq.  m. 

Agriculture  is  still  zealously  carried  on;  but 
owing  to  the  insufficiency  of  laborers,  not  more 
than  half  of  the  most  fertile  districts  are  un- 
der cultivation.  The  chief  agricultural  products 
are  maize,  a  sure  and  abundant  crop,  often 
yielding  150  fold,  and  mandioca,  of  which 
there  are  extensive  farms.  Rice  is  grown  for 
home  consumption,  and  frequently  yields  250 
fold.  Tobacco,  of  which  three  crops  are  ob- 
tained annually,  is  largely  cultivated  both  for 
export  and  for  home  consumption,  the  latter 
having  been  estimated  at  15,000,000  lbs.  per 
annum,  and  the  exports  at  6,000,000.  In  the 
trade  returns  for  1870  the  tobacco  exported 
figured  at  3,500,000  lbs.,  valued  at  $750,000. 
Smoking  is  universal  in  Paraguay,  by  both 
sexes  at  all  ages.  Cigars,  called  peti-hobi  and 
peti-pard,  are  manufactured  on  a  large  scale 
at  Yillarica  and  Asuncion,  for  the  Buenos 
Ayres  market.  Paraguay  tobacco  obtained  a 
gold  medal  at  the  Paris  exhibition  in  1855. 
The  sugar  cane  thrives  well,  but  for  want  of 
suitable  machinery  the  crop  is  comparatively 
limited  ;  a  liquor  called  cafia  and  considerable 
quantities  of  molasses  are  made  from  it.  Ac- 
cording to  official  reports,  there  were  550,000 
acres  of  land  under  cultivation  in  1863,  as  fol- 
lows :  with  maize,  240,000 ;  mandioca,  110,000 ; 
beans,  75,000 ;  cotton,  32,000 ;  tobacco,  23,000 ; 
sugar  cane,  25,000;  rnaui  (peanuts),  11,000; 
and  rice,  vegetables,  &c,  34,000.  Of  cotton, 
4,000  bales  were  produced  in  1863.  Wool, 
fruits,  honey,  and  indigo  and  other  dyes-  could 
be  supplied  in  prodigious  quantities,  if  there 
were  adequate  means  of  transport.  Among 
the  rich  dyes  are  the  iriburetuia  or  "vulture's 
leg,"  which  gives  a  blue  metallic  tint,  and  the 
acuagay  root,  a  bright  scarlet.  There  are 
large  herds  of  cattle,  estimated  at  300,000  head 
in  the  year  preceding  the  war ;  the  horses  are 


66 


PARAGUAY 


generally  inferior  to  those  of  the  Argentine 
Republic ;  and  there  are  some  sheep  and  oth- 
er European  farm  stock.  The  felidm  are  the 
same  as  those  of  Brazil,  comprising  the  jaguar, 
here  called  onza,  puma,  and  ocelot.  The  pec- 
cary, tapir,  aguara,  ant-eater,  and  capybara 
(whose  skin  is  fashioned  into  tiradores  or  belts 
used  in  lassoing)  are  found.  There  are  four 
species  of  deer :  the  guazu  pucu  or  cervus  palu- 
dosus,  guazu  pita  or  C.  rufus,  guazu  mini  or 
small  stag,  and  guazu  lira,  usually  found  in  the 
forests.  Other  wild  animals  are,  several  varie- 
ties of  armadillo,  some  of  which  are  hunted  for 
their  flesh,  the  tatti,  cavy,  two  kinds  of  otters, 
and  howlers,  red-furred  bujas,  the  dwarfish 
ouistiti,  and  other  monkeys.  The  rivers  and 
lakes  swarm  with  caimans,  of  which  there  are 
two  species ;  several  kinds  of  lizards  are  men- 
tioned, some  attaining  a  length  of  8  ft.;  the 
serpents  include  the  boa  and  two  or  three 
venomous  snakes,  one  being  a  species  of  rattle- 
snake, probably  the  hideous  and  deadly  tri- 
gonocephaly. Common  bats  are  numerous,  as 
are  also  vampires,  of  which  13  varieties  have 
been  described  by  Azara;  myriads  of  locusts 
appear  from  time  to  time,  devastating  whole 
districts ;  and  clouds  of  mosquitoes,  sand  flies, 
and  other  noxious  insects  infest  the  marshes 
and  river  banks.  A  species  of  ant  deposits 
nodules  of  wax  upon  the  twigs  of  the  guayava 
olanca,  which  are  gathered  and  made  into 
candles.  The  predatory  birds  are  represented 
by  vultures,  hawks,  and  buzzards ;  the  most 
remarkable  of  the  waders  is  a  kind  of  giant 
stork,  mycteria  Americana ;  there  are  two 
species  of  partridge,  pheasants,  wild  ducks,  a 
sort  of  bustard  said  to  eat  serpents  like  the 
Brazilian  siriema,  water  hens,  and  scissor 
birds ;  and  seven  or  eight  varieties  of  parrots 
and  paroquets.  The  nandu  or  American  os- 
trich is  common ;  songsters  are  numerous ; 
and  foremost  among  the  birds  admired  for 
their  brilliant  plumage  is  the  tiny  viudita  or 
little  widow,  robed  in  jet  black  and  snow 
white.  Almost  all  the  rivers  afford  abundance 
of  fish  of  delicate  flavor,  those  most  esteemed 
being  the  pacu,  dorado,  and  palometa. — The 
manufactures  are  few ;  they  consist  chiefly  of 
coarse  cotton  and  woollen  fabrics,  utensils 
made  of  wood  and  hides,  cigars,  preparations 
of  gums  and  resinous  substances,  distillation 
of  .liquors  from  the  sugar  cane  and  algarroba, 
molasses  and  sugar,  and  ropes  and  cordage. 
The  implements  of  agriculture  are  rude  and 
primitive.  In  the  three  years  1861-3  there 
were  constructed  in  the  arsenal  at  Asuncion 
seven  mail  steamers  to  ply  to  Montevideo,  be- 
sides cannon,  stores,  bells,  &c.  During  the 
Lopez  administration  commerce  was  hampered 
in  various  ways,  such  as  government  monopolies 
and  other  abuses  which  rendered  freedom  of 
trade  unknown  in  the  republic;  and  the  chief 
staples  of  export  were  purchased  by  the  dicta- 
tor's agents.  Nevertheless,  and  in  spite  of  the 
natural  difficulties  in  the  way  of  transporting 
merchandise  to  the  sea  from  this  landlocked 


state,  the  commerce  of  Paraguay  had  consider- 
ably increased  during  the  decade  following  the 
downfall  of  Rosas,  the  Argentine  dictator,  and 
the  consequent  opening  of  the  river  traffic,  as 
will  be  seen  from  the  annexed  table  of  imports 
and  exports  for  three  years  of  that  period, 
compared  with  1851 : 


YEARS. 

Import*. 

Exports. 

1851 

$173,188 
328,891 

1,154,736 
664,381 

$260,712 

754,425 

1,649,759 

1,270,428 

1855 

1859 

1860 

The  amounts  are  in  dollars  of  the  United  States ; 
the  Paraguayan  dollar  is  equivalent  to  75  cents. 
The  excess  in  the  value  of  the  exports  over  im- 
ports was  employed  in  the  construction  of  an 
arsenal,  the  purchase  of  railway  materials  and 
arms,  and  the  education  of  youths  in  Europe. 
The  list  of  the  imports  and  exports  for  the 
year  1860,  with  their  values,  is  as  follows : 


IMPORTS. 

EXPORTS. 

ARTICLES. 

Value. 

ARTICLES. 

Value. 

Bilks 

$23,464 
100,242 

255,040 
22,388 
59,262 

116,749 

42,265 
44,972 

Yerba  mate 

$820,395 
219,625 
140,840 
17,154 
16,856 
17,599 
11,099 

Woollens 

Linens  and  cott'ns 

Hardware 

Wines  and  spirits 

Dry  hides 

Tanned  hides 

Bark  for  tanning. 

Dry  goods,  boots 

Timber 

and  shoes,  &c. 

26,871 

Sundries 

Total 

$1,270,439 

Total 

$664,382 

The  custom  house  yielded  in  the  same  year 
$220,000,  of  which  two  thirds  represented  du- 
ties on  imports  at  20  per  cent,  ad  valorem,  and 
one  third  on  exports  at  5  per  cent.  Mate, 
which  belonged  to  the  government,  paid  no 
duty ;  but  gold  or  silver  coin,  although  intro- 
duced by  travellers  to  defray  their  current  ex- 
penses, was  subject  to  a  duty  of  10  per  cent, 
on  leaving  the  republic.  The  total  value  of 
the  imports  for  the  year  1873  was  $750,000, 
and  of  the  exports  $710,500,  showing  an  ex- 
cess of  imports,  contrary  to  the  state  of  things 
before  the  late  war.  Sugar  was  imported  to 
the  amount  of  $54,000.  The  value  of  the 
mate,  cigars,  and  hides  sent  out  of  the  country 
in  1873  was  $459,750,  $99,750,  and  $99,750 
respectively,  showing  a  diminution  of  from  64 
to  more  than  100  per  cent,  since  1860. — Un- 
der Lopez  I.  there  were  comparatively  good 
roads  leading  from  the  capital  to  some  of  the 
more  important  agricultural  districts,  a  car- 
riage road  from  Villarica  to  the  Parana  was 
begun,  and  the  railway  intended  to  connect 
Asuncion  and  Villarica,  and  in  operation  to 
Paraguary,  a  distance  of  45  m.,  was  begun  in 
1858.  There  is  no  bank  or  other  institution 
of  credit  in  the  republic.  In  1863  the  nation- 
al revenue  amounted  to  $4,275,000 ;  in  1873 
it  did  not  exceed  $412,500,  the  chief  sources 
being  duties  on  imports  ($348,000),  exports 


PAKAGUAY 


67 


($70,500),  rents  of  state  property,  licenses,  &c. 
The  estimated  expenditures  for  1874  were 
$341,805.  Previous  to  1865  Paraguay  had  no 
national  debt,  but  a  large  surplus  income ;  but 
she  is  now  almost  hopelessly  bankrupt,  being 
indebted,  by  virtue  of  stipulations  arising  out 
of  the  late  disastrous  war,  in  the  sum  of 
$150,000,000  to  Brazil,  $26,250,000  to  the  Ar- 
gentine Republic,  and  $750,000  to  Uruguay, 
a  total  of  $177,QJOO,000 ;  besides  $14,518,500, 
principal  and  interest  of  a  loan  contracted 
in  England  in  1871.  There  is  also  a  large 
home  debt,  the  amount  of  which  has  not  been 
reported. — In  1861  Paraguay  had  as  many 
public  primary  schools  in  proportion  to  her 
population  as  the  most  advanced  Spanish 
American  states;  instruction  was  made  com- 
pulsory and  gratuitous,  and  the  justices  of  the 
peace  were  ordered  to  aid  in  carrying  out  that 
measure;  but  the  instruction  was  not  made 
secular,  and  the  result  was  unsatisfactory. 
Grammar  schools  were  few ;  of  higher  instruc- 
tion there  was  very  little,  and  that  confined 
to  a  single  establishment  at  the  capital.  Since 
1870,  however,  well  directed  and  determined 
efforts  have  been  adopted  for  the  extension 
of  primary  instruction,  and  in  the  budget  for 
1874  figured  an  appropriation  of  $34,860  for 
schools.  Books  were  meagrely  supplied  and 
mostly  limited  to  religious  subjects.  The  total 
value  of  the  books  imported  in  the  ten  years 
immediately  preceding  the  war  was  but  $3,299. 
Lopez  had  four  newspapers,  all  edited  under  his 
supervision.  The  Roman  Catholic  is  the  reli- 
gion of  the  state,  but  all  others  are  tolerated. 
— By  the  terms  of  the  new  constitution  of 
Nov.  25,  1870,  mainly  based  upon  that  of  the 
Argentine  Eepublic,  the  legislative  authority 
is  vested  in  a  congress  composed  of  a  senate 
and  a  chamber  of  deputies ;  and  the  executive 
in  a  president  elected  for  a  term  of  six  years, 
with  a  non-active  vice  president,  and  a  cabinet 
of  five  ministers,  viz.,  of  the  interior,  foreign 
affairs,  finance,  public  worship  and  public  in- 
struction, and  war  and  the  navy.  The  present 
strength  of  the  army  is  about  2,000  men,  com- 
prised in  two  battalions,  two  regiments  of 
cavalry,  and  a  regiment  of  artillery.  The  esti- 
mated expenditure  of  the  war  department  for 
1874  was  put  down  at  $98,918.— Paraguay 
was  discovered  in  1530  by  Sebastian  Cabot; 
and  the  first  Spanish  colony  was  established 
under  the  auspices  and  direction  of  Pedro  de 
Mendoza,  whose  lieutenant,  Juan  de  Ayolas, 
founded  Asuncion  on  Aug.  15,  1536  or  1537. 
The  town  was  erected  into  a  bishopric  in 
1555.  The  country  called  Paraguay,  which  at 
first  comprised  the  entire  basin  of  the  Plata, 
was  governed  till  1620  by  adelantados  subject 
to  the  viceroyalty  of  Peru;  but  in  that  year 
two  distinct  governments,  Paraguay  and  Bue- 
nos Ayres,  were  formed  by  royal  decree,  ad- 
ministered by  intendants  likewise  under  the 
jurisdiction  of  Peru.  This  state  of  things  con- 
tinued till  1776,  when  the  two  provinces  were 
again  united  under  the  separate  viceroyalty  of 


Buenos  Ayres.  The  Spaniards  on  their  first 
arrival  found  the  country  in  the  possession  of 
Guarani  tribes,  an  intelligent  and  industrious 
people,  readily  amenable  to  the  civilization  of 
the  new  settlers.  The  first  missionaries,  Field 
and  Ortega,  reached  Paraguay  in  1557,  and 
met  with  astonishing  success  in  winning  the 
confidence  of  the  natives.  They  were  soon 
followed  by  others ;  missions  were  established 
between  the  rivers  Uruguay  and  Parana,  ex- 
tending across  the  latter  river  to  within  the 
present  limits  of  Paraguay ;  the  disciples  were 
collected  by  thousands  into  villages,  where 
splendid  churches  were  built;  and  finally,  by 
a  mandate  which  the  Jesuits  obtained  about 
1690,  forbidding  all  other  Spaniards  to  enter 
their  territory  without  their  permission,  they 
were  enabled  to  establish  an  almost  indepen- 
dent theocratic  government.  Before  the  middle 
of  the  17th  century  30  missions  had  been  found- 
ed ;  and  in  1740  the  number  of  civilized  In- 
dians was  ascertained  to  be  upward  of  140,000. 
Each  mission  was  built  in  a  uniform  style, 
with  a  great  plaza  in  the  centre,  and  here  were 
erected  the  church,  college,  arsenal,  stores,  and 
workshops  of  carpenters,  smiths,  and  weav- 
ers, all  under  the  immediate  care  of  the  priests. 
Once  a  week  the  male  inhabitants  went 
through  military  drill,  prizes  being  given  to 
the  best  marksmen.  Church  ceremonies  were 
performed  every  day,  the  children  beginning 
with  morning  prayer,  followed  at  sunrise  by 
mass,  at  which  the  whole  population  attended. 
Baptisms  took  place  in  the  afternoon ;  vespers 
were  sung  every  evening ;  and  holidays  or  fes- 
tivals were  chosen  for  the  celebration  of  mar- 
riages. The  Indians  were  excellent  musicians 
and  singers.  The  dress  of  both  sexes  was  of 
native  cotton  cloth,  the  men  wearing  shirts 
and  short  trousers,  the  women  caps  and  loose 
gowns.  The  schools  and  workshops  were  ad- 
mirably managed,  and  the  wood  carving  of  the 
artisans  still  elicits  admiration.  The  Spanish 
language  was  prohibited,  and  from  the  print- 
ing offices  established  at  Santa  Maria  and  San 
Javier  in  the  17th  and  18th  centuries  were 
issued  many  works  in  Guarani,  the  following 
being  still  extant:  "Temporal  and  Eternal," 
by  P.  Meremberg  (1705);  "Jesuits'  Manual 
for  Paraguay  "  (1724) ;  "  Guarani  Dictionary  " 
(1724);  "Guarani  Catechism"  (1724);  and 
"  Sermons  and  Examples,"  by  Tapaguay  (prob- 
ably a  native  Jesuit).  In  1767  the  Spanish  gov- 
ernment decreed  the  expulsion  of  the  priests, 
who  offered  not  the  least  resistance.  In 
1801  Soria  estimated  the  survivors  of  the  30 
missions  at  somewhat  less  than  44,000,  two 
thirds  of  their  population  having  disappeared 
in  the  space  of  34  years.  As  early  as  1628 
descents  were  made  upon  tbe  missions  from  Sao 
Paulo  in  Brazil,  and  according  to  Page  60,000 
of  the  Indians  were  carried  off  in  that  and  the 
two  following  years,  and  sold  as  slaves  in  the 
market  of  Rio  de  Janeiro.  After  the  expul- 
sion of  the  Jesuits  the  converts  were  soon  dis- 
persed; many  took  to  the  woods;  the  planta- 


68 


PARAGUAY 


tions  were  abandoned ;  the  cattle,  sheep,  and 
horses  were  destroyed ;  and  of  the  stately  edi- 
fices only  a  few  crumbling  ruins  now  remain. 
In  1776,  as  has  been  said,  Paraguay  was  in- 
corporated with  Buenos  Ayres  in  a  viceroy- 
alty,  with  that  city  as  the  capital.  After  the 
destruction  of  the  home  government  by  the 
French,  a  provisional  government  was  estab- 
lished at  Buenos  Ayres  in  1809,  which  still 
acknowledged  the  sovereignty  of  Spain.  The 
Paraguayans  in  1811  took  steps  to  secure  their 
own  independence,  and  defeated  an  army  un- 
der Gen.  Belgrano,  sent  by  the  authorities  of 
Buenos  Ayres  to  coerce  them  into  submission. 
After  Belgrano's  expedition,  the  country  was 
governed  for  a  time  by  a  junta  composed  of 
Generals  Pedro  Juan  Oaballero,  Fulgencio  Ye- 
gros,  and  Dr.  Jose  Gaspar  Rodriguez  de  Fran- 
cia.  The  junta  was  soon  changed  (1813)  into 
a  duumvirate,  Oaballero  having  been  excluded, 
and  Yegros  and  Francia  receiving  the  title  of 
consul.  Two  curule  chairs  were  placed  in  the 
assembly,  one  bearing  the  inscription  "  Csesar," 
occupied  by  Francia,  -and  the  other  that  of 
"  Pompey  "  for  his  colleague.  In  1814  the  gov- 
ernment was  again  changed,  Francia  securing 
his  nomination  as  dictator,  at  first  for  three 
years,  and  afterward  for  life.  Henceforth,  un- 
til his  death  on  Sept.  20,  1840,  he  was  the  ab- 
solute ruler  of  Paraguay.  He  followed  the 
example  set  by  the  Jesuits,  and  prohibited  the 
entrance  or  exit  of  foreigners.  His  rule  was 
rigorous  and  often  cruel,  but  he  introduced 
many  reforms,  established  schools,  and  devised 
a  code  of  laws.  During  a  brief  interim  the 
country  was  governed  by  a  junta  gubernativa, 
successively  presided  over  by  Dr.  0.  L.  Ortiz 
and  Gen.  Juan  Jose  Medina.  On  March  12, 
1841,  the  consular  system  was  reestablished, 
and  Don  Carlos  Antonio  Lopez  and  Don  Ma- 
riano Roque  Alonso  were  named  consuls.  In 
1844  the  title  of  the  executive  was  again 
changed,  and  Lopez  was  made  dictator  for  ten 
years;  at  the  expiration  of  his  term  he  was 
reelected  for  three  years,  and  again  in  1857 
for  seven  years.  His  domestic  government 
seems  to  have  been  as  strong  as  Francia's,  but 
he  was  more  liberal  to  foreigners,  and  sur- 
rendered the  control  of  church  matters  into 
the  hands  of  the  priesthood.  The  independence 
of  Paraguay  was  not  formally  acknowledged 
by  the  other  states  of  La  Plata  until  Urquiza 
came  into  power  in  the  Argentine  confedera- 
tion, and  made  a  treaty  with  Lopez,  July  14, 
1852.  It  was  recognized  by  Great  Britain  in 
January,  1853.  In  the  same  year  the  United 
States  government  sent  the  steamer  Water 
Witch,  under  Commander  T.  J.  Page,  to  survey 
the  river  La  Plata  and  its  tributaries.  Capt. 
Page  was  well  received  by  President  Lopez, 
and  his  mission  was  successfully  carried  on  un- 
til February,  1855,  when  the  Water  Witch,  in 
the  peaceful  prosecution  of  her  voyage  up  the 
Parana,  was  fired  upon  by  the  Paraguayan  fort 
Itapirti,  and  one  man  killed.  The  fire  was  re- 
turned, but  as  the  steamer  was  of  small  force 


and  not  designed  for  offensive  operations,  she 
soon  retired  from  the  conflict,  and  Capt.  Page 
hastened  to  communicate  the  events  to  his 
government.  Preparations  were  made  at  once 
to  demand  reparation,  and  a  considerable  fleet 
was  sent  to  the  Plata.  A  commissioner  ap- 
pointed to  accompany  the  fleet  opened  negotia- 
tions with  President  Lopez,  and  by  the  media- 
tion of  Urquiza  an  arrangement  was  concluded 
by  which  Paraguay  agreed  to  make  compensa- 
tion. Capt.  Page  resumed  his  surveys,  and 
completed  them  in  December,  1860.  In  1858, 
by  a  convention  with  Brazil,  the  waters  of  the 
Paraguay  were  declared  to  be  open  to  the  mer- 
cantile marine  of  all  friendly  nations.  The 
efforts  to  establish  a  systemetic  and  direct 
trade  with  Paraguay  have  not  as  yet  been  very 
successful.  In  1853  an  American  company 
went  out,  but  were  forced  to  return  the  follow- 
ing year.  A  French  settlement  was  established 
in  1855,  but  meeting  with  no  encouragement 
from  the  Paraguayan  president,  the  colonists 
abandoned  it  the  same  year.  Lopez  died  on 
Sept.  10,  1862,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son 
Francisco  Solano,  commonly  known  as  Mar- 
shal Lopez,  under  whose  administration  the 
government,  though  still  nominally  republican, 
was  as  despotic  and  absolute  as  in  the  days 
of  Francia.  Nevertheless,  great  progress  was 
made;  and  had  Lopez  not  been  blinded  by 
ambition,  the  country  would  have  rapidly  risen 
to  importance.  But,  not  satisfied  with  the 
title  of  marshal,  he  aimed  at  an  imperial  crown 
and  at  foreign  conquest.  His  measures  for  the 
latter  were  chiefly  directed  against  Brazil,  and 
the  desired  opportunity  for  hostilities  offered 
in  1864.  The  Brazilian  government,  having 
claims  to  urge  against  Uruguay  for  damages 
to  Brazilian  citizens  resident  in  that  republic, 
seized  the  opportunity  to  do  so  when  Monte- 
video was  besieged  by  revolutionary  troops 
under  Gen.  Venancio  Flores,  chief  of  the  colo- 
rados  or  liberal  party,  and  late  unsuccessful 
candidate  for  the  presidency,  against  N".  Aguir- 
re  of  the  Manco  party.  In  spite  of  the  repeated 
protests  of  Lopez,  Brazil  openly  gave  aid  to 
Flores.  Lopez,  who  had  recruited  a  powerful 
army  and  erected  fortifications  along  the  river 
bank,  on  Nov.  11,  1864,  captured  a  Brazilian 
steamer  on  its  passage  upward  to  Matto  Grosso, 
detaining  the  passengers  and  crew  as  prison- 
ers of  war.  This  offensive  step  was  followed 
in  December  by  the  invasion  of  Matto  Grosso 
by  a  Paraguayan  army,  which  sacked  Cuyaba, 
the  capital,  and  other  towns,  and  seized  the 
diamond  mines  of  that  province.  Meantime 
Lopez  had  promised  aid  to  Aguirre,  but  Presi- 
dent Mitre  of  the  Argentine  Republic  refused 
permission  of  transit  for  Paraguayan  troops 
across  the  province  of  Corrientes.  Flores, 
however,  had  been  victorious,  and  entered 
upon  the  presidential  functions  early  in  1865. 
Lopez,  now  fearing  that  the  Argentines  would 
take  sides  against  him,  captured  two  of  their 
war  vessels  in  the  bay  of  Corrientes,  April  13, 
1865,  invested  the  town  of  the  same  name  next 


PARAGUAY 


69 


day,  formed  a  provisional  government  com- 
posed of  Argentine  citizens,  and  declared  the 
provinces  of  Oorrientes  and  Entre  Rios  to  be 
annexed  to  the  republic  of  Paraguay.  On  the 
18th  a  mutual  declaration  of  war  was  made  by 
the  two  republics ;  and  on  May  1  an  offensive 
and  defensive  alliance  was  secretly  entered  into 
by  the  Argentine  Republic,  Brazil,  and  Uru- 
guay, these  powers  "  solemnly  binding  them- 
selves not  to  lay  down  arms  until  the  exist- 
ing government  of  Paraguay  should  be  over- 
thrown, nor  to  treat  with  Lopez,  unless  by 
common  consent;  providing  for  the  guarantee 
of  Paraguayan  independence;  fixing  on  that 
republic  the  responsibility  for  the  expenses  of 
the  war;  and  agreeing  that  no  arms  or  ele- 
ments of  war  should  be  left  to  it."  The  sud- 
den aggressions  upon  Brazil  and  the  Argentine 
Republic,  for  which  neither  of  those  countries 
was  prepared,  and  which  led  to  the  declaration 
of  war,  might  easily  have  been  followed  by 
triumphs  far  above  the  expectations  of  Lopez, 
had  his  energy  equalled  his  ambition;  for  he 
had  at  his  command  a  well  disciplined  army 
80,000  strong.  In  June  hostilities  began;  the 
Paraguayan  fleet  was  defeated  on  the  11th  by 
the  Brazilians  on  the  Parana ;  and  the  Para- 
guayan troops  were  compelled  to  evacuate  the 
Argentine  territory  on  Nov.  3,  the  town  of 
Uruguay  ana  on  the  Uruguay  having  in  the 
mean  time  surrendered  to  the  allies.  During 
the  remainder  of  1865,  and  in  the  course  of 
1866  and  1867,  numerous  battles  occurred  both 
by  land  and  on  the  river  Paraguay,  with  vary- 
ing success,  and  with  considerable  loss  to  the 
allied  ranks ;  but  the  Paraguayan  troops,  who 
suffered  equally  in  the  field,  were  also  con- 
siderably reduced  by  disease  and  privations. 
Thus,  in  spite  of  the  undoubted  courage  of 
his  soldiers,  Lopez  lost  in  quick  succession  his 
principal  strongholds,  and  his  capital  was  oc- 
cupied by  the  invaders  on  Feb.  21,  1868.  In 
June  Humaita,  his  best  fortress,  commanding 
the  junction  of  the  rivers  Paraguay  and  Pa- 
rana, was  bombarded  and  demolished.  From 
that  time  Lopez,  who  had  taken  refuge  in  the 
mountain  fastnesses  of  the  interior,  vainly 
persisted  in  a  struggle  which  terminated  only 
when  he  fell  at  Aquidaban  on  March  1,  1870. 
A  provisional  treaty,  drawn  up  at  Asuncion  on 
June  20,  declared  peace  to  be  restored  between 
the  belligerents,  and  the  rivers  Paraguay  and 
Parana  to  be  reopened  to  the  merchant  and 
military  navies  of  the  allies,  free  of  all  obsta- 
cles. A  new  constitution  was  adopted,  and 
promulgated  on  Nov.  25,  providing  for  the 
free  exercise  of  all  religions,  the  encourage- 
ment of  immigration  and  protection  of  immi- 
grants, and  the  summary  punishment  of  such 
persons  as  should  in  future  attempt  to  assume 
the  dictatorship.  A  provisional  government, 
with  C.  A.  Rivarola  as  president,  was  super- 
seded in  December,  1871,  by  Salvador  Jove- 
llanos,  in  the  course  of  the  first  year  of  whose 
administration  the  peace  was  disturbed  by  three 
revolutions,  the  government  being  shut  up  in 


Asuncion  by  the  insurgents.  In  April,  1874, 
aided  by  the  Brazilian  troops,  which  still  oc- 
cupy Paraguay,  the  government  was  enabled 
to  suppress  the  rebel  movements ;  but  the 
country  is  virtually  under  a  Brazilian  protec- 
torate. In  October,  1874,  Jovellanos  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Juan  Bautista  Gil. — See  Essai  sur 
Vhistoire  naturelle  des  quadrupedes  du  Para- 
guay, by  Felix  de  Azara  (Paris,  1801) ;  "La 
Plata,  the  Argentine  Confederation,  and  Par- 
aguay," by  Thomas  J.  Page  (New  York,  1859) ; 
Histoire  physique,  economique  et  politique  du 
Paraguay  et  des  etdblissements  des  Jesuites,  by 
Dr.  Alfred  Demersay  (Paris,  1860-'65);  "The 
War  in  Paraguay,"  by  George  Thompson  (Lon.- 
don,  1869);  "La  Plata,  Brazil,  and  Paraguay," 
by  A.  J.  Kennedy  (London,  1869);  "Seven 
eventful  Years  in  Paraguay,"  by  G.  F.  Master- 
man  (London,  1869);  "Letters  from  the  Bat- 
tle Fields  of  Paraguay,"  by  Capt.  R.  F.  Burton 
(London,  1870)  ;  and  "  History  of  Paraguay," 
by  Charles  A.  Washburn  (Boston,  1871). 

PARAGUAY,  a  river  of  South  America,  whose 
head  waters  descend  from  one  of  the  seven 
lakes  on  the  low  swelling  plateau  commonly 
called  the  Serra  Diamantina,  in  the  Brazilian 
province  of  Matto  Grosso,  160  m.  N.  of  the 
city  of  Cuyaba,  lat.  13°  20'  S.,  Ion.  55°  50'  W. 
The  uppermost  branch  is  the  Rio  Diamantino, 
and  next  are  the  Preto  or  Negro,  the  Sipotu- 
ba,  and  other  smaller  streams  from  the  west, 
before  the  confluence  of  the  Jaurti,  which 
doubles  the  volume  of  the  Paraguay,  in  lat. 
16°  23'.  About  120  m.  further  S.  it  collects 
from  the  east  the  waters  of  the  navigable  river 
Sao  Lourenco,  a  branch  of  which  passes  Cuy- 
aba. Here  the  Paraguay  has  a  width  of  600 
yards,  which  it  retains,  with  a  mean  depth  of 
15  ft.,  to  Asuncion,  the  capital  of  the  republic 
of  Paraguay.  Below  the  junction  of  the  Sao 
Lourenco  it  traverses  the  marshy  region  of 
Xareyes  or  Xarayes,  draining  the  lakes  of 
Oberava,  Gahiba,  and  Mandiore,  and  receiving 
the  large  river  Taquary,  the  Rio  Blanco  (for- 
merly claimed  by  Paraguay  as  the  northern 
boundary  with  Brazil),  the  Apa  or  Corrientes, 
the  Ypane,  and  the  San  Pedro  from  the  east, 
and  several  from  the  west.  In  the  remaining 
150  m.  of  its  course,  from  Asuncion  to  its 
junction  with  the  Parana  from  the  east  at  Tres 
Bocas,  lat.  27°  13',  it  receives  its  most  im- 
portant affluents,  the  Pilcomayo  and  the  Ber- 
mejo,  both  from  Bolivia.  At  Tres  Bocas  the 
main  stream,  after  a  course  of  over  1,000  m., 
exclusive  of  its  numerous  sinuosities,  takes  the 
name  of  the  affluent ;  for  such  the  Parana  evi- 
dently is,  inasmuch  as  the  direction  and  all  the 
geological  characteristics  of  the  river,  down 
to  the  confluence  of  the  Uruguay,  are  those  of 
the  Paraguay.  From  Asuncion  to  Tres  Bocas 
the  general  width  is  half  a  mile,  though  in  some 
parts  it  narrows  to  a  quarter  of  a  mile ;  the 
minimum  average  depth  being  20  ft.,  and  the 
maximum  depth  72  ft.  The  ordinary  velocity 
of  the  current  is  2  m.  an  hour.  Vessels  draw- 
ing 16  ft.  can  generally  ascend  the  Paraguay 


70 


PAEAGUAY  TEA 


PAEALLAX 


to  the  Brazilian  town  of  Corumba,  lat.  18°  55', 
and  river  steamers  in  all  seasons  to  the  junc- 
tion of  the  Sao  Lourengo.  The  Paraguay  and 
the  Amazon  feeders  Xingii  and  Tapajos  take 
their  rise  within  a  few  miles  of  one  another, 
and  the  watershed  is  so  low  that  wooden  ca- 
noes ascending  the  Tapajos  from  Santarem  are 
constantly  carried  over,  and  descend  to  Villa 
Maria;  so  that,  with  but  little  labor,  almost 
uninterrupted  navigation  by  steamers  could 
be  secured  through  the  heart  of  the  continent, 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Plata  to  that  of  the 
Amazon.  Up  to  Asuncion  the  navigation  is 
easier  than  on  the  Parana ;  the  waters  are 
confined  within  narrower  limits,  the  depth  of 
the  channel  is  more  uniform,  and  no  obstruc- 
tion is  to  be  apprehended.  The  periodical  rise 
of  the  river  usually  averages  13  ft.,  and  occurs 
in  January,  February,  and  March,  and  in  July, 
August,  and  September,  thus  almost  corre- 
sponding to  the  periods  of  the  fall  in  the  Pa- 
rana ;  hence  the  volume  of  the  stream  result- 
ing from  the  union  of  the  two  rivers  is  near- 
ly always  the  same.  The  banks  of  the  Para- 
guay are  generally  sloping,  and  rarely  exceed 
25  ft.  above  the  average  height  of  the  stream. 
They  are  clothed  on  both  sides  with  a  mag- 
nificent vegetation ;  forests  with  innumerable 
varieties  of  precious  timber  and  ornamental 
woods  alternating  with  palm  groves  and  ex- 
tensive grassy  plains.  The  portion  of  the  riv- 
er comprised  within  the  tropics  abounds  in  ja- 
cares  (caimans)  and  in  excellent  fish.  Brazil- 
ian mail  steamers  ply  monthly  between  Mon- 
tevideo and  Cuyaba,  a  distance  of  2,000  m., 
making  the  trip  in  from  10  to  12  days ;  and 
there  are  several  lines  of  steamers  between 
Buenos  Ayres  and  Asuncion. — The  Paraguay 
forms  a  portion  of  the  dividing  line  between 
Brazil  and  Bolivia,  and  the  entire  boundary  of 
Paraguay  with  Bolivia  and  with  the  Argentine 
Eepublic  on  the  west.  It  was  made  free  to 
ships  of  all  nations  in  1852,  and  has  remained 
so  to  the  present  time  (1875),  except  during 
the  Paraguayan  war  of  1865-'70. 

PARAGUAY  TEA,     See  Mat! 

PARAHYBA.  L  A  N.  E.  province  of  Brazil, 
bounded  N.  by  Eio  Grande  do  Norte,  E.  by  the 
Atlantic,  S.  by  Pernambuco,  and  W.  by  Ceara ; 
area,  31,500  sq.  m.;  pop.  in  1871  (estimated), 
280,000.  The  coast  is  low,  but  inland  the  sur- 
face is  traversed  by  several  mountain  ranges, 
the  principal  of  which  are  the  serras  de  Bor- 
borema  and  de  Teixara.  In  the  former  rises 
the  Eio  Parahyba  do  Norte,  which  empties  into 
the  Atlantic  after  an  E.  N.  E.  course  of  300  m. 
The  Mamanguape,  emptying  18  m.  further  N., 
is  the  only  other  considerable  river.  The  cli- 
mate inland  is  hot,  but  is  considered  healthful. 
Much  of  the  country  is  fit  only  for  pasturage, 
and  many  cattle  are  raised.  The  fertile  tracts 
are  partly  covered  with  dense  forests  and 
partly  cultivated.  Cotton,  sugar,  and  tobacco 
are  raised  to  some  extent.  During  the  decade 
ending  in  1873,  the  yearly  average  export  of 
cotton  was  196,568  lbs. ;  of  sugar,  185,744  lbs. 


Gums,  resin,  and  timber  are  largely  export- 
ed. In  1865  an  English  company  was  organ- 
ized to  work  the  gold  mines  in  the  interior. 
In  1873  there  were  in  the  province  126  pri- 
mary and  grammar  schools,  of  which  33  were 
for  females  with  an  aggregate  attendance  of 
991,  and  93  for  males  with  2,695  pupils;  and 
there  is  a  lyceum  in  Parahyba,  and  colleges  in 
Mamanguape,  Area,  and  Pombal.  II.  A  city, 
capital  of  the  province,  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
river  Parahyba  do  Norte,  10  m.  from  the  sea, 
and  65  m.  N,  of  Pernambuco ;  pop.  about  14,- 
000.  It  is  divided  into  an  old  and  a  new  town, 
and  has  good  streets  and  well  built  houses. 
The  climate  is  salubrious.  The  port  is  good, 
but  vessels  of  more  than  350  tons  seldom  go 
up  to  the  town.  There  is  a  large  coasting 
trade,  and  the  steamers  of  nearly  all  the  Bra- 
zilian lines  stop  here  on  the  trips  between  Eio 
de  Janeiro  and  Belem.  The  principal  exports 
are  cotton,  sugar,  fish,  hides,  rum,  tafia,  coffee, 
and  cacao.  A  railway  to. extend  60  m.  inland 
was  to  be  begun  in  1875. 

PARALLAX,  the  apparent  displacement  of  a 
heavenly  body  arising  from  a  change  of  the 
observer's  position.  The  angle  subtended  at 
the  body  by  the  line  joining  the  two  stations  is 
the  measure  of  the  parallax.  As  the  positions 
of  the  heavenly  bodies  have  reference  in  prac- 
tical astronomy  to  the  earth's  centre,  a  correc- 
tion for  parallax  is  necessary  in  every  observa- 
tion, except  when  the  body  is  in  the  zenith, 
where  the  parallax  vanishes.  It  is  greatest 
in  the  horizon,  and  is  there  termed  horizontal 
parallax.  It  is  manifestly  equal  to  the  angle 
subtended  by  the  earth's  radius  as  supposed  to 
be  seen  from  the  body,  as  the  earth's  radius  va- 
ries with  the  latitude,  and  the  equatorial  radius 
is  commonly  selected  as  the  measure  of  paral- 
lax. By  the  mean  horizontal  equatorial  paral- 
lax of  the  moon,  for  instance,  is  understood 
the  angle  subtended  by  the  earth's  equatorial 
semi-diameter  at  the  moon's  mean  distance. 
The  same  is  the  case  with  the  sun.  And  even 
if  the  word .  equatorial  be  omitted,  it  is  to  be 
understood  that  equatorial  parallax  is  signified 
unless  the  contrary  be  implied.  The  parallax 
and  the  sine  of  the  parallax  are  appreciably 
equal  for  all  objects  except  the  moon,  and  either 
is  used  indifferently.  In  the  case  of  the  moon 
there  is  a  difference,  and  unfortunately  two 
usages  are  employed.  Where  the  mean  equa- 
torial horizontal  lunar  parallax  is  spoken  of, 
the  word  parallax  is  used  in  its  usual  sense ; 
but  what  is  called  the  lunar  constant  of  parallax 
is  in  reality  the  angle  which  has  for  its  circu- 
lar measure  the  sine  of  the  true  parallax. — An- 
nual parallax  is  the  variation  of  a  star's  place 
by  being  observed  from  opposite  points  of  the 
earth's  orbit.  This  is  extremely  minute,  not- 
withstanding the  great  length  of  the  base  line, 
and  is  so  difficult  of  determination  that  it  long 
defied  the  endeavors  of  astronomers  to  detect 
it.  (See  Asteonomt.)  The  apparent  absence 
of  stellar  parallax  was  considered  by  Tycho 
Brahe  fatal  to  the  Copernican  doctrine  of  the 


PARALYSIS 


PARAMARIBO 


71 


earth's  orbital  motion.  Galileo  suggested  a 
mode  of  investigating  the  problem  by  observa- 
tions on  two  stars  of  different  magnitudes  situ- 
ated close  together.  This  mode  has  been  suc- 
cessfully applied  by  modern  observers.  Hooke 
was  the  first  to  use  the  telescope  in  this  inves- 
tigation, but  he  failed.  The  aberration  of  light 
had  not  then  been  discovered,  and  the  result 
he  announced  as  parallax  was  probably  due  to 
this  cause.  The  same  is  to  be  said  of  Flam- 
steed.  The  attempts  of  astronomers  to  deter- 
mine parallax  led  to  two  signal  discoveries,  the 
aberration  of  light  by  Bradley  (1725),  and  the 
systems  of  double  stars  by  the  elder  Herschel 
(1803.)  The  earliest  approximately  successful 
researches  on  this  problem  were  made  by  the 
elder  Struve,  begun  in  1835  on  the  star  a  Lyra?, 
though  his  conclusions  were  not  received  with 
entire  confidence  by  astronomers.  The  first 
unequivocal  success  was  reached  shortly  after- 
ward by  Bessel  at  Konigsberg  on  the  star  61 
Oygni,  and  by  Henderson  at  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope  on  the  star  a  Oentauri. 

PARALYSIS,  or  Palsy  (Gr.  Tcapalvag,  relax- 
ation), a  loss  of  the  power  of  motion  in  any 
part  of  the  body.  As  the  contractile  power 
of  the  muscles  depends  upon  their  healthy 
organization  and  the  integrity  of  their  struc- 
ture, anything  which  interferes  with  these 
qualities  will  diminish  in  a  corresponding  de- 
gree their  power  of  action.  Imperfect  nutri- 
tion or  atrophy  of  the  muscles,  their  disuse, 
a  fatty  degeneration  of  their  texture,  and  the 
action  of  certain  poisons  (see  Lead),  will  all 
have  this  effect  and  destroy  the  power  of  mo- 
tion by  directly- affecting  the  muscular  fibres 
themselves.  A  paralysis  of  this  kind  is  called 
"  muscular  paralysis,"  since  its  cause  resides  in 
the  substance  of  the  muscular  tissue,  which  has 
lost  its  natural  properties. — Paralysis,  however, 
is  oftener  due  to  injury  or  disease  of  the  nerves 
or  nervous  centres.*  As  muscular  contraction 
is  naturally  excited  during  life  by  a  stimu- 
lus communicated  to  the  muscles  through  the 
nerves,  when  this  communication  is  cut  off 
by  injury  or  disease  of  the  nervous  fibres,  the 
natural  movements  in  the  corresponding  region 
of  the  body  are  at  once  suspended.  This  is 
most  distinctly  marked  in  paralysis  of  those 
parts  which  are  the  seat  of  the  voluntary  mo- 
tion, that  is,  the  limbs  and  trunk.  If  the 
nerves  going  to  the  right  arm  be  divided  or 
contused,  or  constricted  by  a  ligature,  volun- 
tary motion  is  at  once  lost  in  the  correspond- 
ing limb.  The  muscles  themselves  are  unin- 
jured, and  are  as  capable  of  contraction  as  ever ; 
but  they  cannot  be  called  into  action  by  any 
effort  of  the  will,  because  the  natural  stimulus, 
which  should  be  conveyed  to  £hem  through 
the  nerves  from  the  brain,  is  cutoff  by  the  in- 
jury of  the  nervous  trunks.  A  similar  effect 
will  be  produced  if  the  fibres  of  the  brain  it- 
self be  injured  at  the  point  where  these  nerves 
take  their  origin. — There  are  various  forms  of 
paralysis,  corresponding  to  the  different  regions 
of  the  body  affected  and  the  extent  of  the 


affected  portion.  The  following  are  the  most 
important.  1.  Hemiplegia,  or  paralysis  of  one 
lateral  half  of  the  body,  that  is,  of  the  right 
arm  and  right  leg,  or  the  left  arm  and  left  leg, 
with  the  corresponding  portions  of  the  trunk. 
This  is  due  to  a  circumscribed  apoplexy  or 
other  injury  which  affects  one  side  of  the  brain, 
and  which,  owing  to  the  crossing  of  the  fibres 
in  the  medulla  oblongata,  produces  paralysis  of 
the  opposite  side  of  the  body.  2.  Paraplegia, 
or  paralysis  of  the  two  lower  extremities  with 
the  lower  part  of  the  trunk.  This  results  from 
an  injury  to  the  spinal  cord  about  its  middle 
portion,  which  of  course  paralyzes  all  the  parts 
below  the  seat  of  the  injury,  while  those  above, 
still  preserving  their  connection  with  the  brain, 
continue  to  have  the  power  of  voluntary  mo- 
tion. 3.  Facial  paralysis,  or  that  affecting  the 
superficial  muscles  of  one  lateral  half  of  the 
face,  so  that  the  natural  expression  is  lost  in 
this  region,  and  the  features  on  the  affected 
side  are  relaxed  and  vacant.  This  is  owing  to 
an  injury  of  the  seventh  or  facial  nerve  at  some 
point  in  its  passage  from  its  origin  in  the  brain 
to  its  termination  in  the  muscles.  4.  Local 
paralysis  of  any  other  part  of  the  body,  due 
to  injury  or  disease  of  the  special  nerve  dis- 
tributed to  that  part. — Another  important  dis- 
tinction in  regard  to  paralysis  is  whether  it 
is  accompanied  with  loss  of  sensibility  of  the 
part,  as  well  as  loss  of  motion.  As  these  two 
properties  are  conferred  by  two  different  sets 
of  nervous  fibres,  and  as  these  fibres  may  be 
injured  separately  or  together,  we  may  have 
paralysis  of  motion  without  loss  of  sensibility ; 
loss  of  sensibility  without  loss  of  motion ;  or, 
finally,  a  paralysis  of  both  at  the  same  time. 
The  degree  in  which  the  power  of  motion  and 
sensibility  are  affected  in  relation  to  each  other, 
in  any  particular  case  of  paralysis,  will  often 
throw  much  light  on  the  precise  seat  of  the 
injury  or  disease  in  the  nervous  system.  (See 
Beain,  Diseases  of  the,  and  Spinal  Diseases.) 
PARAMARIBO,  a  maritime  city,  capital  of 
Dutch  Guiana,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Surinam, 
20  m.  from  the  sea ;  lat.  5°  50'  N".,  Ion.  55° 
13'  "W. ;  pop.  about  18,000,  half  of  whom  are 
blacks.  Three  canals  traverse  the  town ;  the 
streets  are  regularly  laid  out  and  well  kept; 
and  the  houses,  many  of  which  are  of  wood, 
are  surrounded  by  gardens.  The  bank  of  Suri- 
nam, situated  here,  with  a  capital  of  $400,000, 
is  the  only  one  in  the  colony.  The  port  is 
safe,  commodious,  and  well  frequented.  Pa- 
ramaribo is  the  centre  of  the  Dutch  West  India 
commerce.  Its  principal  exports  are  sugar, 
molasses,  and  rum  (all  to  Holland),  coffee,  cot- 
ton, and  indigo,  with  cacao,  fancy  woods,  and 
timber.  Manufactured  goods,  machinery,  pro- 
visions, ginger,  drugs,  wines,  &c,  are  exten- 
sively imported.  The  total  value  of  the  ex- 
ports for  the  year  ending  Sept.  30,  1873,  was 
$1,244,115,  and  of  the  imports,  $1,452,330. 
The  entrances  for  the  same  year  were  36  steam- 
ers, tonnage  15,900,  and  107  sailing  vessels, 
tonnage  20,939;  clearances  nearly  the  same. 


72 


PARAMATTA 


PARAPHERNALIA 


PARAMATTA,  a  town  of  Australia,  in  New 
South  Wales,  on  the  Paramatta  river  (an  arm 
of  the  sea),  14  m.  N.  W.  of  Sydney ;  pop.  in 
1871,  6,103.  Among  the  notable  public  build- 
ings are  the  government  house,  the  benevolent 
asylum,  the  schools,  the  court  house  and  town 
hall,  several  places  of  worship,  among  which 
the  new  Gothic  Congregational  church  is  prom- 
inent, and  a  school  of  arts.  Its  observatory 
has  been  transferred  to  Sydney.  There  are  two 
orphan  schools  and  two  lunatic  asylums,  two 
woollen  factories,  and  two  flour  mills.  The 
walks  are  planted  with  oaks,  the  largest  in  Aus- 
tralia. The  vicinity  is  famous  for  its  orange- 
ries and  orchards.  Paramatta  is  next  to  Syd- 
ney the  oldest  town  in  the  colony,  and  has 
been  under  municipal  government  since  1861. 

PARANA,  a  river  of  South  America,  formed 
by  the  union  of  the  Paranahyba  and  Grande, 
both  from  the  mountains  of  Minas  Geraes  in 
Brazil.  From  the  point  of  junction  of  these 
rivers,  about  lat.  20°  S.,  Ion.  52°  W.,  the  Parana 
flows  S.  W.  by  S.  as  a  majestic  stream  to  lat. 
24°  4',  where  it  forms  the  cataract  of  Guayra 
or  Salto  Grande,  described  by  travellers  as 
eclipsing  in  magnificence  all  others  in  the 
world,  not  even  excepting  Niagara.  After 
collecting  the  waters  of  several  rivers  on  both 
banks,  and  especially  those  of  the  Tiete  and 
Paranapanema  from  the  east,  the  Parana  in- 
creases in  width  until  it  attains  nearly  4,500 
yards  a  short  distance  above  the  falls;  then 
the  immense  mass  of  water  is  suddenly  con- 
lined  within  a  gorge  of  200  ft.,  through  which 
it  dashes  with  fury  to  the  ledge,  whence  it 
is  precipitated  to  a  depth  of  56  ft.  It  is  com- 
puted that  the  volume  of  water  per  minute  is 
equal  to  1,000,000  tons;  the  velocity  of  the 
flood  through  the  gorge  is  40  m.  an  hour,  and 
the  roar  of  the  cataract  is  distinctly  audible 
at  a  distance  of  30  m.  The  river  continues 
in  a  southerly  direction  for  nearly  200  m., 
forming  the  boundary  between  Brazil  and  the 
Argentine  Republic  on  the  E.  and  Paraguay  on 
the  W.,  and  then  turns  S.  W.  and  afterward 
W.,  flowing  between  Paraguay  and  the  Argen- 
tine Republic,  till  it  is  joined  by  the  Paraguay 
at  Tres  Bocas,  a  little  above  Corrientes,  900 
m.  above  its  mouth.  Thence  it  pursues  a  S. 
course  through  the  Argentine  Republic  to  Santa 
Fe,  where  it  separates,  forming  several  islands, 
and  flows  S.  E.  till  it  unites  with  the  Uruguay 
to  form  the  Rio  de  la  Plata,  after  a  course  of 
1,860  m.,  exclusive  of  that  of  the  Paranahyba 
and  Grande.  Its  principal  tributary  is  the 
Paraguay  (which  is  more  voluminous,  though 
shorter  and  narrower,  than  the  stream  in  which 
its  name  is  lost),  and  between  their  point  of 
junction  and  Salto  Grande  empties  the  Igua- 
zu.  The  Parana  is  full  of  islands,  which  un- 
dergo a  constant  round  of  decay  and  renova- 
tion. Within  the  past  century  many  have  dis- 
appeared, and  others  have  been  formed  and 
protected  by  vegetation.  They  are  all  well 
wooded,  as  are  also  the  adjacent  shores ;  but 
being  composed  of  mud  and  sand,  without  even 


a  pebble,  and  extremely  low,  they  are  inun- 
dated during  the  periodical  rises  of  the  river. 
The  Parana  is  in  general  more  picturesque  than 
the  Paraguay,  especially  in  the  lower  half  of  its 
course,  where  the  cliffs  are  sometimes  abso- 
lutely perpendicular,  and  of  a  reddish  tinge, 
and  at  other  times  presented  in  large  broken 
masses,  clothed  with  cacti  and  mimosa  trees. 
Several  lines  of  steamers  regularly  ply  be- 
tween Buenos  Ay  res  and  Rosario  and  Cor- 
rientes. It  is  navigable  to  Corrientes  for  ves- 
sels drawing  16  ft.,  for  smaller  craft  to  Can- 
delaria,  and  thence  only  for  small  boats  up  to 
the  cataract. 

PARANA,  a  S.  E.  province  of  Brazil,  bound- 
ed N.  by  Matto  Grosso  and  Sao  Paulo,  E.  by 
the  Atlantic  and  Santa  Catharina,  S.  by  the 
latter  province  and  that  of  Sao  Pedro,  or  Rio 
Grande  do  Sul,  and  W.  by  Paraguay  and  Mat- 
to  Grosso;  area,  72,000  sq.  m.;  pop.  in  1871, 
90,000.  The  coasts  are  generally  low,  the 
country  rising  inward  more  or  less  abruptly  to 
the  plateau.  The  surface  in  the  latter  region, 
which  forms  part  of  the  Brazilian  highland,  is 
generally  undulating ;  but  there  are  no  eleva- 
ted summits.  The  principal  rivers  are  the  Pa- 
ranapanema in  the  north,  the  Uruguay  along 
the  southern  boundary,  and  the  Parana  in  the 
west ;  the  interior  is  drained  by  the  Tibagy, 
an  affluent  of  the  Paranapanema,  and  the  Iva- 
hy  and  Iguazu,  tributaries  of  the  Parana.  All 
these  rivers  are  navigable  by  canoes.  Little  is 
known  of  the  geology  of  Parana.  Coal  is  sup- 
posed to  exist  on  the  coast ;  mercury  has  been 
found  near  Paranagua,  and  gold  and  diamonds 
on  the  banks  of  the  Tibagy,  with  emeralds,  to- 
pazes, amethysts,  turquoises,  and  rubies.  The 
climate  is  mild  and  equable.  There  are  exten- 
sive forests  yielding  valuable  timber  and  cabi- 
net wood,  and  many  trees  and  plants  furnish 
useful  drugs  and  dyes.  (See  Brazil.)  Mate  or 
Paraguay  tea  thrives  here,  and  is  largely  con- 
sumed; coffee,  the  sugar  cane,  and  tobacco 
yield  good  crops,  the  tobacco  having  been  pro- 
nounced at  least  equal  to  that  of  Havana.  Va- 
nilla grows  spontaneously,  and  the  Chinese  tea 
plant  thrives  well,  but  the  natives  are  igno- 
rant of  the  preparation  of  tea.  Cotton  gives 
two  fine  crops  a  year.  The  expenditure  for 
public  instruction  in  1873  was  $37,810;  there 
were  121  primary  schools  (35  for  females),  5 
private  night  schools,  and  8  grammar  schools 
(one  for  females);  and  the  total  number  of 
scholars  was  3,268,  of  whom  892  were  females. 
The  capital  is  Curitiba ;  chief  port,  Paranagua. 

PARAPHERNALIA  (Gr.  Trapd,  besides,  and  <pepv%, 
dowry),  in  law,  all  the  personal  apparel  and 
ornaments  of  the  wife,  which  she  possesses, 
and  which  are  suitable  to  her  condition  in  life. 
The  word  was  borrowed  from  the  Roman  law. 
The  dos  or  dowry  of  a  Roman  wife  was  that 
portion  which  was  contributed  by  her,  or  in 
her  behalf,  toward  bearing  the  expense  of  the 
household  {ad  sustinenda  matrimonii  onera). 
That  part  of  her  property,  over  and  above  her 
dos,  which  she  withheld,  constituted  her  dona 


PARASITIC  ANIMALS 


PARCHMENT 


73 


paraphernalia  (bona  quae  prceter  dotem  uxor 
habet).  This  property  generally  remained  in 
the  hands  of  her  father  or  tutor  (guardian),  and 
the  husband  had  no  rights  over  it,  except  those 
which  were  expressly  given  him  by  the  wife. 
The  wife  might  dispose  of  it,  or  bring  an  ac- 
tion in  respect  of  it,  without  his  authority  or 
consent.  These,  and  the  other  rules  of  the 
Roman  code  upon  the  topic,  remain  without 
material  modification  in  the  modern  civil  law 
of  Europe. — In  the  English  law  paraphernalia 
has  acquired  a  meaning  which  limits  it  to  the 
personal  apparel  and  ornaments  possessed  by 
the  wife,  and  which  are  suitable  to  her  rank 
and  condition  in  life.  It  is  essential  that  these 
things  came  to  her  from  the  husband,  for  ar- 
ticles given  to  the  wife  by  any  other,  as  by  her 
father  or  other  relative,  or  even  by  a  stranger, 
are  absolute  gifts  to  her,  and  are  secured  to  her 
separate  use ;  but  the  paraphernalia  are  gifts 
sub  rnodo.  During  his  lifetime  the  husband 
may  dispose  of  all  of  them  but  her  necessary 
apparel,  and,  with  the  same  exception,  they  are 
subject  after  the  husband's  death  to  the  claims 
of  his  creditors.  Nothing  however  but  insol- 
vency, or  complete  alienation  or  sale  by  the 
husband,  will  defeat  the  wife's  right  of  owner- 
ship. Pledge  of  the  goods  will  not  suffice. 
Her  right  cannot  be  defeated  by  the  husband's 
will  bequeathing  the  paraphernalia.  If  they 
were  in  her  possession  at  the  time  of  her  hus- 
band's death,  she  would  hold  them  against  his 
executors  or  personal  representatives. — Para- 
phernalia is  quite  an  obsolete  title  in  American 
law,  the  common  law  rules  on  the  subject 
being  generally  superseded  by  the  provisions 
of  state  statutes;  and  by  these  the  wife  sur- 
viving her  husband  is  entitled  to  hold  her  wear- 
ing apparel  and  personal  ornaments  against  the 
claims  of  all  other  persons. 

PARASITIC  ANIMALS.  See  Entozoa,  and 
Epizoa. 

PARASITIC  PLANTS.    See  Epiphytes. 

PARAY-LE-MONIAL,  a  town  of  Burgundy, 
France,  in  the  department  of  Saone-et-Loire, 
35  m.  W.  Ni  W.  of  Macon,  and  180  m.  S.  E.  of 
Paris;  pop.  about  3,500.  It  has  a  remarka- 
ble church  and  a  Benedictine  abbey  founded 
in  973 ;  but  it  is  chiefly  celebrated  as  having 
been  the  abode  of  Marguerite  Marie  Alacoque, 
whose  tomb  is  in  the  chapel  attached  to  the 
Visitation  convent,  in  which  she  lived  and 
died.  As  she  was  mainly  instrumental  in  es- 
tablishing the  devotions  of  the  Sacred  Heart, 
which  have  oi  late  spread  so  rapidly  in  Roman 
Catholic  countries,  the  occasion  of  her  beatifi- 
cation by  Pius  IX.  in  1865  gave  rise  to  numer- 
ous pilgrimages  to  her  shrine,  which  have  in- 
creased in  frequency  and  numbers  ever  since. 
In  1873  and  1874,  besides  the  crowds  of  pil- 
grims from  France  and  Belgium,  companies 
went  from  Great  Britain,  Ireland,  and  the  Uni- 
ted States,  headed  by  distinguished  prelates 
and  laymen,  their  departure  from  home  and 
their  arrival  at  Paray-le-Monial  being  marked 
by  impressive  religious  ceremonies. 


PARCiE  (Gr.  Moipai),  or  Fates,  in  Grecian 
and  Roman  mythology,  daughters  of  Erebus 
and  Night  or  of  Jupiter  and  Themis.  They 
had  control  over  the  universe,  and  particularly 
human  destinies,  presided  over  all  great  events 
in  the  lives  of  men,  executed  the  decrees  of 
nature,  and  punished  criminals  through  their 
ministers  the  Furies,  whose  sisters  they  were 
sometimes  said  to  be.  In  Homer  Mocpa  is  fate 
personified,  and  is  almost  invariably  mentioned 
in  the  singular;  but  Hesiod  describes  three 
fates :  Clotho  or  the  spinner,  who  spun  out  the 
thread  of  human  life;  Lachesis,  the  disposer 
of  destinies,  who  twirled  the  spindle  while  Clo- 
tho held  the  distaff ;  and  Atropos  the  inevita- 
ble, who  cut  the  thread  when  it  had  reached 
its  proper  length.  They  are  sometimes  regarded 
simply  as  the  goddesses  of  the  duration  of  hu- 
man life,  in  which  case  they  are  but  two,  one 
presiding  over  birth  and  the  other  over  death. 
They  were  described  by  the  poets  as  hideous, 
stern,  and  cruel  old  women.  They  had  shrines 
in  many  parts  of  Greece. 

PARCHMENT  (Lat,  pergamena),  the  skins  of 
sheep  and  other  animals,  prepared  in  sheets  to 
render  them  fit  for  being  written  upon.  Parch- 
ment was  known  at  a  very  early  period,  and 
the  manufacture  of  it  is  said  to  have  been  im- 
proved if  not  originated  by  Eumenes  II.,  king 
of  Pergamus  (who  reigned  197-159  B.  C), 
whence  its  name.  According  to  Herodotus,  the 
ancient  Ionians  wrote  on  skins  many  ages  be- 
fore that  time,  and  it  is  certain  that  its  use  was 
common  in  Egypt  ages  before  the  time  of  Eu- 
menes. The  early  Arabs  inscribed  their  poe- 
try and  compositions  on  the  shoulder  bones  of 
sheep;  but  after  their  conquests  in  Asia  and 
Africa  they  so  profited  by  the  inventions  of 
the  nations  they  subdued,  that  parchment  was 
manufactured  in  Syria,  Arabia,  and  Egypt, 
which  in  color  and  delicacy  might  vie  with  our 
modern  paper.  The  ancients  generally  wrote 
only  on  one  side  of  their  parchment;  but  so 
valuable  was  it,  that  they  not  unfrequently 
erased  the  writing  and  used  it  a  second  time. 
To  the  present  day  no  substitute  has  been  found 
for  a  variety  of  purposes  to  which  it  is  applied. 
The  finer  sorts  of  parchment  called  vellum,  used 
for  important  writings,  as  deeds,  wills,  &c,  are 
manufactured  from  the  skins  of  calves,  kids, 
and  still-born  lambs.  The  heavier  parchment 
for  drum  heads  is  made  from  the  skins  of  asses, 
older  calves,  wolves,  and  goats.  All  these  are 
similarly  prepared.  The  skin,  being  freed  from 
the  hair,  is  placed  in  a  lime  pit  to  cleanse  it 
from  fat.  The  pelt  is  then  stretched  upon  a 
frame,  care  being  taken  that  the  surface  be 
perfectly  free  from  wrinkles,  and  dressed  with 
knives,  scrapers,  and  pumice  stone.  The  skin 
is  dried  gradually,  tightening  being  occasion- 
ally required.  If  traces  of  grease  remain,  it 
must  be  replaced  in  the  lime  pit  for  a  week 
or  ten  days,  and  again  stretched  and  dried.  A 
green  color  is  given  to  parchment  by  a  solu- 
tion made  with  30  parts  of  crystallized  acetate 
of  copper  and  8  of  bitartrate  of  potassa  in  500 


74: 


PAKDESSUS 


PARDON 


of  distilled  water,  4  parts  of  nitric  acid  being 
added  when  the  mixture  is  cold.  The  parch- 
ment being  moistened,  this  preparation  is  ap- 
plied with  a  brush,  and  the  polish  is  given  by- 
white  of  egg  or  mucilage  of  gum  arabic. — Pa- 
per or  vegetable  parchment  is  a  remarkable 
substance,  first  noticed  in  1847  by  Poumarede 
and  Figuier,  who  called  it  papyrine.  No  prac- 
tical application  was  made  of  the  discovery 
till  1857,  when  it  was  patented  in  England  by 
W.  E.  Game.  The  material  is  manufactured 
in  large  quantities  by  De  la  Rue  and  co.  It  is 
made  by  dipping  unsized  paper  for  a  few  sec- 
onds in  a  mixture  of  equal  volumes  of  strong 
sulphuric  acid  and  water.  Complete  success 
requires  attention  to  the  strength  of  the  mix- 
ture, which  must  also  be  allowed  to  cool  be- 
fore the  paper  is  dipped  in  it.  Paper  parch- 
ment is  used  for  legal  and  other  documents 
and  maps,  for  connecting  laboratory  appara- 
tus, covering  preserve  jars,  and  various  other 
purposes. 

PARDESSUS,  Jean  Marie,  a  French  jurist,  born 
in  Blois,  Aug.  11,  1772,  died  in  Paris,  May  26, 
1853.  He  became  an  advocate,  and  in  1807  a 
member  of  the  legislative  body  in  the  interest 
of  Napoleon,  and  was  repeatedly  elected  a 
deputy  under  the  restoration.  He  was  profes- 
sor of  mercantile  law  from  1810  to  1830,  and 
was  one  of  the  highest  authorities  on  that 
branch  of  jurisprudence.  His  principal  work 
is  Oours  de  droit  commercial  (4  vols.,  Paris, 
1814-'16 ;  6th  ed.,  1856).  He  also  published 
Traite  des  servitudes  (1806),  Traite  du  contrat 
et  des  lettres  de  change  (2  vols.,  1819),  Col- 
lections des  lois  maritimes  anterieures  au 
XVIII™  siecle  (6  vols.,  1828-'45),  &c. 

PARDOE,  Julia,  an  English  author,  born  in 
Beverley,  Yorkshire,  in  1806,  died  Nov.  26, 
1862.  She  produced  a  volume  of  poems  when 
she  was  13  years  old,  and  a  novel  at  15;  but 
her  first  important  work  was  "  Traits  and 
Traditions  of  Portugal"  (2  vols.,  1833).  She 
went  to  Constantinople  in  1835,  and  published 
"The  City  of  the  Sultan"  (3  vols.,  1836),  and 
furnished  the  letterpress  for  "  The  Romance  of 
the  Harem"  (3  vols.,  1839),  and  "The  Beau- 
ties of  the  Bosphorus  "  (2  vols.  4to).  She  af- 
terward visited  Hungary,  and  wrote  "  The  City 
of  the  Magyar"  (3  vols.  8vo,  1840),  and  the 
novel  of  "The  Hungarian  Castle"  (3  vols., 
1842).  Her  other  works  include  "Louis  the 
Fourteenth,  and  the  Court  of  France  in  the 
Seventeenth  Century"  (3  vols.,  1847);  "The 
Court  and  Reign  of  Francis  I."  (2  vols.,  1849) ; 
"  The  Life  of  Mary  de  Medicis  "  (3  vols.,  1852) ; 
"  Pilgrimages  in  Paris  "  (1858) ;  and  "  Episodes 
of  French  History  during  the  Consulate  and 
the  Empire"  (2  vols.,  1859).  In  1859  she  re- 
ceived from  the  crown  a  pension  of  £100. 

PARDON,  in  its  proper  sense,  the  act  of  grace 
by  which  the  sovereign  declares  that  the  guilty 
shall  be  regarded  as  innocent.  In  human  polit- 
ical societies,  this  effect  is  accomplished,  not 
by  absolving  the  moral  guilt  of  the  criminal, 
but  by  removing  or  withholding  those  penal 


consequences  which  the  law  attaches  to  crime. 
Chief  Justice  Marshall's  definition  may  not  be 
altogether  exact,  but  it  is  often  quoted  in  our 
law  books,  and  expresses  the  usual  acceptation 
of  the  word.  "  A  pardon,"  he  says,  "  is  an  act 
of  grace,  which,  proceeding  from  the  power 
intrusted  with  the  execution  of  the  laws,  ex- 
empts the  individual  on  whom  it  is  bestowed 
from  the  punishment  which  the  law  inflicts  for 
a  crime  which  he  has  committed."  A  pardon 
is  then  an  act  not  of  justice,  but  of  grace.  Par- 
don necessarily  implies  punishment,  or  the  lia- 
bility thereto ;  and  punishment  supposes  guilt, 
ascertained  in  the  due  course  of  law,  and  justly 
visited  with  a  penalty.  For,  as  in  the  state  it 
must  be  the  theory  that  the  courts  have  the 
monopoly  of  doing  justice,  so  theoretically  it 
must  be  assumed  that  he  is  guilty  whom  the 
courts  declare  to  be  so,  and  that  the  penalty  is 
justly  inflicted.  If  the  punishment  of  such  a 
one  be  but  an  act  of  justice,  the  remission  of 
it,  or  a  pardon,  must  be  an  act  of  clemency  or 
grace.  But  it  is  the  chief  end  of  punishment 
to  advance  the  public  welfare.  When  then  the 
commonwealth  will  derive  more  or  as  much 
advantage,  or  even  will  suffer  nothing,  from 
the  remission  of  the  punishment,  this  may  well 
be  granted ;  and  this  consideration  ought  to 
be  the  measure  and  guide  of  the  pardoning 
power.  Forgiveness  must  come  of  course  from 
the  one  who  is  injured,  and  that,  in  all  states, 
is  the  sovereign.  The  ultimate  power,  the  real 
sovereignty,  whether  it  reside  in  a  king  or  in 
the  people,  as  it  is  the  source  of  the  law,  so 
must  it  be  the  source  of  grace  to  him  who 
breaks  the  law.  In  the  forms  of  government 
which  have  most  prevailed,  the  crowned  prince 
has  been  regarded  as  the  sovereign,  and  par- 
don has  always  been  his  prerogative.  In  demo- 
cratic states,  the  people  are  sovereign;  but  they 
have  generally  delegated  the  power  of  pardon 
to  him  who  is  placed  at  the  head  of  the  state, 
that  is,  to  the  chief  executive  magistrate,  though 
in  the  absence  of  such  delegation  the  power 
would  pertain  to  the  legislature.  The  consti- 
tution of  the  United  States  gives  the  power  to 
the  president  alone.  In  some  of  the  states  it 
is  to  be  exercised  with  the  advice  and  consent 
of  the  council.  Sometimes,  where  it  is  reserved 
to  the  legislature,  the  governor  can  only  re- 
prieve temporarily.  A  pardon  presupposes 
guilt,  and  though  it  is  now  well  settled  that  it 
may  be  granted  as  well  before  trial  and  con- 
viction as  afterward,  yet  in  every  case  it  is  to 
defeat  a  punishment  which  the  law  has  pre- 
scribed for  an  act  committed,  and  therefore  to 
defeat  and  annul  so  far  the  law  itself.  Owing 
to  the  imperfection  of  the  laws  themselves,  or 
to  the  imperfect  application  of  good  laws,  an 
innocent  man  may  be  condemned  to  punish- 
ment, or  a  slight  offence  may  be  visited  with 
too  severe  a  penalty.  But  remission  of  the  sen- 
tence in  these  cases,  whole  or  partial,  according 
as  the  sentence  is  wholly  or  partially  unjust, 
though  regarded  as  an  act  of  clemency,  is,  in 
the  one  class  of  cases,  only  that  very  justice 


PARDON 


PARE 


V5 


which  the  courts  in  the  particular  case  sought 
to  do,  and  would  have  done  if  at  the  trial  the 
proofs  of  innocence  had  been  as  clear  as  they 
now  are,  and  in  other  cases  it  is  an  equitable 
indulgence  to  those  who,  though  within  the 
letter  of  the  law,  yet,  could  their  cases  have 
been  foreseen,  would  have  been  perhaps  except- 
ed from  its  general  rules,  or  who  ought  to  have 
been  excepted,  but  could  never  be,  because  of 
the  necessary  imperfection  of  legislation.  But 
even  in  these  cases,  when  justice  alone  is  in- 
tended to  be  done,  where  the  innocent,  not  the 
guilty,  is  to  be  relieved  from  penalties,  it  is 
hardly  possible  that  the  so-called  pardoning 
power  shall  always  be  judiciously  exercised. 
— The  indulgence  of  pardon  extends  only  to 
crimes  already  committed.  In  no  well  gov- 
erned state  will  the  sovereign  grant  dispensa- 
tion to  crimes  to  be  committed  in  the  future ; 
and  in  republics,  unless  the  people,  which  is 
the  sovereign,  have  expressly  delegated  such 
an  authority,  the  executive,  which  is  usually 
invested  with  the  power  of  pardon,  has  no  such 
right  of  dispensation.  Further,  as  pardon  is 
measured  by  and  regards  only  the  public  wel- 
fare, it  cannot  intrude  on  private  rights.  There- 
fore a  pardon  which  takes  away  other  penal- 
ties cannot  divest  a  private  citizen's  right  in  a 
forfeiture  under  a  penal  statute,  or  his  share 
in  the  penalty  which  such  statute  secures  to 
the  informer.  On  the  principle  that  the  greater 
power  includes  the  less,  it  is  well  established, 
though  it  has  been  sometimes  questioned,  that 
the  power  of  pardoning  absolutely  includes 
that  of  pardoning  conditionally.  Any  condi- 
tions, therefore,  precedent  or  subsequent,  may 
be  annexed  to  the  offer  of  a  pardon ;  and  on 
the  performance  of  these  the  validity  of  the 
grant  may  be  made  to  depend.  Pardons  are 
therefore  sometimes  very  properly  granted  on 
condition  that  the  subjects  of  them,  who  have 
been  led  into  criminal  acts  by  indulgence  in 
intoxicating  drinks,  shall  wholly  abstain  there- 
from ;  and  sometimes,  very  improperly  and  in 
utter  disregard  of  state  comity,  on  condition 
that  they  shall  leave  the  state. — In  regard  to 
the  legal  effect  of  a  pardon,  it  may  be  observed 
that  in  its  proper  sense  it  completely  rehabili- 
tates the  criminal ;  but  usually  the  executive 
clemency  consists  only  in  a  remission  part  of 
of  the  sentence.  Now,  if  the  judgment  which 
the  law  passed  upon  the  offender  consisted 
exclusively  in  fine  or  imprisonment,  remission 
of  these  does  in  fact  restore  him  to  full  enjoy- 
ment of  all  his  civil  rights.  But  when  infamy 
attaches  by  particular  laws  to  the  conviction, 
as  it  does  in  the  case  of  felonies,  forgiveness 
of  the  fine  or  imprisonment  only  by  no  means 
makes  the  pardoned  equal  with  the  innocent ; 
in  short,  the  pardon  is  partial,  or  it  were  per- 
haps better  to  say,  it  is  no  pardon  at  all.  It 
must  be  remarked,  however,  that  this  distinc- 
tion is  not  invariably  recognized ;  yet  the  de- 
nial of  it  seems  to  have  introduced  a  discord- 
ance into  the  decisions  of  the  courts.  Thus, 
in  a  Pennsylvania  case,  where  the  president  of 


the  United  States  had  "  remitted"  to  the  party 
offered  as  a  witness  "  the  remainder  of  his  sen- 
tence," it  was  held  by  the  court  that  the  par- 
don, as  it  was  called,  removed  the  sentence  and 
also  the  infamy  which  attended  the  crime,  and 
therefore  restored  the  competency  of  the  wit- 
ness. But  in  Massachusetts,  in  a  precisely  simi- 
lar case,  that  is,  where  the  pardon  "remitted 
the  residue  of  the  sentence,"  the  court  distin- 
guished between  pardon  and  the  mere  annul- 
ling of  a  sentence  of  imprisonment,  holding 
that  the  latter  could  not  remove  infamy  and 
the  consequent  incapacity,  because  that  could 
be  effected  only  by  an  express  forgiveness  of 
the  offence,  that  is,  by  words  which  distinctly 
imported  a  restoration  to  all  civil  rights,  and 
showed  the  willingness  of  the  pardoning  au- 
thority to  regard  the  criminal  as  entirely  in- 
nocent. Quoting  the  language  of  an  approved 
author  on  criminal  practice,  the  court  said  the 
pardon,  or  rather  remission  of  the  punishment 
only,  does  not  remove  the  blemish  of  charac- 
ter, and  so  does  not  revive  competency.  There 
must  be  full  and  free  pardon  of  the  offence, 
before  these  can  be  removed  or  revived.  So 
the  English  law  held  that  when  attainder 
wrought  corruption  of  blood,  the  party  was 
not  completely  reinstated  by  the  king's  charter 
of  pardon ;  and  generally  it  has  been  laid  down 
in  this  country,  that  commutation  to  a  shorter 
period  than  a  life  term  to  the  state  prison  (which 
in  the  American  law  generally  works  the  civil 
death  of  the  criminal)  does  not  restore  marital 
rights,  or  entitle  the  party  to  the  guardianship 
of  his  children.  "Where  these  disabilities  re- 
main, the  pardon  is  not  complete. — A  pardon 
is  regarded  as  a  deed ;  and  delivery  and  accept- 
ance of  it  are  essential  to  its  validity  in  all  cases, 
whether  of  capital  offences  or  of  misdemean- 
ors. It  has  therefore  been  held  that  where  the 
president  had  granted  a  pardon  which  had  been 
put  into  the  hands  of  the  marshal  for  delivery 
to  the  criminal  in  his  custody,  the  authority  to 
deliver  it  might  be  countermanded  at  any  time 
before  delivery  had  actually  been  made,  and 
the  pardon  thereby  become  ineffectual.  It  has 
also  been  held  in  Pennsylvania  that  a  pardon 
obtained  by  means  of  forged  papers  might  be 
treated  as  void  for  the  fraud ;  but  in  the  ab- 
sence of  fraud,  a  pardon  once  granted  and  de- 
livered without  condition  can  be  recalled  by 
no  authority  whatever. — A  peculiar  remission 
of  punishment  has  become  established  in  some 
of  the  states,  by  statutes  which  permit  prison 
authorities  to  shorten  the  term  of  convict  im- 
prisonment for  good  behavior  in  confinement, 
the  extent  of  the  remission  being  graduated 
by  fixed  rules.  This  obviously  is  not  pardon, 
and  the  laws  which  permit  it  do  not  encroach 
upon  any  exclusive  power  of  pardon  which 
may  have  been  conferred  upon  the  governor. 

PARE,  Ambroise,  a  French  surgeon,  born  at 
Bourg-Hersent,  near  Laval,  in  1517,  died  in 
Paris,  Dec.  22,  1590.  He  went  to  Paris  in  his 
17th  year,  and  his  progress  in  surgical  study 
was  so  rapid  that  in  1536  the  captain  general 


76 


PAKEGORIC  ELIXIR 


PARIS 


of  French  infantry,  Rene  de  Montejan,  ap- 
pointed him  surgeon  to  his  troops  and  took 
him  to  Italy.  After  his  return  to  Paris  he 
was  elected  provost  of  the  college  of  surgery. 
In  1552  he  was  appointed  surgeon  to  Henry 
II.,  and  afterward  to  Francis  II.,  Charles  IX., 
and  Henry  III.  He  exerted  a  great  influence 
upon  practical  surgery,  but  his  reputation  rests 
mainly  upon  three  important  improvements :  1. 
The  treatment  of  gun-shot  wounds  by  simple 
dressings,  instead  of  boiling  oil  or  the  actual 
cautery,  which  had  been  thought  necessary  on 
account  of  the  supposed  poisonous  nature  of 
such  wounds.  2.  The  application  of  the  liga- 
ture to  blood  vessels  after  amputation,  to  pre- 
vent haemorrhage,  instead  of  the  actual  cautery. 
This  was  almost  as  great  an  improvement  as 
the  first,  and  one  of  still  wider  application.  3. 
The  rule  that  in  searching  for  a  bullet  the  pa- 
tient should  be  placed  in  the  same  posture  as 
at  the  moment  of  receiving  the  wound.  The 
first  edition  of  his  complete  works  appeared  at 
Lyons  in  1562,  and  the  last,  edited  by  Dr.  Mal- 
gaigne,  with  notes,  at  Paris  in  1840-'41  (3  vols. 
8vo).  They  were  translated  into  English  by 
T.  Johnson  (fol.,  London,  1634). 

PAREGORIC  ELIXIR  (Gr.  naprryopudq,  sooth- 
ing), or  camphorated  tincture  of  opium,  a  prep- 
aration of  opium  and  benzoic  acid,  each  1 
drachm;  oil  of  anise,  1  fluid  drachm;  honey, 
2  ounces;  camphor,  2  scruples;  diluted  alco- 
hol, 2  pints;  macerated  for  seven  days  and 
filtered  through  paper.  This  is  a  popular  med- 
icine, used  as  an  anodyne  and  antispasmodic. 
It  allays  cough  in  cases  of  asthma  and  catarrh, 
and  relieves  slight  pains  in  the  stomach  and 
bowels.  It  is  especially  used  for  children,  on 
account  of  the  weakness  of  the  preparation 
permitting  a  more  accurate  graduation  of  the 
dose ;  but  it  should  be  administered  with  the 
same  caution  as  any  other  preparation  of  opium. 

PAREJA,  Juan  de,  a  Spanish  artist,  born  in  the 
West  Indies  in  1610,  or  according  to  Cean  Ber- 
mudez  in  Seville,  of  parents  who  were  slaves, 
in  1606,  died  in  Madrid  in  1670.  He  accom- 
panied Velazquez  as  his  slave  to  Madrid  in 
1628,  and  mixed  the  colors  and  prepared  the 
palette  of  the  artist.  Secretly  studying  the 
style  of  Velazquez,  he  soon  painted  creditable 
pictures,  one  of  which  attracted  the  attention 
of  Philip  IV.  in  a  visit  to  the  artist's  studio, 
and  resulted  in  the  emancipation  of  Pareja. 
The  slave  became  the  pupil  of  his  master,  and 
imitated  him  so  well  that  their  pictures  are 
sometimes  confounded.  His  works  include 
"The  Calling  of  St.  Matthew"  at  Aranjuez, 
"The  Baptism  of  Christ"  at  Toledo,  and  some 
saints  at  Madrid. 

PARENT  AND  CHILD.    See  Infant. 

PARENT  DU  CHATELET,  Alexandre  Jean  Baptiste, 
a  French  physician,  born  in  Paris,  Sept.  29, 
1790,  died  there,  March  7,  1836.  Admitted  to 
the  practice  of  medicine  in  1814,  he  made  pub- 
lic hygiene  his  specialty,  and  published  several 
works,  the  more  important  of  which  are :  Essai 
8ur  les  cloaques  ou  egouts  de  la  mile  de  Paris 


(1824),  and  De  la  prostitution  dans  la  ville  de 
Paris  (2  vols.,  1836). 

PAREPA-ROSA.     See  Rosa. 

PARHELIA.    See  Halo. 

PARIAHS,  a  low  caste  of  the  Tamil  country 
and  race,  in  southern  India,  whose  name  is  er- 
roneously applied  by  Europeans  to  the  outside 
Hindoo  castes  generally,  of  which  it  is  only 
one,  forming  but  a  small  part  of  the  outcast 
population.  These  low  castes  are  organized 
under  strict  and  exclusive  regulations,  like  the 
higher  castes  above  them;  and  Max  Mtiller 
says  that  the  lowest  Pariah  is  as  proud  and  as 
anxious  to  preserve  his  own  caste  as  the  high- 
est Brahman.  The  name  Pariah  is  derived 
from  the  bell  which  they  were  formerly  obliged 
to  carry  about,  to  warn  Brahmans  of  the  ap- 
proach of  an  outcast. — The  common  domestic 
dogs  of  India  and  Ceylon,  mongrels  of  Euro- 
pean descent  which  haunt  the  streets  and  sub- 
urbs of  cities  and  sometimes  hunt  in  packs  on 
the  plains,  are  known  as  Pariah  dogs. 

PARIAN  MARBLES.     See  Aeundel. 

PARINI,  Giuseppe,  an  Italian  poet,  born  at  Bo- 
sisio,  near  Milan,  May  22,  1729,  died  Aug.  15, 
1799.  He  was  of  humble  birth  and  occupa- 
tion, but  acquired  fame  in  1752  by  his  Ri- 
pano  Eupilino,  a  volume  of  poems,  and  still 
more  by  his  II  giorno,  a  didactic  and  drama- 
tic satire.  His  works  were  edited  by  Reina  (6 
vols.,  Milan,  1801-'4,  and  2  vols.,  1825). 

PARIS,  the  capital  of  France,  and  the  second 
city  in  Europe  in  point  of  population,  on  both 
banks  of  the  Seine  and  on  two  islands  in  that 
river,  111  m.  from  its  mouth ;  lat.  of  the  ob- 
servatory, 48°  50'  11"  K,  Ion.  2°  20'  221"  E. ; 
height  of  the  city  above  the  sea,  190  ft. ;  area 
enclosed  within  the  fortifications,  18,315  acres, 
or  a  little  more  than  28J-  sq.  m. ;  pop.  in  1872, 
1,851,792.  With  its  suburbs  it  forms  a  special 
department,  that  of  the  Seine,  having  an  area 
of  184  sq.  m.,  and  a  population  in  1872  of 
2,220,060.  The  area  of  the  city  proper  at  dif- 
ferent dates  is  shown  in  the  following  table  : 


PERIODS. 

Acres. 

Sq.  m. 

Under  Julius  Caesar 

"      Philip  Augustus 

"      Charles  VI 

"      Henrylll 

"      Louis  XIII 

...B.C.      56 
..A.D.  1211 
. .     "      1383 
. .     "      1581 
. .     "      1034 

8T 

625 

1,084 

1,198 

1,403 

2,728 

8,708 

1S,315 

'i:69 
1-86 
2-19 

"      Louis  XIV 

...     "      1686 

4*26 

"      Louis  XVI 

...     "      1784 

13-60 

"      Napoleon  III 

. .     "      1860 

28-61 

The  following  table  shows  the  increase  of  pop- 
ulation of  the  city  during  the  past  80  years, 
the  figures  for  the  first  two  dates  being  from 
the  most  trustworthy  estimates,  the  others 
from  official  censuses : 


YEARS. 

Population. 

Pop.  to 
the  acre. 

YEARS. 

Population. 

Pop.  to 
the  acre. 

1798 

1802 

1806 

1817 

1827 

640,000 
672,000 
580,609 

713,966 

890,431 

78 

77 

66 

82 

102 

1836 

1840 

1856 

1866 

1872 

909,126 

945,721 

1,174,346 

1.825.274 
1,851,792 

104 
10S 
135 
100 
101 

PARIS 


77 


The  population  in  1872  was  divided  according 
to  nationality  as  follows : 


NATIONALITY. 


Males.       Females. 


Born  in  the  department  of 
the  Seine 

Born  in  other  p'rts  of  France 

Naturalized  foreigners 

Alsatian  and  Lorrainian  im- 
migrants  f . 

Persons     from     Alsace-Lorraine 

who  are  German  citizens 

English,  Scotch,  and  Irish 

Americans     (North    and    South 

America) 

Germans 

Austrians  and  Hungarians 

Belgians 

Dutch 

Spaniards 

Italians 

Swiss 

Bussians 

Poles 

Swedes,  Norwegians,  and  Danes. 

Turks,  Greeks,  Wallachs,  &c 

Asiatics 

Other  nationalities 

Nationality  unknown 


Total 921,224    924,508    1,851,792 


307,S12 

52T,023 

2,196 

19,929 

14.696 
2,901 

1,939 

7,284 

1,030 

17,215 

4,107 

1,441 

5,731 

7,533 

560 

1,636 

296 

507 

105 

784 


334,906 

504,842 
1,836 

17,047 

16,919 
4,589 

2,181 

8,455 

773 

15,697 

3,645 

1,292 

2,358 

4,867 

531 

845 

176 

202 

26 

742 

2,603 


642,718 

1,031,865 

4,082 

36,976 

81,615 
7,490 

4,120 

15,739 

1,803 

32,912 

7,752 

2,733 

8,089 

12.400 

1,091 

2,481 

472 

709 

167 

1,526 

5,102 


In  regard  to  religious  belief,  the  population 
was  divided  into  1,760,168  Roman  Catholics, 
41,672  Protestants  (Oalvinists  19,423,  Luther- 
ans 12,634,  other  sects  4,615),  23,434  Jews, 
13,905  professing  no  belief,  1,572  Mohamme- 
dans, Buddhists,  &c,  and  11,041  unascertained. 
Of  the  total  population  over  6  years  of  age 
(1,704,152),  175,510  (69,911  males  and  105,599 
females)  were  unable  to  read  or  write,  and  47,- 
467  (21,812  males  and  25,655  females)  were  un- 
able to  write ;  of  the  former,  135,489  were  over 
20  years,  and  of  the  latter,  28,426.  The  follow- 
ing table,  taken  from  the  figures  of  the  census 
of  1872,  shows,  though  very  generally,  the  oc- 
cupations and  professions  of  the  population  : 


PROFESSION  OR  OCCUPATION. 


Agriculture  (and  trades  connected  with  it) 

Industries  and  manufactures 

Commerce  and  commercial  pursuits 

Occupations  connected  with  transportation 

(railways,  &c),  with  banking,  brokerage, 

and  commission 

Miscellaneous  professions  * 

Liberal  professions 

Persons  living  exclusively  from  the  income 

of  their  capital 

Persons  without  profession  or  occupation. . 

Persons  not  classified  t 

Persons  whose  professions  are  unknown  or 

have  not  been  determined 


Persons  actively- 
engaged. 


Male.        Female. 


2.361 
295.211 

148,651 


45,661 
9.076 
95,800 

51.589 

5.041 

15,484 

4,801 


655 
197.987 
52,207 


3,581 

6.659 

17,219 

59,899 
10,217 
12,265 

8.432 


Paris  is  divided  for  administrative  and  polit- 
ical purposes  into  20  arrondissements,  each 
of  which  is  subdivided  into  four  "  quarters." 
Each  arrondissement  has  its  mayor   (maire) 

*  The  more  detailed  French  tables  include  in  this  category 
landlords,  keepers  of  baths  and  gymnasiums,  exhibitors,  acro- 
bats, and  other  classes. 

t  Foundlings,  the  sick  in  public  hospitals,  inmates  of  prisons 
and  asylums,  &c,  &c. 


and  its  administrative  officers.  The  official 
names  and  numbers  of  the  arrondissements 
and  quarters  are  shown  below  (the  arrondisse- 
ments with  Roman,  the  quarters  with  Arabic 
numerals) : 


I.  LOUVRE. 

1.  St.  Germ.  FAuxerrois. 

2.  Halles. 

3.  Palais  Eoyal. 

4.  Place  Vendome. 

II.  BOURSE. 

5.  Gaillon. 

6.  Vivienne. 

7.  Mail. 

8.  Bonne  Nouvelle. 

III.  TEMPLE. 

9.  Arts  et  Metiers. 

10.  Enfants  Eouges. 

11.  Archives. 

12.  Ste.  Avoie. 

IV.    HOTEL    DE   VILLE. 

13.  St.  Merry. 

14.  St.  Gervais. 

15.  Arsenal. 

16.  Notre  Dame. 

V.    PANTHEON. 

17.  St.  Victor. 

IS.  Jardin  des  Plantes. 

19.  Val  de  Grace. 

20.  Sorbonne. 

VI.    LUXEMBOURG. 

21.  Monnaie. 

22.  Odeon. 

23.  Notre  Dame  des  Champs 

24.  St.  Germain  des  Pr^s. 

VII.    PALAIS   BOURBON. 

25.  St.  Thomas  d'Aquin. 

26.  Invalides. 

27.  Ecole  Militaire. 

28.  Gros  Caillou. 

VIII.    ELYSEE. 

29.  Champs  EJysees. 

30.  Faubourg  du  Boule. 

31.  Madeleine. 

32.  Europe. 

IX.    OPERA. 

33.  St.  Georges. 

34.  Chaussee  d'Antin. 

85.  Faubourg  Montmartre. 
36.  Kochechouart. 


X.    ENCLOS   ST.    LAURENT. 


37.  St.  Vincent  de  Paul 
3S.  Porte  St.  Denis. 

39.  Porte  St  Martin. 

40.  Hopital  St.  Louis. 


XI.    POPINCOURT. 

41.  Folie  Mericourt. 

42.  St.  Ambroise. 

43.  Koquette. 

44.  Ste.  Marguerite. 

XII.    REUILLY. 

45.  Bel  Air. 

46.  Picpus. 

47.  Bercy. 

48.  Quinze  Vingts. 

XIII.    GOBELINS. 

49.  Salpetriere. 

50.  Gare. 

51.  Maison  Blanche. 

52.  Croulebarbe. 

XIV.    OBSERVATOIRE. 

.53.  Mt.  Parnasse. 

54.  Sante. 

55.  Petit  Montrouge. 

56.  Plaisance. 

XV.    VAUGIRARD. 

57.  St.  Lambert. 

58.  Necker. 

59.  Grenelle. 

60.  Javelle. 

XVI.  PASSY. 

61.  Auteuil. 

62.  La  Muette. 

63.  Porte  Dauphine. 

64.  Des  Bassins. 

XVII.    BATIGNOLLES- 
MONCEAUX. 

65.  Ternes. 

66.  Plaine  de  Monceaux. 

67.  Batignolles. 

68.  Epinettes. 

XVIII.  BUTTE  MONTMARTRE. 

69.  Grandes  Carrieres. 

70.  Cliquancourt. 

71.  Goutte  d'Or. 

72.  La  Chapelle. 

XIX.    BUTTES    CHAUMONT. 

73.  La  Villette. 

74..  Pont  de  Flandre. 

75.  Amerique. 

76.  Combat. 

XX.    MENILMONTANT. 

77.  Belleville. 

78.  St.  Fargeau. 

79.  Pere  Lachaise. 

80.  Charonne. 


In  spite  of  the  official  designations  given  above, 
some  ancient  names  and  others  coined  in  re- 
cent times  are  always  applied  in  popular  par- 
lance to  certain  of  the  quarters.  The  most 
prominent  examples  of  this  are  the  old  names 
quartier  St.  Antoine,  applied  to  the  whole  re- 
gion surrounding  the  present  place  de  la  Bas- 
tille; de  la  Cit6,  to  the  island  on  which  the 
chief  part  of  mediaeval  Paris  was  built;  fau- 
bourg St.  Germain,  to  the  greater  part  of  the 
7th  arrondissement  and  a  small  part  of  the  15th. 
Of  coined  names,  the  most  commonly  used 
are  those  of  Latin  quarter  (quartier  Latin),  ap- 
plied to  the  former  quartier  St.  Jacques  (now 


78 


PARIS 


forming  part  of  the  quartier  du  Pantheon),  and 
quartier  Breda,  to  the  region  occupying  the 
northern  part  of  the  quartier  de  l'Opera  and 
its  vicinity. — The  climate  of  Paris  is  variable, 
but  very  healthful,  moist  rather  than  dry,  with 
an  average  annual  rainfall,  in  105  rainy  days, 
of  22  inches.    Falls  of  snow  are  rare  and  slight. 


The  mean  temperature  is  51°  F.,  the  average 
summer  and  winter  extremes  being  respective- 
ly 96°  above  and  1°  below  zero.  The  city  lies 
in  a  nearly  level  plain,  broken  on  the  right 
bank  of  the  Seine  by  a  range  of  hills  (buttes) 
about  two  miles  from  the  river.  This  plain 
extends  above  a  singular  geological  formation 


Paris  and  its  Environs. 


Bounds  of  city  under  Louis  VII. 

Bounds  under  Philip  Augustus. 


-—  Bounds  under  Louis  XIV. 
—  Barriers  under  Louis  XVI. 


1.  H6tel  de  Cluny.  2.  Institut  de  France.  3.  Notre  Dame.  4.  Palais  de  Justice.  5.  Place  du  Roi  de  Rome.  6.  Avenue  Bois  de  Boulogne.  7.  Arc 
deTriomphe.  8.  Avenue  des  Champs  Elysges.  9.  Pare  de  Monceaux.  10.  Palais  de  l'Elysee.  11.  Palais  de  l'Industrie.  12.  Place  de  la  Concorde. 
13.  Madeleine.  14.  Grand  Opera.  15.  Place  Vend6me.  16.  Theatre  des  Italiens.  17'.  Bourse.  18.  Palais  Royal  and  Theatre  Francais.  19. 
Tuileries.  20.  Louvre.  21.  Halles  Centrales.  22.  H&tel  de  Ville.  23.  Place  Royale.  24.  Place  de  la  Bastille.  25.  Cemetery  of  Montmartre.  26. 
Bassin  de  la  Villette.  27.  Custom  House.  28.  Gare  de  l'Arsenal.  29.  Cemeterv  of  Pere  Lachaise.  30.  Place  du  Tr&ne.  31.  Jardin  des  Plantes. 
32.  Wine  Market.  33.  College  de  France.  34.  Sorbonne.  35.  Pantheon.  36.  Observatory.  37.  Luxembourg  Garden.  38.  Palais  du  S£nat.  39. 
St.  Sulpice.  40.  Corps  Legislatif.  41.  Archiepiscopal  Palace.  42.  H&tel  des  Invalides.  43.  Military  School.  44.  Champ  de  Mars.  45.  Cemetery 
of  Mont  Parnasse. 


called  the  Paris  basin,  the  arrangement  of  which 
presents  a  peculiar  assemblage  of  natural  ad- 
vantages ;  its  different  strata  supply  the  city's 
water,  its  building  stone,  gravel,  &c.  Over  an 
inexhaustible  reservoir  which,  tapped  by  arte- 
sian wells,  supplies  extensive  quarters  of  the 
town  with  water,  spreads,  first,  the  great  chalk 


formation,  to  which  succeed  in  ascending  order 
the  following  layers :  plastic  clay,  marine  lime- 
stone, silicious  (fresh-water)  limestone,  gyp- 
sum, alternating  with  marls  abounding  in  fossil 
remains.  The  alluvial  deposit  is  of  great  fer- 
tility, yielding  incessant  crops.  It  is  estimated 
that  324,000,000  cub.  ft.  of  building  stone  have 


PAEIS 


79 


been  extracted  from  the  now  exhausted  quar- 
ries, which  underlie  about  one  eighth  of  the 
surface  of  the  city,  and  have  been  used  as  cat- 
acombs since  1784.  (See  Catacombs.)  The 
Seine,  approaching  from  the  south,  receives 
the  Marne  little  more  than  a  mile  outside  the 
enceinte,  enters  the  city  at  its  S.  E.  corner, 
flows  N.  "W.  and  then  S.  W.,  leaves  the  en- 
ceinte at  its  S.  "W.  extremity,  and  passes  in 
great  bends,  like  the  letter  S,  across  the  fer- 
tile plain  between  Paris  and  the  forest  of  St. 
Germain,  10  m.  N.  W.  The  steep  hills  of 
Montmartre  and  the  Buttes  Chaumont,  both 
within  the  city  limits,  and  both  hollowed  by 
constant  quarrying  for  gypsum,  form  the  only 
other  noteworthy  natural  features  of  the  city's 
site.  Paris  is  surrounded  by  a  complete  belt 
(enceinte)  of  fortifications,  broken  by  57  gates, 
besides  the  entrances  of  railways.  It  consists 
of  a  bastioned  and  terraced  wall,  21  m.  in  cir- 
cuit, presenting  94  bastions,  designated  by  their 
numbers  in  order,  proceeding  N.,  W.,  S.,  and 
E.  around  the  circuit  from  the  entrance  of  the 
Seine  back  to  that  point.  The  whole  is  sur- 
rounded by  a  continuous  ditch  22  m.  in  circuit 
and  49  ft.  wide.  The  wall  has  34  ft.  of  escarp- 
ment, faced  with  stone  11  ft.  thick.  This  inte- 
rior system  of  defence  is  supplemented  by  the 
following  16  outlying  forts,  named  in  their  or- 
der from  the  Seine  in  the  direction  described 
above  in  the  case  of  the  bastions,  and  the  dis- 
tance from  the  enceinte  being  given  in  each 
case :  Oharenton,  3,600  yards ;  Vincennes, 
2,290;  Nogent,  5,342;  Rosny,  5,069;  Noisy, 
3,270  ;  Romainville,  1,570 ;  Aubervilliers, 
2,071 ;  Est,  3,815 ;  Double  Couronne  du  Nord, 
5,450  ;  LaBriche,  5,560 ;  Mont  Valerien,  4,360 ; 
Issy,  2,400;  Vanves,  2,290;  Montrouge,  1,690; 
Bicetre,  1,635;  Ivry,  2,725.  Forts  de  No- 
gent,  Rosny,  and  Noisy  are  beyond  the  east- 
ern limit  of  the  plan  given  with  this  arti- 
cle.— According  to  the  census  of  1872,  the 
city  of  Paris  contained  3,619  streets,  places, 
courts,  squares,  quays,  and  other  places  of  pub- 
lic right  of  way ;  300  isolated  public  edifices, 
besides  public  buildings  included  in  blocks 
or  groups  with  other  structures;  and  63,963 
houses,  of  which  61,622  were  inhabited,  1,947 
uninhabited,  and  394  in  process  of  construc- 
tion. Of  the  inhabited  nouses,  694  were  oc- 
cupied by  public  establishments,  and  60,928  by 
private  citizens.  In  these  houses  were  851,513 
locations,  or  arrangements  for  separate  dwell- 
ings (as  these  are  usually  arranged  in  continen- 
tal cities,  a  considerable  number  in  each  house). 
Of  these,  694,095  were  occupied  by  private 
citizens,  65,257  were  vacant,  and  92,161  were 
occupied  by  industrial  and  commercial  estab- 
lishments, &c.  The  most  noteworthy  of  the 
Paris  thoroughfares  are  the  boulevards  (from 
the  German  BollwerTc,  bulwark  or  rampart; 
the  great  thoroughfares  passing  round  the  bor- 
ders of  many  French  towns  are  so  designated 
from  their  having  generally  taken  the  place  of 
old  fortifications).  The  most  famous  and  the 
oldest  of  these  are  the  boulevards  interieurs, 

VOL.  XIII. — 6 


on  the  site  of  the  old  walls  destroyed  about 
1670,  and  extending  from  the  Madeleine  to  the 
place  de  la  Bastille.  Beginning  at  the  church 
of  the  Madeleine,  and  going  east,  the  succes- 
sive portions  of  their  extent  are  called  the 
boulevards  de  la  Madeleine,  des  Capucines,  des 
Italiens,  Montmartre,  Poissoniere,  Bonne  Nou- 
velle,  St.  Denis,  St.  Martin,  du  Temple,  des 
Filles  du  Oalvaire,  and  Beaumarchais ;  lead- 
ing from  the  place  de  la  Bastille  to  the  Seine 
are  the  boulevards  de  l1  Arsenal  and  de  Bour- 
don. The  name  boulevards  is  also  applied  to 
the  following  new  and  beautiful  streets  which 
were  among  the  public  works  completed  under 
Napoleon  III. :  boulevard  du  Prince  Eugene, 
from  the  chateau  d'Eau  to  the  place  du  Trone ; 
Malesherbes,  from  the  Madeleine  to  the  place 
Wagram ;  de  la  Reine  Hortense,  from  the  Arc 
de  Triomphe  to  the  Jardin  Monceaux ;  Hauss- 
mann,  from  the  avenue  de  Friedland  to  the 
boulevard  Montmartre ;  Richard  Lenoir,  from 
the  place  de  la  Bastille  to  the  Douane ;  de  Stras- 
bourg, continued  by  the  boulevard  de  Sevasto- 
pol, from  the  Strasburg  railway  station  to  the 
Seine.  The  boulevards  exterieurs  form  a  line 
of  broad  and  continuous  road  on  the  site  of  the 
old  octroi  wall.  Distinctive  names  are  also  ap- 
plied to  their  various  portions.  The  boulevards 
interieurs,  and  especially  those  of  Montmartre, 
the  Italiens,  and  the  Capucines,  are  the  very 
centre  of  the  brighter  part  of  the  life  of  Paris. 
Along  them,  or  near  by,  in  the  streets  opening 
from  them,  such  as  the  rue  de  la  Paix,  chauss6e 
d'Antin,  boulevards  Malesherbes  and  Hauss- 
mann,  the  rues  Laffitte,  Vivienne,  and  Richelieu, 
are  shops  with  the  costliest  silks,  rarest  jewels, 
and  finest  works  of  art ;  restaurants  and  cafes 
wainscoted  with  mirrors,  where  the  latest 
news  and  rumors  of  the  day  are  reported  or 
invented ;  the  great  banking  houses ;  the  best 
opera  houses  and  theatres;  the  most  fashion- 
able or  otherwise  noted  loungers  and  celebrities 
of  the  town.  "  France  is  the  centre  of  civil- 
ized nations,  Paris  is  the  centre  of  France,  the 
boulevard  des- Italiens  is  the  centre  of  Paris," 
says  an  enthusiastic  modern  Parisian. — Besides 
the  boulevards,  there  are  in  Paris  a  great 
number  of  other  streets  having,  like  the  rue 
de  Rivoli,  rue  Royale,  rue  Castiglione,  &c,  an 
almost  world-wide  fame  for  their  beauty  or 
the  activity  and  life  prevailing  in  them ;  but 
what  gives  to  the  city  its  especial  attraction 
is  the  multitude  of  beautiful  and  universally 
frequented  promenades,  places,  gardens,  and 
squares.  The  most  noteworthy  succession  of 
these  is  the  remarkable  series  which  begins 
with  the  exterior  gardens  of  the  Louvre.  From 
these  lofty  colonnaded  archways  give  en- 
trance to  the  beautiful  court  of  that  palace ; 
beyond  is  the  place  Napoleon  with  its  garden, 
surrounded  by  the  ornate  inner  facades  of  the 
new  Louvre,  except  on  one  side,  that  opens 
on  the  place  du  Carrousel.  This  is  an  immense 
palace  court,  the  chief  ornament  of  which  is 
a  triumphal  arch,  designed  after  the  arch  of 
Septimius  Severus  at  Rome,  adorned  by  eight 


80 


PAEIS 


Corinthian  columns  in  red  marble  and  sur- 
mounted by  a  triumphal  car  and  four  bronze 
horses,  modelled  after  the  horses  of  St.  Mark 


in  Venice.  This  court  is  bounded  on  the  west 
side  by  what  was  the  main  body  of  the  Tuileries 
palace,  whose  western  fagade,  1,000  ft.  long, 


The  Tuileries  and  Louvre,  before  1871. 


now  in  ruins,  looks  on  the  gardens  of  the  same 
name,  with  their  flowers,  fountains,  statuary, 
orange  trees,  and  groves  of  horse  chestnut  trees, 
through  which  the  grand  alley  leads  to  the 
finest  square  in  Paris,  once  named  place  de 
Louis  XV.,  then  baptized  place  de  la  Revolu- 
tion  in  blood  flowing  from  the  guillotine  set 
up  there  in  the  reign  of  terror,  and  since 
styled  place  de  la  Concorde.  It  is  ornamented 
with  balustrades  and  rostral  columns,  and  with 
eight  pavilions,  each  surmounted  by  a  figure 
representing  one  of  the  principal  French  towns, 
Strasburg  still  among  the  rest.  In  the  mid- 
dle of  the  place,  between  two  fine  fountains, 
rises  the  obelisk  of  Luxor,  a  monolith  72  ft. 
high,  first  set  up  in  front  of  the  great  temple 
of  Thebes  32  centuries  ago  by  Rameses  II.  It 
stands  on  the  spot  where  once  stood  a  bronze 
equestrian  statue  of  Louis  XV.,  which  was 
afterward  melted  into  republican  cannon,  and 
where  his  grandson  was  executed.  It  was  erect- 
ed herein  1836  by  the  orders  of  Louis  Philippe. 
On  the  north  of  the  square  are  two  palaces, 
each  288  ft.  front,  with  colonnaded  facades  rest- 
ing on  arcades  ;  they  are  separated  by  the  rue 
Royale,  90  ft.  wide,  which  opens  a  view  of  the 
portico  of  the  Madeleine.  On  the  south  and 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Seine,  crossed  here  by  a 
fine  bridge  partly  built  of  stone  from  the  Bas- 
tile,  are  the  Palais  Bourbon  and  palace  of  the 
ministry  of  foreign  affairs,  beyond  which  are 
seen  the  spires  of  Ste.  Clotilde  and  the  gilded 
dome  of  the  Invalided.  On  the  W.  side,  be- 
tween two  groups  in  white  marble  by  Cous- 
tou,  each  representing  an  impatient  horse  re- 
strained by  an  attendant,  is  the  entrance  to  the 


grand  avenue  of  the  Champs  £lys6es,  which  is 
a  mile  and  a  quarter  long.  The  Champs  Elysees 
are  planted  with  trees  and  laid  out  in  parterres 
profuse  with  flowering  plants  and  shrubs. 
Here  are  cafes,  open-air  concerts,  marionette 
theatres,  apparatus  for  children's  games,  and 
a  hundred  tasteful  booths  stored  with  play- 
things and  toothsome  refreshments ;  and  on 
all  pleasant  days  and  evenings  in  the  mild  sea- 
son a  multitude  of  old  and  young,  strolling  or 
sporting  under  the  trees,  or  sitting  on  the  rows 
of  chairs  along  the  sidewalks  watching  the 
carriages  and  horsemen  that  throng  the  ave- 
nue. For  other  tastes  there  are  a  circus  and  a 
panorama ;  and  in  close  proximity  the  Mabille, 
the  most  brilliant  and  notorious  of  Paris  dan- 
cing gardens.  On  the  Champs  filysees  also  is 
the  palais  de  Vindustrie,  originally  construct- 
ed for  the  world's  fair  of  1855,  whose  ample 
spaces  are  now  put  to  use  for  national  exhi- 
bitions of  industry,  horticulture,  agriculture, 
the  fine  arts,  &c,  some  one  or  more  of  which 
are  held  there  yearly.  Midway  in  its  course 
the  avenue  spreads  into  a  circular  place, 
called  the  rond  point,  embellished  with  foun- 
tains, and  thence  continues,  bordered  now 
with  stately  houses,  to  the  place  de  l'Etoile. 
He^e  is  the  arch  of  triumph,  begun  by  the 
first  Napoleon  for  a  monument  to  himself  and 
the  glory  of  the  grande  armee,  but  only  com- 
pleted by  that  peace-loving  monarch  Louis 
Philippe.  It  is  the  grandest  extant  structure 
of  its  kind,  rising  in  harmonious  proportions 
from  a  base  of  147  by  75  ft.  to  a  height  of 
162  ft.  The  central  archway  is  48  ft.  broad 
and  95  ft.  high.     The  inner  walls  are  inscribed 


PARIS 


81 


with  the  names  of  384  generals  and  96  vic- 
tories. Its  most  striking  sculptured  decora- 
tions are  four  groups  of  colossal  figures  in 
high  relief,  one  of  which,  hy  Rude,  symbol- 
izing the  departure  of  the  recruits  for  the  army 


Arc  de  Triomphe  de  T^toile. 

in  1792,  seems  inspired  by  the  patriotic  fight- 
ing force  and  passion  of  that  time.  Radia- 
ting from  the  place  de  l'^toile  are  ten  broad 
avenues.  One  of  these  is  the  avenue  Bois  de 
Boulogne  (formerly  de  l'Imperatrice),  a  mile 
long  and  300  ft.  wide.  It  consists  of  a  carriage- 
way, footwalks,  and  a  bridle  road,  and  is  bor- 
dered by  continuous  gardens,  beyond  which 
on  either  hand  is  again  a  carriage  road,  and 
yet  beyond  gardens  and  villas.  This  leads  to 
the  Bois  de  Boulogne,  a  park  of  2,500  acres, 
just  outside  the  fortifications.  Laid  out  since 
1852  in  the  modern  style  of  landscape  garden- 
ing, its  broad  roads,  mazy  paths,  and  shaded 
groves  are  the  resort  of  all' classes  of  Parisians. 
Within  its  boundaries  are  artificial  lakes,  of 
which  the  largest  is  three  fourths  of  a  mile 
long,  a  respectable  waterfall,  two  race  courses, 
and  the  jar  din  d"1  acclimatation.  This  last, 
occupying  33  acres,  tastefully  laid  out,  is  a 
model  in  its  kind.  The  only  other  of  the  large 
"exterior"  parks  of  Paris,  besides  the  Bois 
de  Boulogne,  is  the  park  of  Vincennes,  on  the 
eastern  side  of  the  city.  (See  Paek,  and  Vin- 
cennes.) The  jardin  des  plantes,  a  botanical 
garden  with  zoological  museum  and  menagerie, 
much  like  the  zoological  gardens  of  London, 
is  on  the  left  bank  of  and  near  the  river,  in  the 
S.  E.  part  of  the  city.  It  is  a  parallelogram 
of  57  acres,  and  is  admirably  laid  out  and  kept. 
The  menagerie  is  one  of  the  most  perfect  in 
the  world.  The  gardens  of  the  Luxembourg 
are  also  on  the  left  bank,  in  the  quarter  and 
beside  the  palace  of  that  name.  They  cover  85 
acres,  are  beautifully  laid  out,  and  have  some 
especially  fine  alleys  of  trees  and  flowers.  The 
Pare  Monceaux,  at  the  extremity  of  the  boule- 
vard de  Malesherbes,  is  another  pleasant  gar- 


den, its  present  tasteful  arrangement  being  the 
result  of  quite  recent  improvements  by  the 
municipality.  Many  of  the  squares  through- 
out the  city  have  something  of  the  character 
of  small  parks,  from  the  shade  trees  and  flow- 
ers with  which  they  are  embellished;  nearly 
all  the  larger  ones  have  fountains,  generally 
very  tasteful  and  beautiful.  Among  the  pub- 
lic places  of  Paris  which  have  nothing  of  the 
park-like  character,  but  are  generally  merely 
paved  squares,  the  chief  are,  besides  the  places 
de  la  Concorde,  du  Carrousel,  and  others  al- 
ready mentioned,  the  place  de  l'H6tel  de  Ville, 
one  of  the  largest ;  place  de  la  Bastille,  on  the 
site  of  that  fortress,  embellished  by  the  tall 
"column  of  July,"  a  bronze  pillar  154  ft.  high 
dedicated  to  the  citizens  who  fell  in  the  revo- 
lution of  1830;  th^  place  Venddme,  with  the 
famous  column  Venddme  in  its  centre,  a  shaft 
143  ft.  high,  of  stone  covered  with  bronze, 
on  which  are  bass  reliefs  commemorative  of 
Napoleon's  campaigns  in  1805,  the  whole  be- 
ing in  imitation  of  the  column  of  Trajan  at 
Rome ;  the  broad  place  du  Palais  Royal,  S. 
of  the  Palais  Royal  and  between  it  and  the 
Louvre ;  the  place  du  Chateau  d'Eau,  between 
the  boulevards  du  Temple  and  St.  Martin,  an 
irregular  but  extensive  open  place ;  the  place 
de  l'Op6ra,  deriving  its  chief  beauty  from  the 
great  opera  house,  before  which  it  lies;  the 
place  du  Trone,  an  extensive  place,  but  away 
from  most  of  the  centres  of  activity ;  the  place 
du  Trocadero,  a  fine  and  elevated  place  opposite 
the  Champ  de  Mars;  the  place  Notre  Dame, 
before  the  cathedral  of  that  name ;  the  place 
St.  Michel,  on  the  left  bank  opposite  the  island ; 
the  place  des  Victoires,  with  an  equestrian 
statue  of  Louis  XIV. ;  the  place  du  Chatelet, 
&c.  Among  the  open  spaces  of  the  city,  the 
Champ  de  Mars  deserves  special  mention.  It  is 
an  extensive  parade  ground,  about  1,000  yards 
by  500,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Seine,  between 
the  river  and  the  military  school.  It  was  laid 
out  in  1790,  and  the  rampart  of  turf  around  it 
was  completed  in  the  week  between  July  7  and 
14  of  that  year,  by  60,000  volunteers,  men  and 
women,  who  worked  night  and  day  in  their 
eagerness  to  prepare  the  field  for  the  great 
fete  de  la  federation  when  the  king  swore  al- 
legiance to  the  constitution.  It  has  been  the 
scene  of  many  very  remarkable  historic  events, 
and  is  now  used  for  great  reviews,  &c.  The 
buildings  of  the  universal  exposition  of  1867 
were  erected  upon  it,  but  the  greater  part 
have  been  removed. — The  bridges  of  Paris, 
26  in  number,  are  as  follows,  named  in  the 
order  in  which  they  cross  the  Seine,  beginning 
at  the  entry  of  the  river  into  the  city :  ponts 
National,  de  Bercy,  d'Austerlitz,  de  Constan- 
tine,  de  la  Tournelle  (left  of  the  ile  St.  Louis), 
Marie,  Louis  Philippe  (these  two  right  of 
the  ile  St.  Louis),  St.  Louis  (connecting  the 
two  islands),  de  l'Archeveche,  au  Double,  St. 
Charles,  St.  Michel  (these  four  on  the  left  of 
the  ile  de  la  Cite),  d'Arcole,  Notre-Dame,  au 
Change  (these  three  on  the  right  of  the  ile), 


82 


PARIS 


Neuf,  des  Arts,  du  Carrousel,  Royal,  de  Sol- 
fe>ino,  de  la  Concorde,  des  Invalides,  de  l'Al- 
ma,  d'lena,  and  de  Grenelle,  besides  a  railway 
bridge.  Among  the  finest  of  them  are  the 
seven  shown  in  the  accompanying  illustration, 
those  from  the  pont  d'Arcole  to  the  pont 


Royal,  inclusive. — The  so-called  passages  form 
a  noteworthy  class  of  Parisian  thoroughfares ; 
they  are  narrow  streets  or  alleys,  roofed  with 
glass,  intended  for  foot  passengers  only,  and 
lined  with  shops,  &c.  The  best  known  are  the 
passage  des  Panoramas,  the  passage  Vivienne, 


View  of  the  Seven  Bridges. 


and  the  passage  Choiseul.  Besides  boulevards, 
avenues,  streets,  &c,  the  great  quais  along  the 
banks  of  the  Seine  must  not  be  forgotten  in 
naming  the  Parisian  public  ways.  These  are 
too  numerous  to  particularize  here,  but  all 
afford  wide  promenades  along  the  river,  and 
are  among  the  most  lively  and  pleasant  of  the 
city  thoroughfares.  The  streets  throughout 
the  city  are  paved  with  asphalt,  which  has 
proved  remarkably  successful  as  to  durabil- 
ity and  convenience.  It  is  said  that  another 
motive  to  the  use  of  this  pavement,  like  the 
arrangement  of  the  streets  in  radii  easily  com- 
manded by  artillery  from  a  central  point,  was 
found  in  strategic  reasons ;  the  square  stones 
of  the  old  paving  furnishing  great  facilities 
for  barricade  building,  as  proved  on  several 
occasions. — Among  the  most  remarkable  pub- 
lic works  of  Paris  is  its  great  system  of  sew- 
erage. The  main  sewers,  resembling  enor- 
mous subterranean  canals,  are  of  recent  date, 
nearly  all  the  present  ones,  with  most  of 
their  branches,  having  been  constructed  since 
1855.  In  general  the  network  of  sewers  cor- 
responds to  that  of  thoroughfares,  the  small 
sewers  passing  into  the  large  ones  as  the  streets 
into  the  boulevards  and  avenues,  and  the  con- 
tents of  the  whole  finally  passing  into  a  few 
enormous  mains,  like  that  under  the  rue  de 
Rivoli.  These  again  empty  into  two  subter- 
ranean canals,  which  carry  the  sewage  away 
from  the  city  and  debouche  into  the  Seine  7  m. 
below.     The  aggregate  length  of  main  drainage 


in  Paris  now  reaches  the  surprising  extent  of 
more  than  250  m.  For  details  of  their  con*- 
struction,  &c,  see  Sewerage. — The  enormous 
quantity  of  water  consumed  by  the  city  is  drawn 
from  the  Seine  and  the  canal  de  l'Ourcq,  the 
aqueduct  of  Arcueil,  and  the  immense  artesian 
wells  of  Grenelle  and  Passy.  (See  Artesian 
Wells,  vol.  i.,  p.  775.)  Great  aqueducts,  begun 
in  1863,  are  still  in  progress,  by  which  it  is  de- 
signed to  supply  in  addition  water  from  the 
Dhuys  and  the  springs  in  the  valley  of  the 
Vanne.  There  is  now  under  the  streets  of 
Paris  a  total  length  of  about  92  m.  of  water 
pipes,  and  the  water  brought  by  them  is  dis- 
tributed through  more  than  200  public  foun- 
tains, about  60  ornamental  fountains,  nearly 
4,500  hydrants,  and  about  4,000  drinking  places, 
watering  troughs,  public  washing  places,  and 
other  similar  channels.  Of  the  220,000  cubic 
metres  daily  distributed,  135,000  are  used  for 
watering  the  streets,  washing  out  sewers,  &c, 
and  for  the  public  fountains;  15,000  are  re- 
served for  government  and  official  uses;  and 
70,000  are  used  for  the  ordinary  supply  to  citi- 
zens.— In  1874  there  were  employed  in  Paris 
10,000  hackney  coaches,  owned  and  directed 
by  several  large  companies,  725  omnibuses,  and 
about  250  railway  omnibuses,  besides  a  con- 
siderable number  of  horse  cars.  A  line  of  rail- 
way encircles  the  city  (the  ligne  de  ceinture), 
affording  important  strategic  as  well  as  popu- 
lar facilities  for  communication. — Among  the 
beautiful  or  famous  buildings  of  Paris,  proba- 


PARIS 


83 


bly  the  best  known  are  the  palaces.  Of  these 
the  two  principal  (now  united)  are  described  in 
special  articles.  (See  Louvee,  and  Tuileeies.) 
Near  them  stands  the  Elysee  palace,  at  present 
the  residence  when  he  is  in  the  city  of  the 
president  of  the  republic.  It  was  built  early  in 
the  18th  century  by  a  private  nobleman  ;  was 
next  purchased  and  for  a  time  occupied  by 
Mme.  de  Pompadour,  who  added  to  its  pretty 
garden  a  part  of  the  Champs  filysees ;  it  was 
afterward  set  apart  for  the  use  of  ambassadors 
extraordinary  sent  to  the  court  of  France ;  then 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  rich  banker  Beaujon, 
and  passed  from  him  to  the  duchess  of  Bour- 
bon ;  was  used  as  a  printing  house  during  the 
early  years  of  the  revolution,  and  then  sold 
to  private  speculators,  who  converted  it  into 
a  place  of  public  amusement;  was  afterward 
bought  and  inhabited  by  Hurat,  till  he  left  it 
to  be  king  of  Naples,  when  it  again  became  gov- 
ernment property,  and  was  at  different  times 
occupied  by  Napoleon  I.  It  has  been  inhabited 
by  the  duke  of  Wellington  and  Alexander  I.  of 
Russia.  Louis  XVIII.  restored  to  it  one  of  its 
earlier  names,  filysee  Bourbon,  and  gave  it  to 
the  duke  de  Berry,  after  whose  assassination 
it  descended  to  the  duke  of  Bordeaux.  After 
December,  1848,  it  took  the  name  of  Ely  see 
Nationale,  and  became  the  official  residence  of 
the  prince  president  Louis  Napoleon,  who  on 
becoming  emperor  changed  its  name  to  Elysee 
Napoleon,  and  intended  it  for  the  ultimate 
residence  of  the  prince  imperial.  The  palace 
on  the  quai  d'Orsay  was  destined  by  Napoleon 
I.  to  be  the  residence  of  his  son,  the  king  of 
Rome  ;  Charles  X.  had  more  work  done  on 
this  fine  edifice  with  a  view 
to  fitting  it  for  national  in- 
dustrial exhibitions;  Lou- 
is Philippe  completed  it; 
Louis  Napoleon's  imperial 
council  of  state  occupied 
it  while  the  second  empire 
1  lasted ;  the  followers  of  the 
commune  burned  it.  The 
still  standing  walls  are  beau- 
tiful. By  its  side,  entirely 
restored  from  its  injuries, 
is  the  ornate  little  palace  of 
the  legion  of  honor,  built 
in  1784  by  the  prince  of 
Salm,  who  was  guillotined 
in  1794,  when  it  was  dis- 
posed of  by  lottery,  and 
fell  to  a  journeyman  hair 
dresser.  The  Luxembourg 
palace  is  remarkable  for 
its  happy  combination  of 
graceful  lines  with  solid- 
ity of  effect ;  the  gardens 
are  not  inferior  to  those  of  the  Tuileries. 
The  hotel  de  ville,  between  the  rue  de  Rivoli 
and  the  river,  opposite  the  upper  end  of  the 
ile  de  la  Cite,  was,  before  its  almost  total  de- 
struction under  the  commune  in  1871,  a  beau- 
tiful building  in  the  style  of  the  renaissance, 


forming  a  quadrangle  about  300  ft.  by  250,  and 
having  three  courts.  Its  exterior  is  profusely 
ornamented,  several  hundred  statues  in  niches 
forming  part  of  its  decorations  ;  while  the  state 
apartments  within  were  among  the  most  mag- 
nificent rooms  in  the  world,  the  great  galerie 
des  fetes  being  especially  splendid.  This  struc- 
ture is  connected  with  nearly  every  impor- 
tant event  in  the  modern  history  of  Paris.  It 
was  begun  in  1533,  and  the  first  building,  about 
one  fourth  the  size  of  the  subsequent  one, 
was  finished  in  1628.  It  remained  almost  un- 
touched till  1837,  when  improvements  were  be- 
gun, and  in  1842  it  was  enlarged  to  its  great- 
est dimensions.  Its  whole  cost  has  been  esti- 
mated at  16,000,000  francs.  In  1873  the  gov- 
ernment selected  for  the  reconstruction  of  the 
burned  edifice  the  plans  of  Messrs.  Ballu  and 
Deperthes,  who  rebuild  it  very  much  in  the 
old  fashion.  The  Palais  Royal  is  a  very  large 
quadrangular  building,  surrounding  an  exten- 
sive court  or  garden  about  230  yards*  by  100, 
the  scene  of  many  historical  events,  notably  of 
public  meetings  during  the  revolution,  and  of 
the  speeches  of  Camille  Desmoulins  and  others. 
The  lower  story  is  now  occupied  by  ranges 
of  shops,  among  the  finest  in  Paris.  The  pal- 
ace has  been  the  residence  of  various  members 
of  the  successive  ruling  families  of  France. 
The  H6tel  des  Invalides,  occupying,  with  its 
courts,  &c,  an  area  of  about  16  acres  near 
the  left  bank  of  the  Seine,  W.  of  the  faubourg 
St.  Germain,  was  founded  under  Louis  XIV., 
in  1670,  as  an  asylum  for  veteran  soldiers, 
and  has  been  enlarged  by  later  sovereigns.  In 
the  church  of  St.  Louis,  forming  a  part  of 


The  Bourse. 

the  Invalides,  is  the  tomb  of  Napoleon  I.,  the 
great  porphyry  sarcophagus  standing  direct- 
ly under  the  dome  which  crowns  the  edifice. 
Other  noteworthy  public  buildings  are  the 
Palais  de  Justice,  the  Bourse  (shown  in  the 
accompanying  engraving),  the  military  school, 


84 


PARIS 


New  Opera  House. 


and  the  magnificent  and  richly  decorated  opera 
house,  built  just  before  the  end  of  the  second 
empire. — Many  of  the  churches  are  remark- 


Church  of  Notre  Dame,  rear  view. 

able  for  their  architecture,  paintings,  or  his- 
toric associations.  Most  impressive  of  all  is 
the  cathedral  of  Notre  Dame,  a  noble  specimen 


of  the  early  pointed  style  of  so-called  Gothic ; 
it  is  cruciform,  with  an  extreme  length  of  390 
ft.,  width  of  transepts  144  ft.,  height  of  vault- 
ing 105  ft.,  width  of  western  front 
128  ft.,  flanked  by  two  massive 
towers  224  ft.  high.      (See  Ca- 

THEDEAL,   Vol.    iv.,    pp.    118,    119.) 

Near  by  is  the  arrowy  spire  of  la 
Sainte  Chapelle.  This  church  was 
originally  built  in  the  surprising- 
ly short  space  of  three  years, 
1245-'8,  by  order  of  St.  Louis,  to 
contain  the  crown  of  thorns  and 
piece  of  the  true  cross  bought  by 
that  monarch  from  the  emperor 
of  Constantinople.  Injured  by 
the  wear  of  time,  wasted  by  fire, 
desecrated  to  a  strange  variety  of 
base  uses  before,  during,  and  after 
the  revolution,  the  labor  of  re- 
storing it  to  almost  more  than  its 
original  splendor  busied  learned 
'  archaists  and  skilled  architects 
from  1837  to  1867.  "It  now  pre- 
sents," says  the  most  eminent  of 
them,  "  the  completest,  perhaps 
the  finest,  specimen  of  the  reli- 
gious architecture  of  the  middle 
of  the  13th  century."  St.  Ger- 
main des  Pres  is  a  venerable  in- 
stance of  the  Romanesque  style ; 
that  of  the  renaissance  is  largely 
illustrated  in  St.  Eustache,  and 
more  curiously  in  St.  Etienne  du 
Mont ;  the  Italian  or  Palladian 
style  beautifully  in  St.  Paul  et 
St.  Louis.  Ste.  Genevieve,  an  im- 
mense pile,  better  known  as  the  Pantheon,  is 
distinguished  for  its  Corinthian  portico  of  col- 
umns 60  ft.  high,  supporting  a  sculptured  ped- 


PARIS 


85 


iment,  and  for  its  lofty  dome,  which,  however, 
in  every  quality  but  size,  is  far  inferior  to  that 
of  the  church  of  the  Invalides,  the  masterpiece 


La  Sainte  CliapcUe. 

in  its  kind  of  the  time  of  Louis  XIV.     (See 
Pantheon.)    St.  Germain  l'Auxerrois,  apart 


The  Madeleine. 

from  its  rich  ornamentation,  claims  attention 
because  from  its  belfry  was  given  the  signal 
for  the  St.  Bartholomew  massacre ;  St.  Gervais 


for  a  singularly  beautiful  chapel.  The  exterior 
of  the  Madeleine  presents  a  grand  reproduction 
of  pure  antique  forms.  It  stands  on  a  raised 
platform  328  ft.  long  by  138  ft.  broad,  which 
is  ascended  at  either  end  by  a  flight  of  28  steps ; 
a  surrounding  colonnade  of  52  pillars  49  ft. 
high,  supporting  a  richly  sculptured  frieze  and 
cornice,  intercolumnar  niches  in  the  side  walls 
filled  with  colossal  statues  of  'saints,  the  largest 
sculptured  pediment  in  the  world  crowning  the 
noblest  portico  the  world  has  seen  since  the 
Athenian  Parthenon,  are  the  eminent  features 
of  this  magnificent  Christianized  Grecian  tem- 
ple. St.  Vincent  de  Paul,  Notre  Dame  de  Lo- 
rette,  Ste.  Clotilde,  St.  Augustin,  and  the  Trini- 
te  are  noteworthy,  if  not  altogether  admirable, 
as  exemplifications  of  contemporary  architec- 
tural talent  and  decorative  taste  in  their  ap- 
plication to  religious  purposes.  In  the  spring 
of  1875  the  assembly  resolved  upon  the  erec- 
tion of  a  magnificent  "votive  church,"  to  cost 
10,000,000  francs,  on  the  summit  of  Montmar- 
tre.  The  corner  stone  was  laid  June '29,  1875. 
— Many  of  the  hotels  of  the  city  (notably  the 
Grand  H6tel  on  the  boulevard  des  Capucines, 
and  the  H6tel  du  Louvre  on  the  rue  de  Rivoli, 
both  belonging  to  a  large  stock  company), 
and  several  of  the  club  houses  (especially  that 
of  the  Jockey  club  on  the  corner  of  the  boule- 
vard and  the  rue  de  Helder),  are  fine  and  lux- 
uriously fitted  structures  ;  and  there  are  many 
beautiful  private  residences,  especially  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  Champs  Elys6es. — Every- 
thing relating  to  the  public  charities  of  Paris  is 
subject  to  the  superior  control  of  the  general 
administration  of  public  assistance,  which  is  it- 
self a  dependence  of  the  ministry  of  the  inte- 
rior. It  has  at  its  head  a  director  and  a  council 
of  general  management  composed  of  20  mem- 
bers, presided  over  by  the 
prefects  of  the  Seine  and 
of  police.  "Within  its  juris- 
diction, besides  lureaux  de 
Menfaisance  in  each  of  the 
20  arrondissements,  and  an 
extensive  system  of  out- 
door aid,  are  34  general 
and  special  hospitals,  alms- 
houses, asylums,  and  re- 
treats; five  others  are  un- 
der the  direct  charge  of 
the  minister  of  the  inte- 
rior, and  three  military 
hospitals  under  the  direct 
charge  of  ^  the  ministry  of 
war.  The  chief  of  the  hos- 
pitals is  the  very  ancient 
and  famous  institution  of 
the  H6tel-Dieu,  founded 
early  in  the  9th  century  by 
the  brothers  of  St.  Chris- 
topher, who  called  it  the 
hospital  of  St.  Christopher. 
The  names  Notre  Dame  and  Maison-Dieu  de 
Paris  were  subsequently  applied  to  it,  that  of 
H6tel-Dieu  first  occurring  in  an  act  of  Louis 


86 


PARIS 


VII.  It  occupied  successively  a  number  of 
buildings,  frequent  changes  to  larger  quarters 
being  necessary  on  account  of  the  rapid  growth 
of  its  needs.  Its  present  structure,  begun  in 
1868  and  finished  in  1874,  stands  on  the  ile  de 
la  Cite  near  the  church  of  Notre  Dame.  It 
covers  22,000  square  metres  of  land,  and  in- 
cludes three  separate  series  of  buildings.  There 
are  nearly  1,000*  beds,  under  the  charge  of  a 
medical  and  surgical  staff  of  more  than  100 
persons.  Other  general  hospitals  of  note  are 
la  Pitie,  la  Charite,  Lariboisiere,  the  hospitals 
St.  Antoine,  Necker,  Cochin,  &c.  Special  hos- 
pitals are  those  of  St.  Louis  for  cutaneous  dis- 
eases ;  du  Midi  and  Lourcine,  for  the  treatment 
respectively  of  males  and  females  for  syphilitic 
disease ;  a  hospital  for  children ;  and  la  Mater- 
nite,  for  accouchements.  The  average  annual 
number  of  admissions  to  the  hospitals  is  62,500 
medical  and  23,000  surgical  cases;  of  cures, 
54,000  medical  and  22,000  surgical  cases;  of 
deaths,  8,000  medical  and  1,400  surgical  cases. 
The  whole  number  of  beds  in  hospitals  and 
hospices  is  19,600.  For  an  account  of  the  ad- 
ministration of  the  Paris  prisons  and  peniten- 
tiaries, see  Prison.  The  most  famous  prison 
building  remaining  since  the  destruction  of  the 
Bastile  is  the  Conciergerie,  on  the  left  bank  of 
the  Seine,  adjoining  the  Palais  de  Justice ;  the 
chief  modern  prisons  are  those  of  the  Mazas 
and  La  Roquette.  For  accounts  of  several 
other  noteworthy  features  of  Parisian  admin- 
istration see  Cemetery,  Mont  de  Piete,  and 
Morgue. — Paris  is  still  honorably  distinguished 
for  its  higher  educational  institutions,  although 
under  the  late  empire  they  somewhat  declined, 
at  least  relatively,  in  respect  of  sciences  and 
letters,  from  the  capital  rank  they  had  attained 
before  1850.  The  academie  universitaire,  the 
much  changed  descendant  of  the  famous  old 
university  of  Paris  (which  embraced  the  col- 
lege of  the  Sorbonne),  consists  of  five  schools 
or  faculties,  theology,  law,  medicine,  science, 
and  letters,  each  with  a  numerous  corps  of 
professors.  The  number  of  students  is  ordi- 
narily between  7,000  and  8,000.  The  college 
de  France  has  36  professors  in  all  departments 
of  letters,  philosophy,  and  science.  Their  lec- 
tures are  public  and  gratuitous,  as  are  those  of 
the  16  professors  who  lecture  on  natural  his- 
tory, comparative  anatomy,  botany,  geology, 
chemistry,  and  the  connected  sciences  at  the 
museum  of  natural  history,  and  of  an  equal 
number  at  the  conservatory  of  arts  and  trades, 
the  principal  object  of  whose  teaching  is  the 
application  of  science  to  the  industrial  arts. 
Among  other  special  schools  worthy  of  men- 
tion are :  the  polytechnic  school,  corresponding 
somewhat  to  the  American  military  academy 
at  West  Point ;  the  school  of  roads  and  bridges 
(ecole  des  ponts  et  chaussees),  for  instruction  in 
all  branches  of  civil  engineering ;  the  school  of 
mines,  for  instruction  in  the  arts  and  sciences 
bearing  upon  mining  operations;  the  central 
school,  for  the  practical  education  of  civil  en- 
gineers, architects,  and  directors  of  manufac- 


turing establishments;  the  ecole  d'etat  major, 
for  the  education  of  military  staff  officers ;  the 
normal  school,  with  27  professors ;  the  school 
of  charts,  with  seven  lecturers  on  palaeogra- 
phy, political  institutions,  and  diplomacy ;  the 
school  of  fine  arts,  with  a  museum  and  courses 
of  instruction  in  every  department  of  the  plas- 
tic arts  by  eminent  theorists  and  artists ;  the 
free  school  of  design,  mathematics,  and  orna- 
mental sculpture ;  the  free  school  of  design 
for  young  women  under  the  direction  of  Rosa 
Bonheur;  the  conservatory  or  academy  of 
music  and  declamation,  with  600  pupils,  which 
counts  among  its  70  teachers-  and  masters 
in  vocal » and  instrumental  music,  and  in  all 
branches  of  the  histrionic  art,  many  of  the  most 
eminent  composers  and  professional  artists  of 
the  day ;  six  schools  for  the  education  of  Ro- 
man Catholic  priests,  of  which  the  seminary 
of  St.  Sulpice  with  14,  and  that  of  Notre  Dame 
with  17  directors  and  professors,  are  the  prin- 
cipal; and  a  seminary  for  the  education  of 
Israelitish  pastors.  The  six  Lyceums  of  Paris 
are  national  institutions,  where  the  course  of 
classic  and  scientific  instruction  is  shaped  with 
a  view  to  tljb  pupil's  further  study  for  one 
of  the  liberal  professions  on  his  entrance  to 
the  polytechnic  and  other  superior  scientific 
schools.  The  colleges  of  Ste.  Barbe  (on  the 
list  of  whose  alumni  are  the  names  of  Ignatius 
Loyola  and  John  Calvin)  and  St.  Stanislas  are 
immense  private  establishments.  The  colleges 
Rollin  and  Ohaptal,  and  the  ecole  Turgot,  are 
municipal  institutions,  where  the  course  of 
study  looks  rather  to  the  pupil's  career  in  the 
ordinary  paths  of  business  life.  There  are 
numerous  large  public  libraries  in  Paris,  six  of 
which  are  daily  open  to  all  comers.  The  lar- 
gest of  these,  having  for  its  only  rival  that  of 
the  British  museum,  is  the  national  (formerly 
royal  or  imperial)  library.  It  contains  more 
than  2,000,000  printed  volumes,  150,000  manu- 
scripts, 300,000  maps,  charts,  and  topographi- 
cal views,  1,300,000  engravings,  and  a  cabinet 
of  coins  and  medals  numbering  over  150,000 
objects.  This  invaluable  collection  is  constant- 
ly increased  by  gifts  and  purchases,  and  by  the 
action  of  a  law  as  old  as  the  time  of  Henry  II. 
(1556),  which  requires  the  deposit  of  a  copy  of 
every  new  thing  printed  in  France.  The  libra- 
ries next  in  importance  for  the  number  and 
value  of  their  printed  and  manuscript  treasures 
are  the  Mazarin,  the  Arsenal,  Sorbonne,  and 
Ste.  Genevieve.  The  large  libraries  belonging 
to  some  of  the  schools,  ministries,  and  other 
national  institutions  are  rich  in  special  depart- 
ments of  science  and  literature.  They  are  not 
freely  open  to  the  public,  but  every  reasonable 
application  for  access  to  them  is  generally 
granted.  For  an  account  of  the  five  academies 
composing  the  institut  de  France,  see  Acad- 
emy. The  observatory  has  been  briefly  de- 
scribed as  "  the  headquarters  of  astronomical 
science,"  a  name  it  long  deserved.  Besides 
public  institutions,  some  of  the  more  important 
of  which  are  mentioned  above,  there  is  hard- 


PARIS 


87 


ly  a  department  of  science,  literature,  or  art 
which  has  not  one  or  more  societies  or  associa- 
tions for  its  study,  encouragement,  or  exercise. 
— Among  the  most  notable  museums  of  Paris, 
that  of  natural  history  connected  with  the 
jardin  des  plantes,  the  common  name  for  large 
zoological  as  well  as  botanical  gardens,  is  re- 
markably rich  in  comparative  anatomy,  anthro- 
pology, zoology,  minerals,  geology,  and  bot- 
any. The  museums  of  morbid  and  compara- 
tive anatomy  belonging  to  the  medical  school 
are  of  excellent  fulness  in  their  kind.  That  of 
the  h6tel  de  Cluny,  itself  a  curious  relic  of  the 
architecture  of  the  16th  century,  built  partly 
over  the  foundations  of  an  imperial  Roman 
palace,  is  consecrated  to  furniture,  arms,  and 
works  of  art  of  the  middle  ages  and  the  re- 
naissance, and  to  some  Gallo-Roman  antiquities. 
That  of  the  conservatory  of  arts  and  trades 
contains  models  of  old  and  newly  invented 
machines  and  tools,  together  with  illustrative 
specimens  of  mechanical  and  chemical  products, 
and  of  natural  materials  within  the  domain  of 
industrial  processes.  In  the  museum  of  artil- 
lery is  a  large  collection  of  the  instruments  in- 
vented by  men  of  all  ages  for  their  mutual 
destruction,  from  stone  hatchets  to  rifled  can- 
non. The  mineralogy  of  France,  geographi- 
cally arranged  by  her  departments,  is  exhibited 
at  the  school  of  mines.  The  numismatic  mu- 
seum at  the  mint  displays  the  coins  and  medals 
struck  in  France  from  the  time  of  Charlemagne 
to  the  present.  The  museum  at  the  national 
printing  house  offers  samples  of  early  and 
modern  printing  in  curious  variety,  of  which 
not  the  least  noteworthy  are  the  productions 
of  its  own  press,  such  as  the  Lord's  Prayer  in 
150  different  languages,  and  copies  of  L  Imita- 
tion de  Christ  that  approach  the  perfection  of 
typography.  The  museum  of  the  Louvre,  wor- 
thily occupying  the  wide  spaces  of  that  magnifi- 
cent palace,  is  divided  into  twelve  general  de- 
partments, such  as  of  painting,  designs  and  en- 
gravings, ancient  sculpture,  modern  sculpture, 
Assyrian  antiquities,  Egyptian  antiquities,  &c, 
to  which  are  added  large  collections  of  rare  and 
exquisite  specimens  of  ceramic  art,  of  carved 
work  in  wood  and  ivory,  crystals,  jewels,  &c. 
Other  European  galleries  are  richer  in  the  works 
of  certain  masters  and  of  single  schools,  but 
none  of  them  offers  to  the  student  so  compre- 
hensively instructive  a  view  of  all  the  schools. 
The  museum  of  the  Luxembourg,  filling  but  a 
small  part  of  the  palace  of  that  name,  though  a 
fine  and  most  interesting  collection  of  works  by 
contemporary  French  painters  and  sculptors, 
is  not  nearly  sufficient  as  an  exemplification  of 
the  present  French  school.  The  conditions  of 
admission  to  these  museums  are  most  liberal. 
Those  of  the  Louvre  and  of  the  Luxembourg 
are  freely  open  to  all  coiners  six  days,  and  to 
copyists  five  days  in  the  week.  Of  the  paint- 
ers, designers,  sculptors,  and  engravers  whose 
works  are  admitted  to  the  yearly  salon  or  ex- 
hibition of  fine  arts,  the  average  for  the  past 
ten  years  of  Parisian  residents  is  about  1,200. 


It  is  hardly  necessary  to  add,  in  view  of  the 
conditions  of  admission,  that  this  number  rep- 
resents but  a  fraction  of  the  applicants,  and 
that  in  no  one  year  do  nearly  all  resident  art- 
ists apply. — Paris  may  be  called  the  capital 
of  dramatic  art  and  literature.  The  first  thea- 
tre of  Paris,  not  to  say  of  the  world,  is  the 
Com6die  Francaise,  the  French  theatre  par  ex- 
cellence. It  was  founded  in  1680  by  the  com- 
pany that  had  been  directed  by  Moliere.  There 
elocution,  gesture,  attitude,  costume,  compo- 
sition of  stage  groups,  and  whatever  contrib- 
utes to  the  perfection  of  histrionic  art,  are  ex- 
hibited in  unrivalled  completeness.  The  na- 
tional academy  of  music,  or  Opera,  is  famed 
for  its  orchestra,  ballet,  and  scenic  effects. 
These  two  are  regarded  as  properly  national 
institutions,  and  are  sustained  at  their  height 
of  superiority  by  large  government  aid,  which 
in  less  proportions  is  also  granted  to  three 
other  theatres.  There  are  33  theatres  in  Paris. 
On  the  receipts  of  theatres,  balls,  concerts,  and 
all  other  places  of  public  amusement,  a  tax, 
nominally  of  10  per  cent.,  but  really  in  recent 
years  of  about  8  per  cent.,  is  levied  for  the 
benefit  of  the  public  charities.  In  1869,  an 
average  year,  their  receipts  amounted  to  19,- 
500,000  francs,  and  the  poor  tax  to  1,800,000. 
In  round  numbers  the  theatres  can  seat  30,000 
auditors,  for  whose  entertainment  850  musi- 
cians and  2,000  actors  proper,  vocalists,  and 
other  performers  are  employed.  For  the  prin- 
cipal journals  of  Paris,  see  JSTewspapees. — The 
government  of  Paris  has  varied  in  its  charac- 
ter with  the  changes  of  national  regime.  At 
present  (1875)  there  is  a  municipal  council  of 
80  members  chosen  by  popular  election,  whose 
deliberations  and  acts  are  strictly  limited  to 
matters  of  local  administration.  The  prefects 
of  the  Seine  and  of  the  police,  both  appointed 
by  the  general  government,  have  the  right  at 
all  times  to  be  present  and  be  heard,  in  certain 
cases  with  controlling  voice,  at  their  meetings. 
Sanitary  regulations  and  measures  for  keeping 
the  peace  and  political  order  are  enforced  un- 
der the  general  supervision  of  the  prefect  of 
police.  Besides  exercising  functions  of  a  wider 
national  reach,  he  is  the  immediate  chief  of  all 
the  local  police.  This  consists,  besides  special 
political  and  other  agents,  of  the  civil  police 
proper  or  "  guardians  of  the  public  peace " 
(formerly  ser gents  de  ville),  now  numbering 
about  6,000  ;  of  the  two  legions  of  the  military 
garde  republicaine  (formerly  municipal  guard 
and  guard  of  Paris),  numbering  6,000  foot  and 
1,500  horse ;  and  of  the  military  corps  of  sa- 
peurs  pompiers,  specially  trained  to  firemen's 
duty,  which  they  perform  admirably,  numbering 
about  1,300  men  and  officers.  Supplementary 
to  these  as  preservers  of  order  is  the  garrison 
of  Paris,  the  strength  of  which  varies  accord- 
ing to  circumstances.  Not  being  yet  relieved 
from  the  state  of  siege  in  which  it  was  decreed 
to  be  soon  after  the  declaration  of  the  late  war, 
the  city  has  in  addition  to  the  officials  above 
mentioned  a  military  governor. — Paris  is  the 


PARIS 


financial  and  commercial  centre  of  France; 
and  its  importance  in  this  respect,  in  a  country 
so  centralized,  is  not  exceeded  by  that  of  any 
capital,  unless  perhaps  by  London.  Here  are 
the  bank  of  France,  which  has  branches  in  the 
departments  and  in  Algiers,  and  has  the  exclu- 
sive privilege  of  issuing  bank  notes  in  France ; 
the  other  principal  financial  institutions  of  the 
country;  and  the  administrations  of  the  five 
great  railways,  which  with  their  numerous 
branches  cover  France  with  a  network  of  iron. 
In  1867  (a  somewhat  exceptional  year)  there 
were  31,308  arrivals  of  canal  boats  and  oth- 
er vessels  at  Paris,  gauging  an  aggregate  of 
3,689,881  tons,  or  as  much  as  the  tonnage  of  the 
five  principal  seaports  of  France.  All  edibles, 
potables,  and  combustibles,  building  materials, 
and  some  other  classes  of  merchandise,  pay  on 
entering  the  city  an  octroi  or  customs  .duty, 
"which  is  collected  at  an  expense  of  less  than 
5  per  cent,  of  the  total  receipts.  The  city 
budget  for  1873  presents  the  following  among 
other  figures:  Receipts,  197,815,582  francs; 
expenditures,  197,080,082.  The  chief  item  of 
receipts  is  octroi,  102,286,000  francs.  The 
principal  expenditures  were :  interest  on  debt 
and  sinking  fund,  46,170,825 ;  cost  of  tax 
collecting,  salaries,  &c,  8,420,000 ;  primary 
schools,  5,966,000 ;  public  assistance  (charities), 
22,346,000 ;  promenades  and  works  of  art, 
3,267,000;  repairs  of  public  buildings,  1,703,000; 
new  public  works,  24,512,000;  prefecture  of 
police,  15,462,000 ;  lighting  streets,  3,917,000. 
The  latest  trustworthy  statistics  of  the  indus- 
trial condition  of  Paris  are  those  obtained  by 
the  inquiry  instituted  by  the  chamber  of  com- 
merce in  1860.  Between  that  time  and  1870 
there  was  an  increasing  activity ;  but  this  again 
received  a  check  by  the  war  and  the  commune, 
from  which  in  some  departments  of  business, 
especially  in  that  of  building  and  its  connected 
group  of  trades,  it  is  slow  to  recover ;  mean- 
time the  rate  of  wages  has  followed  at  an  in- 
terval the  rise  in  the  cost  of  living.  The  fol- 
lowing table  of  the  principal  trades  arranged 
by  groups  is  still  worth  regarding : 


INDUSTRIES  CONNECTED 
WITH 


Food 

Building 

Furniture 

Clothing 

Spinning  and  weaving 

Ordinary  metals 

Precious  metals 

Chemicals  and  ceramics 

Printing,  engrav'g,  paper,  &c. 

Clocks  and  watchwork,  mu- 
sical, mathematical,  and 
other  "instruments  of  pre- 
cision"  

Furs  and  leather , 

Carriages  and  saddlery 

Cooperage  

Fancy  articles  {articles  de 
Paris) 

Sundry,  ungrouped 


Total 101,171    416,811  |  8, 


No.  of 
establish- 
ments. 


5,378 

7,391 
23,800 
2,836 
3,440 
3.199 
2,719 
2,759 


-20,580 


No.  of 
hands. 


38,859 
71,242 
37.951 
78,877 
26,810 
28,S66 
1S.731 
14,397 
19,507 


82,071 


Value  in  francs 
of  yearly 
production. 


1,087,904,307 
315.266,477 
199,825,948 
454,538,168 
119.998,751 
163,852,428 
183.390,553 
193,616.349 
94,166,528 


66.040,233 

100,881,795 

98.849,195 

27,075,323 

127.546,540 
141,140,294 


Of  the  416,811  hands  employed,  285,862  were 
men,  105,410  women  over  16  years  of  age, 
19,059  boys,  and  6,481  girls.  Of  the  men,  1,588 
earned  less  than  1  franc  daily,  18,266  from  1 
to  2  francs,  44,226  from  2  to  3,  82,337  from  3 
to  4,  98,527  from  4  to  5,  30,757  from  5  to  6, 
14,186  from  6  to  10 ;  221  earned  11  francs; 
380,  12 ;  216,  15  ;  and  57,  20.  Of  the  women, 
17,203  earned  less  than  1£  francs,  49,176  from 
l£to  2,  35,239  from  2  to  3,  3,925  from  3  to  4, 
and  767  from  4  to  10.  The  value  of  exports 
from  Paris  to  foreign  countries  in  1861  was 
347,349,098  francs.  The  chief  receiving  coun- 
tries were :  the  United  States,  81,024,729  fr. ; 
Great  Britain,  34,750,393  ;  Russia,  23,119,924; 
Spain,  17,763,921;  Switzerland,  13,409,138; 
Italy,  12,613,720;  Germany  (exclusive  of  Prus- 
sia and  Austria),  9,032,930;  Belgium,  6,630,- 
484;  all  other  countries,  13,942,230.  The  ex- 
ports from  Paris  to  the  United  States  have  of 
late  increased  very  rapidly.  For  several  recent 
years  their  amount  has  been  as  follows:  1864, 
$16,469,000;  1865,  $27,824,000;  1866,  $36,- 
123,000;  1867,  $29,998,000;  1868,  $26,295,000; 
1869,  $30,103,000;  1870,  $26,696,000;  1871, 
$25,975,000;  1872,  $38,680,000.  Paris  is  cele- 
brated for  its  jewelry  and  other  goldsmith's 
work,  watches  and  ornamental  bronzes;  its 
boots,  shoes,  and  gloves ;  its  pianofortes,  paper 
hangings,  perfumery,  artificial  flowers,  articles 
of  female  dress,  and  military  equipments.  Its 
mathematical,  optical,  and  surgical  instruments 
have  a  deservedly  wide  reputation  for  beauty 
and  accuracy.  The  products  of  the  Gobelins 
manufactory  of  tapestry  and  carpets  do  not 
enter  into  commerce.  The  manufactory  be- 
longs to  government,  and  like  the  porcelain 
factory  at  Sevres  is  not  a  rival  of,  but  a  bene- 
ficial model  and  pioneer  experimenter  for  pri- 
vate enterprises.  The  government  tobacco 
factory  in  Paris  furnishes  about  one  fifth  of 
the  snuff,  cigars,  and  smoking  tobacco  con- 
sumed in  France.  Among  the  most  interest- 
ing establishments  organized  and  directly  con- 
trolled by  the  municipal  administration  are  the 
great  central  markets  {holies  centrales),  consist- 
ing of  12  great  pavilions  or  halls  of  iron  and 
glass,  covering  a  space  of  87,790  square  metres, 
and  divided  into  stalls,  &c,  somewhat  in  the 
manner  of  our  own  markets.  Each  pavilion 
is  devoted  to  the  sale  of  some  special  class  of 
provisions,  and  all  are  connected  and  traversed 
by  passages  and  streets,  all  under  cover,  the 
whole  forming  as  it  were  a  small  covered  city. 
The  halles  are  at  the  S.  E.  end  of  the  rue  Mont- 
martre,  near  the  boulevard  de  Sevastopol. 
Underneath  the  pavilions  are  great  vaults, 
where  there  are  tanks  for  live  fish,  storage 
places  for  vegetables,  &c.  These  vaults  are 
connected  with  the  railway  termini  by  un- 
derground railways,  by  which  the  provisions 
arrive  at  the  markets,  and  the  garbage  and 
refuse  are  carried  away.  The  following  sta- 
tistics of  the  sale  of  articles  of  food  at  these 
markets  during  1 874  are  interesting  as  afford- 
ing some  means  of  judging  of  the  city's  con- 


PARIS 


sumption,  as  they  supply  the  greater  part 
of  the  capital.  At  the  pavilion  specially  re- 
served for  the  sale  of  meat  more  than  15,- 
400,000  lbs.  of  beef,  8,800,000  of  mutton,  19,- 
800,000  of  veal,  and  5,500,000  of  pork,  form- 
ing in  all  a  total  of  nearly  27,000  tons,  were 
disposed  of ;  while  for  poultry  and  game  the 
figures  are:  chickens  and  capons,  3,226,885; 
rabbits,  1,281,017;  pigeons,  1,593,347;  larks, 
1,774,628 ;  hares,  161,103 ;  partridges,  405,281 ; 
deer,  7,014.  The  number  of  eggs  sold  reached 
the  total  of  213,500,000,  and  the  weight  of 
fresh  and  salt  butter  is  estimated  at  11,000 
tons.  The  sale  of  fish  has  increased  immense- 
ly within  25  years,  for  while  only  138,600  lbs. 
were  brought  to  the  central  markets  in  1850, 
the  total  for  1874  is  50,600,000,  an  eighth 
of  which  was  made  up  of  fresh-water  fish. 
The  octroi  duty  upon  oysters  has  risen  from 
800  francs  in  1848  to  12,000,  the  tax  paid 
upon  the  12,000,000  oysters  consumed  by  the 
Parisians  in  1874.  The  vegetables  and  fruit 
disposed  of  weighed  more  than  6,000  tons. 
— The  earliest  historic  mention  of  Paris  is  by 
Julius  Caesar.  On  an  island  in  the  Seine  he 
found  a  town  of  huts,  the  stronghold  of  one 
of  the  64  confederate  Gallic  tribes.  Much  in- 
genious conjecture  has  failed  to  clear  away 
the  obscurity  that  involves  the  etymology  of 
its  name  Lutetia,  and  the  origin  of  its  inhabi- 
tants, the  Parisii.  The  former  may  be  a  Latin- 
ized corruption  of  three  Celtic  words,  luth, 
ihoneze,  y,  or  of  two,  louton  hesi,  signifying  a 
dwelling  in  the  waters;  and  the  latter  are 
supposed  to  be  an  offshoot  of  the  Belgse.  They 
were  a  fierce  race  of  hunters  and  warriors. 
They  burned  their  town  rather  than  yield  it 
to  invaders  in  52  B.  C.  When  physical  re- 
sistance was  finally  overcome,  they  were  slow 
to  accept  Roman  laws  and  customs.  The  local 
genius  was  early  manifest  in  opposition  to  im- 
posed authority.  An  insurrection  broke  out 
in  A.  D.  286,  the  two  leaders  of  which,  up- 
borne on  shields,  were  proclaimed  emperors  by 
the  people  assembled  near  the  present  site  of 
the  hotel  de  ville.  Between  358  and  360  the 
future  emperor  Julian,  who  retired  here  to  win- 
ter quarters,  and  in  the  Misopogon  has  record- 
ed his  affection  for  "  dear  Lutetia,"  confirmed 
old  rights  and  granted  new  privileges  to  the 
town,  which  rose  to  the  dignity  of  a  city  and 
took  the  name  of  Parisii.  For  centuries  it 
was  the  residence  of  a  Roman  prefect.  Its 
commerce,  at  first  principally  carried  on  by 
the  river,  was  in  the  hands  of  a  trading  com- 
pany, the  JVautce  Parisian,  which,  existing  as 
early  as  the  reign  of  Tiberius,  long  outlived 
the  Roman  domination,  contained  the  germs 
of  the  future  municipal  government,  and  has 
left  in  the  city  arms  of  to-day  its  symbolic 
mark,  a  galley  with  oars  and  sails,  and  the 
motto  Fluctuat  nee  mergitur.  The  palais  des 
thermes,  some  remains  of  which  are  still  to  be 
seen,  was  occupied  by  several  Roman  empe- 
rors, who  made  Paris  their  headquarters  while 
their  legions  were  striving  to  repel  the  irrup- 


tions of  the  barbarians.  As  the  vitality  of  the 
overgrown  empire  grew  faint  and  fainter  in  its 
extreme  members,  Paris  suffered  greatly  from 
these  irruptions.  In  451  it  was  saved  from 
Attila's  invasion  only  by  the  courage  and  wis- 
dom of  St.  Genevieve,  and  in  464  was  stormed 
by  Childeric  L,  king  of  the  Franks.  His  son 
Clovis  made  Paris  his  residence,  embraced 
Christianity,  and  built  a  church  dedicated  to 
St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul,  which  was  afterward 
placed  under  the  invocation  of  his  wife's 
friend  St.  Genevieve,  who  died  in  his  reign, 
and  remains  to  this  day  the  patron  saint  of 
the  city.  He  broke  the  last  weakened  bonds 
of  Roman  domination,  and  Paris  became  in- 
dependently Frank.  While  under  his  feeble 
successors  of  the  Merovingian  dynasty  Roman 
civilization  was  fading  away,  the  church  rose 
to  wealth  and  power.  According  to  the  legend, 
Christianity  was  first  preached  in  Paris  in  the 
middle  of  the  3d  century  by  St.  Denis,  to  the 
place  and  manner  of  whose  death  some  wri- 
ters attribute  the  origin  of  the  name  of  Mont- 
martre,  which  other  etymologists  deduce  from 
a  heathen  temple  of  Mars  that  once  stood  on 
that  hill.  A  chapel  dedicated  to  the  true  God 
and  St.  Stephen  was  erected  in  the  reign  of 
Valentinian  L,  on  the  site  of  an  earlier  altar 
to  Jupiter  now  covered  by  the  cathedral  of 
Notre  Dame.  The  Carlovingian  monarchs, 
like  their  predecessors  of  the  Merovingian  line, 
rarely  inhabited  Paris.  Doubtful  legend  and 
conjecture  ascribe  to  Charlemagne  the  merit 
of  originating  the  university  of  Paris.  The 
Normans  repeatedly  attacked  the  city  in  the 
9th  century.  The  Parisians  finally  appealed 
for  aid  to  Eudes  or  Otto,  count  of  Paris,  whom, 
after  he  had  repelled  the  invaders,  they  pro- 
claimed king  in  885.  His  successor  100  years 
later,  of  his  blood  but  not  his  direct  heir,  was 
Hugues  or  Hugh  Capet,  the  first  king  of  France 
properly  so  called,  from  whom  directly  or  in- 
directly descended  all  French  monarchs  down 
to  Louis  XVI.  Paris  now  increased  in  honors, 
privileges,  wealth,  influence,  and  population. 
Her  schools,  illustrated  by  such  teachers  as 
Peter  Lombard  and  Abelard,  were  resorted  to 
by  the  youth  of  all  Europe.  The  powerful  or- 
der of  the  templars  erected  a  fortress  on  the 
ground  where  the  Marche  du  Temple,  with  its 
2,000  dealers  in  old  clothes  and  in  every  other 
conceivable  second-hand  article  of  economy — 
one  of  the  most  curious  of  the  curiosities  of 
modern  Paris — now  stands.  The  foundations 
of  the  cathedral  of  Notre  Dame  were  laid. 
Philip  Augustus  (1180-1223)  recognized  the 
university  as  a  corporation,  and  granted  to  its 
officers  a  jurisdiction  independent  of  the  royal 
courts,  over  the  quarter  of  the  city  to  which 
it  gave  its  name.  He  caused  a  new  wall  to  be 
built  about  the  town  enclosing  625  acres ;  by 
a  formal  act  he  gave  all  the  refuse  straw  of  the 
royal  apartments  for  the  benefit  of  the  patients 
of  the  Maison-Dieu ;  he  established  two  cov- 
ered markets,  and  even  ordered  pavements 
for  the  streets.     Louis  IX.  greatly  promoted 


90 


PARIS 


the  welfare  of  Paris  by  important  reforms  of 
customs,  laws,  and  police,  and  by  establish- 
ing many  commercial,  religious,  and  beneficent 
institutions,  among  which  last  were  a  hospital 
for  the  blind  and  a  school  of  surgery.  His 
chaplain,  Robert  de  Sorbon,  founded  in  1250 
a  school  of  theology,  the  origin  of  the  famous 
Sorbonne,  in  the  quarter  of  the  university  still 
known  as  the  quartier  Latin  or  Pays  Latin. 
While  King  John,  taken  prisoner  by  the  Black 
Prince,  was  held  captive  in  England,  the  city 
was  governed  for  a  time  by  Etienne  Marcel, 
the  provost  of  the  merchants,  independent- 
ly of  the  general  state.  For  centuries  before 
as  for  centuries  after  the  brief  reign  of  this 
popular  leader,  Paris  was  often  disturbed  by 
insurrections  and  popular  tumults,  and  fierce 
quarrels  between  great  lords  and  the  king, 
or  among  themselves,  with  bloody  fights  and 
judicial  massacres ;  its  streets,  despite  royal 
reforms  and  new  regulations  of  police  in  fre- 
quent succession,  were  until  modern  times  un- 
safe for  honest  citizens  after  nightfall.  Under 
Philip  IV.  there  were  brilliant  publio  fetes,  for 
which  Paris  seems  thus  early  to  have  been  dis- 
tinguished, and  "mysteries"  were  performed 
on  stages  set  up  in  the  open  air,  the  first 
dramatic  representations  in  Paris.  Charles  V. 
built  a  new  palace,  then  called  the  hostel  de  St. 
Pol,  afterward  famous  in  history,  with  change 
of  destination  and  name,  as  the  Bastile.  (See 
Bastile.)  The  basement  only  of  most  private 
houses  in  those  days  was  of  stone ;  on  this  rest- 
ed one  or  more  stories  of  timber  filled  between 
with  mortar ;  when  the  proprietor's  wealth 
permitted,  the  facade  was  covered  with  slates, 
and  the  projecting  cornices  and  corner  posts 
were  adorned  with  carvings,  representing  foli- 
age, fantastic  animals,  the  heads  of  angels,  and 
Biblical  personages.  Chariots  and  even  four- 
wheeled  carriages,  and  disorders  of  swelling 
luxury,  excess  of  gambling  among  the  rest,  are 
spoken  of  in  contemporary  documents.  The 
city  had  overgrown  its  old  limits,  and  the  mon- 
arch caused  a  new  fortified  wall  to  be  built, 
enclosing  now  1,084  acres,  to  protect  it  against 
the  incursions  of  the  English;  who,  however, 
at  the  end  of  the  reign  of  his  insane  succes- 
sor, marked  in  the  annals  of  the  city  by  pest, 
famine,  and  all  the  horrors  of  bloody  faction, 
entered  Paris  amid  Te  Deum  chants  and  great 
fetes,  and  proclaimed  Henry  of  Lancaster  king 
of  France  and  England.  The  enthusiasm  of 
the  occasion  was  only  surpassed  by  that  which 
greeted  the  entrance  of  Charles  VII.  after  the 
expulsion  of  the  English  in  1436.  About  this 
date  Greek  was  first  taught  in  the  universi- 
ty, which  then  numbered  25,000  students.  In 
1438  there  were  5,000  deaths  at  the  Hotel-Dieu, 
and  in  all  the  city  45,000;  wolves  prowled 
through  its  streets,  desolated  by  war,  plague, 
and  famine.  In  1466  malefactors  and  vaga- 
bonds of  all  countries  were  invited  to  fill  up 
the  broken  ranks  of  its  population,  which  num- 
bered 300,000  souls  before  1483,  the  close  of 
the  reign  of  Louis  XI.     This  astute  ruler  fa- 


vored trade  and  commerce  of  all  kinds,  protect- 
ed against  violent  opposition  the  new  art  of 
printing  and  its  connected  industries,  confirm- 
ed the  privileges  of  the  citizens,  endowed  the 
capital  with  its  first  special  school  of  medicine, 
favored  the  first  attempt  at  lighting  its  streets, 
and  inaugurated  the  first  rude  postal  system, 
putting  it  in  communication  with  all  parts  of 
France.  Under  Francis  I.  (1515-'47)  the  ad- 
vance of  Paris  in  material  prosperity,  in  arts 
and  letters,  in  the  refinements  and  in  the  vices 
of  civilization,  received  a  fresh  impulse.  The 
castle  of  the  Louvre,  begun  by  Dagobert  and 
repeatedly  enlarged  and  strengthened  by  suc- 
ceeding monarchs,  was  swept  away,  and  the 
palace  of  the  old  Louvre  begun  upon  its  site ; 
the  hotel  de  ville  was  commenced,  new  streets 
were  opened,  old  quarters  rebuilt,  and  a  royal 
free  college  founded.  The  origin  of  the  cha- 
teau and  gardens  of  the  Tuileries,  the  endow- 
ment of  the  college  of  Ste.  Barbe,  now  one  of 
the  first  high  schools  of  Paris,  and  the  effec- 
tive constitution  of  what  is  now  the  national 
library,  date  from  the  reign  of  Henry  II.,  in 
despite  of  whom  a  Protestant  church  also  was 
established.  The  disasters  of  the  so-called  wars 
of  religion,  culminating  in  the  horrors  of  the 
St.  Bartholomew  massacre,  fell  heavily  upon 
Paris,  barring  its  progress  in  all  directions.  It 
revived  under  the  rule  of  Henry  IV.,  whose  ac- 
cession it  had  desperately  resisted.  The  pal- 
aces of  the  Tuileries  and  the  Louvre  were  great- 
ly enlarged,  the  place  Royale  formed,  and  the 
pont  Neuf  built.  Under  the  reign  of  Louis 
XIII.,  or  rather  of  his  minister  Richelieu, 
the  Palais  Cardinal,  now  Palais  Royal,  was 
begun.  The  Luxembourg  palace,  several  fine 
quays  and  bridges,  and  numerous  magnificent 
private  hotels  in  the  faubourg  St.  Germain, 
date  from  this  period ;  as  do  also  the  Frftnch 
academy,  the  jardin  des  plantes,  and  the  col- 
lege that  afterward  took  the  name  of  Louis-le- 
Grand.  More  than  80  new  streets  were  laid 
out  and  many  of  the  old  ones  improved  in  the 
long  reign  of  Louis  XIV.,  from  which  date  also 
the  academies,  with  the  exception  of  the  French 
academy,  the  observatory,  the  opera,  and  the 
Comedie  Francaise,  the  Hotel  des  Invalides,  the 
eastern  colonnade  of  the  Louvre,  the  triumph- 
al arches  of  St.  Denis  and  St.  Martin  built  on 
the  site  of  ancient  city  gates,  the  laying  out  of 
the  boulevards  as  promenades,  the  planting  of 
the  Champs  Elysles,  the  enlargement  of  the 
Tuileries  and  the  arrangement  of  its  gardens 
nearly  as  they  now  are,  the  forming  of  the 
place  Vendome  and  the  place  des  Victoires,  33 
churches,  a  foundling  hospital,  the  hospice  of 
the  Salpetriere,  the  Gobelins  tapestry  manufac- 
tory, the  first  city  post,  the  lighting  of  the  thor- 
oughfares with  "  lanterns  placed  from  distance 
to  distance  "  (which  was  commemorated  by  a 
medal  bearing  the  legend,  JJrbis  securitas  et 
nitor),  the  rudiments  of  the  modern  omnibus 
(an  unsuccessful  invention  of  Blaise  Pascal,  in 
the  shape  of  seven  coaches  in  which  "even 
women  took  their  places,"  for  five  sous,  but 


PARIS 


91 


from  which  soldiers  and  all  persons  in  livery 
were  excluded),  and  finally,  to  close  the  imper- 
fect catalogue  of  innovations,  the  first  coffee 
house  in  Paris.  At  the  accession  of  Louis  XV. 
Paris  occupied  a  space  of  2,809  acres,  and 
counted  500  grand  thoroughfares,  9  faubourgs, 
100  squares  and  open  places,  9  bridges,  22,000 
private  houses,  of  which  4,000  had  carriage  en- 
trances (portes-cocheres),  and  more  than  500,- 
000  inhabitants.  It  was  the  capital  of  science, 
art,  literature,  taste,  and  pleasure,  not  only  for 
Prance  but  for  Europe.  During  this  reign  the 
growth  of  the  city  went  on  in  all  ways.  In 
the  following  reign,  the  duke  of  Orleans,  better 
known  in  history  as  Philippe  Egalite,  enclosed 
the  spacious  gardens  of  the  Palais  Royal  with 
a  continuous  quadrangle  of  uniform  architec- 
ture, whose  galleries,  furnished  with  shops  of 
every  kind,  and  coffee  rooms,  gambling  rooms, 
and  wine  rooms,  became  one  brilliant  bazaar. 
The  famous  orgies  of  the  regency  in  the  palace 
proper  were  followed  by  revolutionary  orgies 
in  its  gardens.  It  was,  up  to  the  first  quarter 
of  the  present  century,  the  central  stage  and 
sink  of  what  was  brightest  and  foulest  in 
Paris.  In  1784  the  farmers  general  of  the 
city  customs  erected  about  the  enlarged  city 
an  octroi  or  customs  wall,  enclosing  an  area 
of  8,708  acres,  containing  more  than  50,000 
houses,  967  lighted  streets,  46  parish  and  20 
other  churches,  11  abbeys,  133  monasteries 
and  religious  houses,  15  seminaries,  10  colleges, 
26  hospitals  and  asylums,  60  fountains,  and  12 
markets.  This  octroi  wall  formed  the  city 
boundary  till  Jan.  1,  1860.  In  the  first  years 
of  the  revolution  many  monuments  of  the  mid- 
dle ages  were  demolished  or  mutilated;  the 
fine  arts  generally  were  neglected  in  the  fierce 
struggle  about  more  essential  things ;  material 
growth  was  checked  and  the  population  dimin- 
ished. But  the  ground  was  cleared  for  future 
improvements,  and  many  of  the  institutions 
of  which  Paris  to-day  has  best  reason  to  boast 
date  their  origin  from  the  revolutionary  pe- 
riod; such  are  the  museums  of  the  Louvre, 
the  bureau  of  longitudes,  the  conservatory  of 
arts  and  trades,  the  polytechnic  school,  and  the 
national  industrial  exhibitions  held  in  Paris. 
In  the  political  order,  the  revolution  finally 
crowned  a  work  at  which  the  ablest  monarchs 
and  statesmen  of  France  had  for  centuries 
been  more  or  less  consciously  laboring.  It 
swiftly  swept  away  the  last  obstacle  to  the 
completing  of  an  administrative  system  which, 
centralized  at  Paris,  extends  its  sovereign  con- 
trol to  the  remotest  corner  of  the  land,  vivi- 
fying and  strengthening  perhaps  the  nation 
by  unity  of  impulse,  but  crippling  the  power 
and  weakening  the  spirit  of  individual  action 
in  equal  proportion,  and  unduly  subordinating 
the  country  at  large  to  metropolitan  influence. 
Napoleon  I.  expended  more  than  100,000,000 
francs,  when  money  for  such  purposes  was  of 
far  greater  productive  value  than  at  present, 
on  works  of  public  utility  and  ornament,  but 
left  some  of  the  grander  of  them  to  be  finished 


by  his  successors.  Under  the  restoration  and 
Louis  Philippe  private  enterprise,  encouraged 
by  peace,  vied  with  the  government  in  enlarg- 
ing and  adorning  the  city.  An  improved  civil 
police,  better  drainage,  paving  and  lighting  of 
the  streets,  with  increased  attention  to  comfort 
and  decency  in  domestic  architecture,  mark  this 
period.  During  its  latter  part,  too,  the  present 
fortifications  were  constructed,  and  the  whole 
arrangement  for  the  defence  of  Paris  was  thus 
placed  upon  an  entirely  different  footing  from 
the  comparatively  unprotected  condition  of  the 
past.  The  city's  material  prosperity  seemed 
but  transiently  dimmed  at  the  close  of  the  reign 
of  Louis  Philippe,  though  the  immediate  effect 
of  the  revolution  of  1848  was  a  check  upon  it. 
But  a  visitation  of  the  cholera  and  the  insur- 
rection of  June  furnished  to  the  republican 
government  early  suggestions  of  the  need  and 
nature  of  certain  changes  afterward  embraced 
in  the  general  system  of  transformation  car- 
ried nearly  to  completion  under  the  second 
empire.  The  republic  was  suppressed  by  the 
coup  oVetat  of  Dec.  2,  1851.  Its  name  was 
abolished  a  year  later,  wThen  Louis  Napoleon 
"  closed  the  era  of  revolution,"  and  had  him- 
self named  emperor.  Almost  the  only  French 
monarch  born  and  residing  throughout  his 
reign  in  Paris,  he  aimed  to  make  of  his  birth- 
place the  most  salubrious,  convenient,  and 
sumptuous  city  of  Europe,  a  monument  of  his 
reign  and  a  fortress  for  his  dynasty.  The 
public  works  of  this  period  cost  the  city  and  na- 
tional treasury,  exclusive  of  certain  special  ap- 
propriations, from  1852  to  1859,  an  average  of 
about  $2,800,000  per  annum,  and  for  the  next 
decade  about  $3,600,000.  In  the  last  year  of 
the  empire  it  is  known  to  have  surpassed  the 
estimates.  One  of  the  early  acts  of  Napoleon 
III.  was  to  order  that  to  be  done  which  Louis 
XIV.  had  contemplated,  Napoleon  I.  had  la- 
bored at,  Louis  Philippe  had  talked  of,  and  the 
provisional  government  had  decreed,  namely, 
the  clearing  away  of  the  intervening  huddle  of 
old  houses  and  the  connecting  of  the  Louvre 
with  the  Tuileries.  While  this  work  of  dem- 
olition and  monumental  construction  was  in 
progress,  the  palace  of  industry  and  the  palatial 
central  markets  were  built ;  the  rue  de  Rivoli 
was  extended  for  miles  through  a  labyrinth  of 
dark  streets ;  much  of  the  present  great  system 
of  sewers  was  constructed ;  a  great  number  of 
new  streets,  parks,  places,  &c,  were  laid  out ; 
and  a  large  majority  of  those  works  mentioned 
in  the  earlier  part  of  this  article,  as  contribu- 
ting to  the  present  beauty  and  convenience  of 
the  city,  were  planned  and  executed.  Mean- 
time the  efforts  of  individual  and  associated 
private  capital,  credit,  and  feverish  speculation 
kept  pace  with  their  imperial  progress.  Of  all 
the  houses  of  Paris  in  1870,  less  than  one  third 
had  been  built  prior  to  1852.  The  returning 
visitor  might  traverse  broad  thoroughfares  for 
miles  together,  and,  except  for  here  and  there 
a  glimpse  of  a  spared  monument,  hardly  meet 
with  a  reminder  of  the  places  he  knew  25  years 


92 


PARIS 


before.  Little  remains  of  what  was  then  still 
left  of  old  Paris:  its  crooked  streets,  close 
and  dark,  with  their  quaint  gables,  and  storied 
fronts  and  corner  towerets,  so  rich  in  histor- 
ical associations  and  foul  flavors,  so  pictu- 
resque, so  favorable  to  popular  emeutes  and 
epidemic  maladies.  In  1860  the  octroi  wall  was 
demolished,  and  the  suburban  towns  and  vil- 
lages grouped  around  it  were  annexed  to  Paris, 
which  took  for  its  boundary  the  fortifications. 
The  prosperity  of  Paris  seemed  at  its  height ; 
the  luxury  of  its  shops,  promenades,  theatres, 
saloons,  and  court  outshone  those  of  all  other 
European  capitals ;  the  general  government,  of 
which  the  city  administration  was  a  branch, 
was  deemed  by  throngs  of  admiring  strangers 
perfection  in  its  solidity  as  in  other  respects, 
when  the  declaration  of  war  in  July,  1870, 
suddenly  changed  the  aspect  of  affairs.  On 
Sept.  4  the  empire  fell  without  a  drop  of  blood 
shed  in  its  defence  by  its  late  beneficiaries.  The 
alarmed  empress  fled  to  England ;  and  the  rapid 
progress  of  the  war  (see  France)  soon  brought 
the  advancing  German  army  within  a  short 
distance  of  the  city,  where  the  most  energetic 
measures  were  in  progress  for  defence.  On 
Sept.  19  a  sortie  under  Gen.  Ducrot  proved 
fruitless  as  a  means  of  hindering  the  advance, 
and  his  troops  were  driven  back.  In  the  two 
weeks  following,  the  investment  of  Paris  by 
the  German  armies  was  made  complete.  The 
forces  of  the  besieged  at  the  time  of  the  invest- 
ment were,  according  to  the  Journal  Officiel, 
as  follows :  the  13th  and  14th  corps  of  the  line, 
in  round  numbers  50,000  men,  under  Gens. 
Vinoy  and  Renault;  a  corps  of  government 
and  railway  employees  and  volunteers,  and  a 
body  of  cavalry,  in  all  about  30,000,  under 
Ducrot;  100,000  men  of  the  garde  mobile  and 
10,000  marines,  under  various  commanders; 
60  old  and  194  new  battalions  of  the  national 
guard ;  grand  total,  about  400,000  men.  Gen. 
Trochu,  president  of  the  government  of  the 
national  defence,  was  commandant  of  the  city. 
The  forces  of  the  besiegers,  and  their  arrange- 
ment about  the  city,  were  as  follows:  the 
"third  army"  (5th,  6th,  and  11th  Prussian 
corps,  two  Bavarian  and  two  Wurtemberg 
corps),  under  the  crown  prince  of  Prussia, 
embraced  the  S.  and  S.  E.  front  from  Sevres 
to  the  Marne;  and  the  "army  of  the  Meuse" 
(12th  Saxon  and  two  Prussian  corps),  under 
the  crown  prince  (now  king)  of  Saxony,  em- 
braced the  N.  and  N.  E.  front ;  the  whole  be- 
sieging force  numbering  about  220,000  men. 
On  Sept.  20  the  Prussian  crown  prince,  and 
on  Oct.  5  the  king,  took  up  their  headquar- 
ters at  Versailles ;  those  of  the  Saxon  crown 
prince  were  at  Grand  Tremblay.  From  Sept. 
20  the  lines  of  the  Germans  were  constantly 
drawn  more  and  more  closely  about  Paris,  and 
the  siege  from  their  side  presents  little  more 
than  the  regular  progress  of  military  opera- 
tions, hardly  interrupted  until  their  success- 
ful end.  Its  history  from  the  side  of  the  be- 
sieged, however,  is  entirely  different.     Every 


expedient  for  breaking  the  lines  of  the  besiegers 
was  debated;  and  desperate  but  unsuccessful 
sorties  were  made  on  Sept.  30  (Gen.  Vinoy 
with  10,000  men  in  the  direction  of  Choisy), 
Oct.  13  (reconnoissance  under  Trochu  toward 
Chatillon),  Oct.  21  (Gens.  Noel  and  others  to- 
ward Bougival,  Malmaison,  &c),  Oct.  28  (the 
French  capturing  Le  Bourget,  which  was  recap- 
tured after  a  violent  conflict  on  the  30th),  Nov. 
2a  and  30  (fighting  at  Mont-Mesly,  Ohampigny, 
Villiers,  and  Brie,  all  of  which  were  taken  by 
the  French  and  retaken  by  the  Germans  with- 
in a  few  days),  and  Dec.  21  (Trochu  toward  Le 
Bourget).  On  Dec.  27,  at  7£  A.  M.,  the  Ger- 
mans, who  had  finally  decided  upon  and  pre- 
pared for  this  measure,  began  a  vigorous  bom- 
bardment of  the  city,  directing  it  first  of  all 
against  the  forts  on  the  E.  side,  the  fire  of  which 
was  practically  silenced  by  Jan.  1.  On  the  5th 
of  that  month  the  bombardment  of  the  southern 
forts  was  begun,  and  on  that  day,  too,  the  first 
shells  fell  in  the  city  itself,  in  the  Luxembourg 
gardens.  On  the  13th,  14th,  and  15th  the  French 
made  further  unsuccessful  sorties  in  various 
directions ;  and  on  the  19th  Trochu  once  more 
undertook  a  grand  sally  from  Mont  Valerien 
and  that  side  of  the  city,  against  the  German 
left  wing,  with  more  than  100,000  men.  An 
obstinate  conflict  followed,  but  the  French  were 
finally  driven  back  with  heavy  loss.  All  hope 
of  saving  the  city  was  now  over ;  on  the  20th 
Trochu  resigned  the  governorship ;  and  on  the 
evening  of  the  23d  Jules  Favre  appeared  at 
Versailles  to  begin  negotiations  for  the  capit- 
ulation. The  terms  of  the  surrender,  and  the 
account  of  the  German  entry  and  subsequent 
events  connected  with  it,  are  given  in  the  arti- 
cle France  ;  and  the  account  of  the  great  com- 
munistic insurrection,  in  which  the  whole  his- 
tory of  the  city  until  the  beginning  of  June  is ' 
involved,  is  given  in  Commune  de  Paris.  The 
suffering  in  the  city  during  the  two  sieges  was 
very  great,  that  of  the  majority  of  the  people 
being  far  greater  during  the  German  than 
during  the  Versaillist  investment.  At  the  mo- 
ment of  the  former  investment  its  population 
was  in  excess  of  2,000,000,  the  depletion  by 
the  voluntary  and  forced  withdrawal  of  many 
thousands  of  its  ordinary  French  and  foreign 
inhabitants  being  more  than  compensated  by 
the  influx  of  refugees  from  the  neighboring 
region.  The  military  conduct  of  the  defence 
is  still  too  much  matter  of  grave  and  often  of 
passionate  discussion  to  be  authoritatively  pro- 
nounced upon  here.  What  is  indisputable  is, 
that  despite  a  bombardment  of  three  weeks, 
which  was  constantly  increasing  in  intensity,  Pa- 
ris finally  capitulated  to  cold  and  hunger.  The 
winter  was  unusually  severe.  In  the  latter  pe- 
riod of  the  siege  the  daily  rations,  purchasable 
of  butchers  and  bakers  only  on  presentation  of 
a  personal  certificate,  were  for  an  adult  about 
two  ounces  of  horse  flesh  and  less  than  three- 
quarters  of  a  pound  of  bread  CQmposed  of  one 
part  wheat  and  two  parts  of  whatever  else 
could  be  got.     There  was  no  fixed  scale  of 


PARIS 


93 


prices  for  other  articles  in  the  desolate  mar- 
kets; but  the  following  "quotations"  in  francs 
for  the  third  week  in  January,  rather  moderate 
than  exaggerated,  are  historically  accurate :  a 
chicken,  40  francs;  a  rabbit,  50 ;'  a  good  onion, 
£,  very  fine,  1 ;  a  turkey,  150 ;  a  goose,  140 ;  a 
cat,  12  to  18;  dog,  3£  a  pound.  Eat,  cat,  and 
dog  butcher  shops  were  not  uncommon.  Ele- 
phant, while  it  lasted,  was  40  francs  a  pound  for 
choice  pieces.  Wood,  green  and  very  scarce, 
cost  from  7  to  10  francs  the  100  lbs. ;  charcoal 
was  nearly  and  stone  coal  quite  unobtainable. 
All  that  kept  these  prices  from  rising  still  higher 
was,  that  they  were  already  out  of  reach  of  the 
empty  or  thin  purses  of  the  larger  part  of  the 
two  millions.  The  number  of  deaths  during 
the  19  weeks  of  investment  and  the  four  weeks 
next  following,  i.  e.,  from  Sept.  18,  1870,  to 
Feb.  24,  1871,  was  64,154.  The  number  of 
deaths  in  the  corresponding  period  of  the  pre- 
ceding twelvemonth  was  21,978.  The  high- 
est weekly  bill  of  mortality  was  4,761.  A  par- 
tial communication  with  the  outer  world  was 
maintained  by  balloons  and  carrier  pigeons.  Of 
62  postal  balloons  sent  out,  bearing  in  all  159 
persons  and  18,000  lbs.  of  written  and  printed 
matter,  only  seven  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
enemy,  two  are  supposed  to  have  been  borne 
out  by  wind  currents  and  lost  at  sea,  and  one 
landed  in  Norway.  The  return  post  by  carrier 
pigeons,  consisting  df  brief  despatches  micro- 
scopically reduced  by  photographic  process,  was 
scanty  and  precarious.  Of  85  post-office  mes- 
sengers attempting  to  pass  the  lines,  only  eight 
succeeded  in  getting  out,  and  only  three  in  en- 
tering. There  was  one  fortnight  in  which  no 
news  of  any  description  reached  the  city  from 
without.  (See  Aeronautics.)  Among  the  pub- 
lic buildings  burned  during  the  commune  insur- 
rection were  the  prefecture  of  police,  grenier 
cfabondance,  ministry  of  finances,  hotel  de  ville, 
the  palaces  of  the  council  of  state,  Tuileries, 
and  legion  of  honor,  and  the  Palais  Royal. 
The  last  two  have  been  restored.  The  column 
of  the  place  Vend6me,  which  was  thrown  down 
just  before  the  week  of  blood,  has  been  re- 
constructed. Several  public  libraries,  of  which 
the  most  important  were  those  of  the  Louvre 
and  of  the  hdtel  de  ville,  and  many  valuable 
works  of  art,  were  also  burned.  The  insurrec- 
tion of  March,  following  on  the  revolution  of 
September,  confirmed  a  majority  of  the  na- 
tional assembly  in  their  fear  of  Paris,  which, 
after  being  the  seat  of  every  successively  sitting 
and  unseated  government,  from  that  of  Louis 
XYI.  to  that  of  Louis  Napoleon,  is  now  (by  the 
constitutional  enactments  of  February,  1875) 
legally  decapitalized  in  favor  of  Versailles, 
where  the  national  assembly  has  held  its  ses- 
sions and  the  chief  of  state  has  had  his  ordi- 
nary official  residence  since  the  peace  with  the 
Germans.  The  ministries,  however,  remain  in 
Paris,  and  the  administrative  machinery  which 
controls  the  affairs  of  the  country  is  still  worked 
from  its  old  centre.  In  1873  the  municipal 
authorities  resolved  to  undertake  several  great 


schemes  of  improvement  and  public  works,  for 
which  7,000,000  francs  were  appropriated  in 
June  of  that  year,  and  large  sums  have  since 
been  added.  These  designs  involve  the  length- 
ening of  many  of  the  present  important  ave- 
nues and  streets,  and  the  laying  out  of  a  large 
number  of  new  ones;  the  rebuilding  of  the 
Tuileries,  hotel  de  ville,  and  other  edifices ;  im- 
provements in  the  fortifications,  &c.  Most  of 
these  works  are  now  in  progress.  The  prin- 
cipal recent  event  in  connection  with  the  great 
edifices  of  Paris  has  been  the  opening  of  the 
grand  opera  house,  which  took  place  with  much 
ceremony  and  success  on  Jan.  5,  1875. 

PARIS,  also  called  Alexander,  a  Trojan 
prince,  second  son  of  Priam  and  Hecuba. 
His  mother  having  dreamed  during  pregnancy 
that  she  brought  forth  a  flaming  torch  which 
set  fire  to  the  city,  he  was  immediately  after 
his  birth  exposed  on  Mt.  Ida,  where  a  'she 
bear  suckled  him  for  five  days.  A  shepherd 
then  took  him  home  and  brought  him  up  as 
his  own  child.  He  grew  up  handsome,  accom- 
plished, and  valiant,  and  when  a  dispute  arose 
between  Juno,  Minerva,  and  Venus  for  the 
golden  apple  inscribed  "  To  the  fairest,"  which 
Eris  (Strife)  threw  among  the  assembled  divin- 
ities, Paris  was  selected  by  Jupiter  to  decide 
the  quarrel.  He  awarded  the  prize  of  beauty 
to  Venus,  who  promised  him  in  return  the 
fairest  of  Women  for  his  wife.  Afterward  the 
secret  of  his  parentage  was  declared  by  his 
sister,  the  prophetess  Cassandra,  and  he  was 
received  by  Priam  as  his  son.  Hearing  of  the 
surpassing  charms  of  Helen,  the  wife  of  Mene- 
laus,  king  of  Sparta,  he  sailed  to  Greece  with 
a  fleet,  and,  aided  by  Venus,  carried  her  off 
to  Troy.  This  led  to  the  siege  of  Troy,  in 
which  Paris  showed  little  of  his  accustomed 
courage,  but  he  twice  met  Menelaus  in  conflict ; 
once  he  fled,  and  again  he  was  defeated,  but 
was  borne  away  by  Venus.  According  to  one 
account  he  killed  Achilles.  Being  wounded  by 
Phyloctetes  with  an  arrow  of  Hercules,  Paris 
repaired  to  his  long  deserted  wife  (Enone, 
whom  he  had  married  before  the  abduction 
of  Helen ;  but  she  refused  to  heal  him,  and  he 
returned  to  Troy.  (Enone  repented  and  fol- 
lowed him  with  remedies,  but  being  too  late 
killed  herself  in  despair. 

PARIS,  Alexis  Panlin,  a  French  author,  born  at 
Avenay,  department  of  Marne,  March  25, 1800. 
He  early  went  to  Paris,  translated  Byron's 
works  and  Moore's  memoirs  (15  vols.,  1827- 
'32),  was  employed  in  the  royal  library,  of 
which  he  became  one  of  the  directors,  and  was 
elected  to  the  academy  of  inscriptions  and 
belles-lettres.  A  chair  of  medisoval  philology 
and  literature  was  established  for  him  at  the 
college  de  France  in  1853.  He  has  edited  Les 
grandes  chroniques  de  St.  Denis  (6  vols.,  1836- 
'8),  Historiettes  de  Tallemant  des  Beaux  (in 
conjunction  with  Monmerqu6,  9  vols.,  3d  ed„, 
1860),  Les  romans  de  la  table  ronde  (1868  et 
seq.),  and  other  works.  He  is  a  member  of 
the  commission  to  continue  the  Eistoire  litte- 


94 


PAEIS 


PARISH 


raire  de  France. — His  son  Gaston  has  pub- 
lished several  works  on  the  French  grammar, 
and  received  the  Gobert  prize  for  his  Histoire 
poetique  de  Charlemagne  (1866). 

PARIS,  John  Ayrton,  an  English  physician, 
born  in  Cambridge,  Ang.  7,  1785,  died  in  Lon- 
don, Dec.  24,  1856.  He  graduated  M.  D.  at 
Oaius  college,  Cambridge,  in  1808,  and  in  the 
same  year  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession in  London.  Soon  afterward  he  settled 
in  Penzance,  Cornwall,  and  while  there  found- 
ed the  royal  geological  society  of  Cornwall. 
In  1817  he  returned  to  London,  and  delivered 
lectures  on  the  materia  medica  and  the  phi- 
losophy of  medicine,  the  matter  of  which 
was  reproduced  in  his  "  Pharmacologia  "  (8vo, 
1819;  9th  ed.,  rewritten,  1843).  In  1844  he 
became  president  of  the  London  college  of 
physicians,  which  post  he  retained  until  his 
death.  He  published  a  memoir  of  Sir  Hum- 
phry Davy  (4to,  1810) ;  a  "  Treatise  on  Diet " 
(8vo,  1826) ;  "  Philosophy  in  Sport  made  Sci- 
ence in  Earnest;"  and  in  conjunction  with  J. 
S.  M.  Fonblanque,  "Medical  Jurisprudence" 
(3  vols.  8vo,  1823).  He  invented  the  "tamp- 
ing bar,"  an  iron  implement  coated  with  cop- 
per, which  protected  miners  from  the  sparks 
evoked  by  the  ordinary  iron  bar. 

PARIS,  Louis  Philippe  d'Orleans,  count  de,  a 
French  prince,  eldest  son  of  the  duke  of  Or- 
leans, and  grandson  of  Louis  Philippe,  born  in 
Paris,  Aug.  24,  1838.  He  was  educated  under 
the  direction  of  Regnier  in  Paris,  and  after 
the  revolution  of  1848  in  Eisenach,  and  subse- 
quently in  England.  He  travelled  extensive- 
ly, and  in  1860  visited  the  East  together  with 
his  brother  the  duke  de  Chartres,  who  also 
accompanied  him  in  1861  to  the  United  States. 
He  served  on  the  staff  of  Gen.  McClellan  from 
November,  1861,  till  after  his  retreat  to  the 
James  river  in  the  summer  of  1862,  when  he 
returned  to  England  chiefly  because  of  the 
possibility  of  complications  between  the  Uni- 
ted States  and  France  in  regard  to  Mexico, 
having  received  the  warmest  commendations 
for  courage  and  military  capacity.  In  1864 
he  married  his  cousin,  a  daughter  of  the  duke 
de  Montpensier,  who  has  borne  him  several 
children.  In  1870-71  the  count  and  countess 
were  very  active  in  London  and  afterward  in 
Paris  for  the  relief  of  French  soldiers  during 
the  war,  A  sum  of  £500  was  sent  from  New 
York  to  the  countess  for  this  purpose,  contrib- 
uted by  persons  who  desired  by  this  means  to 
attest  their  regard  for  the  count's  services  to 
the  Union ;  and  a  considerable  amount  from 
other  American  contributors  was  placed  at 
the  count's  disposal  for  distribution.  At  the 
close  of  the  war  with  Germany  he  took  up  his 
residence  in  Paris.  He  visited  the  count  de 
Chambord  at  Frohsdorf  in  1873,  and  was  re- 
ported to  have  relinquished  his  claims  to  the 
throne  for  the  present  in  favor  of  the  latter, 
on  condition  of  being  recognized  as  the  sole 
heir  after  Chambord's  death  to  the  regal  rights 
of  both  branches  of  the  Bourbons.  He  has  pub- 


lished Damas  et  le  Liban  (London,  1861)  ;  Les 
associations  ouxrieres  en  Angleterre  (in  French 
and  English,  1869)  ;  and  Histoire  de  la  guerre 
civile  aux  Etats-  JJnis  (4  vols.,  Paris,  1874-'5 ; 
authorized  English  translation  to-be  made  by 
Louis  F.  Tasistro). 

PARIS,  Matthew,    See  Matthew  Paeis. 

PARIS,  Plaster  of.     See  Gypsum. 

PARISH  (law  Latin,  parochia).  In  English 
ecclesiastical  law,  this  word  has  always  meant 
a  certain  extent  of  territory,  or  "  circuit  of 
ground,"  committed  to  the  spiritual  charge  of 
one  parson,  or  vicar,  or  other  ecclesiastic. 
All  England  is  divided  into  parishes,  and  they 
number  about  10,000.  Camden  says  parishes 
began  in  England  about  the  year  630.  Sir 
Henry  Hobart  refers  them  to  the  council  of 
Lateran  in  1179.  Selden  places  their  origin 
between  these  periods.  It  seems,  however, 
that  about  1,000  years  ago,  while  every  man 
was  bound  to  pay  tithes  to  the  church,  he  paid 
them  to  whatever  ecclesiastical  division  of  the 
church  he  preferred ;  but  a  law  of  King  Edgar, 
about  970,  seems  to  confine  the  payment  to 
the  parish  to  which  the  man  belonged,  and  so 
it  has  remained  ever  since. — In  the  United 
States  the  word  parish  is  of  frequent  use,  but 
it  does  not  mean  precisely  the  same  thing  as  in 
England,  nor  does  it  mean  the  same  thing  in 
all  the  states.  The  legal  importance  of  parish- 
es in  England  depends  up'on  the  fact  that  the 
rector  of  each  parish  is  entitled  to  the  tithes 
of  agricultural  produce  within  it,  except  so  far 
as  some  qualification  of  this  rule  has  been 
made  by  comparatively  recent  statutes.  In 
this  country  tithes  were  never  paid,  or  rather 
no  legal  obligation  to  pay  them  ever  existed. 
But  from  the  first  settlement  of  the  country 
we  have  had  everywhere  associations  and  bod- 
ies corporate  or  organized  for  ecclesiastical 
purposes,  and  these  have  been  generally  called 
parishes.  In  New  England  they  were  origi- 
nally the  same  as  towns  ;  that  is,  the  persons 
composing  a  town,  and  acting  as  a  town  in 
civil  and  political  matters,  also  acted  as  one 
body  in  religious  or  ecclesiastical  matters ;  and 
the  parish  had  therefore  the  same  territorial 
limits  as  the  town.  As  the  towns  grew  more 
populous,  they  were  divided  for  ecclesiastical 
purposes  into  different  parishes,  which  were 
still  territorial  and  were  contained  within  local 
limits.  At  length,  as  a  diversity  of  religious 
sentiment  became  developed,  all  religious  opin- 
ions standing  on  the  same  footing  in  law, 
parishes  began  to  be  formed  of  persons  asso- 
ciated by  similarity  of  religious  sentiment  and 
not  mere  nearness  of  residence,  and  therefore 
with  little  or  no  reference  to  their  place  of 
abode.  These  were  called  poll  parishes,  in 
distinction  from  territorial  parishes. — In  Loui- 
siana, the  word  parish  is  used  to  designate 
what  in  the  other  states  is  called  a  county. 

PARISH,  Elijah,  an  American  author,  born  at 
Lebanon,  Conn.,  Nov.  7,  1762,  died  at  Byfield, 
Mass.,  Oct.  15,  1825.  He  graduated  at  Dart- 
mouth college  in  1785,  studied  theology,  and  in 


PARK 


95 


December,  1787,  settled  as  pastor  of  the  Con- 
gregational church  at  Byfield.  He  belonged 
to  the  party  called  in  his  day  the  Hopkinsian. 
In  1810  he  preached  the  annual  election  ser- 
mon, in  which  he  so  bitterly  inveighed  against 
the  policy  of  the  government,  that  the  legis- 
lature refused  to  ask  it  for  publication;  it 
had  nevertheless  a  large  circulation.  He  pub- 
lished a  "  Gazetteer  of  the  Eastern  and  West- 
ern Continents,"  in  conjunction  with  the  Rev. 
Dr.  Morse  (1802);  a  "History  of  New  Eng- 
land" (1809);  "System  of  Modern  Geogra- 
phy "  (1810)  ;  "Memoir  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Elea- 
zar  Wheelock,  First  President  of  Dartmouth 
College,"  in  conjunction  with  the  Rev.  Daniel 
McClure  (1811) ;  and  "  Sacred  Geography,  or 
Gazetteer  of  the  Bible  "  (1813).  A  volume  of 
his  sermons,  with  a  memoir,  appeared  in  1826. 
PARR,  a  space  of  ground  used  for  public 
or  private  recreation,  differing  from  a  garden 
in  its  spaciousness  and  the  broad,. simple,  and 
natural  character  of  its  scenery,  and  from  a 
"wood"  in  the  more  scattered  arrangement 
of.  its  trees  and  greater  expanse  of  its  glades 
and  consequently  of  its  landscapes.  For  the 
sake  of  completeness,  recreation  grounds  not 
properly  called  parks  will  be  considered  under 
the  same  title.  The  grounds  of  an  old  Eng- 
lish manorial  seat  are  usually  divided  into  two 
parts,  one  enclosed  within  the  other  and  sepa- 
rated from  it  by  some  form  of  fence.  The 
interior  part,  immediately  around  the  dwelling, 


is  distinguished  as  the  pleasure  ground  or  kept 
ground,  the  outer  as  the  park.  The  park  is 
commonly  left  open  to  the  public,  and  frequent- 
ly the  public  have  certain  legal  rights  in  it,  espe- 
cially rights  of  way.  A  parish  church  is  some- 
times situated  within  the  park.  The  use  of  the 
park  as  part  of  a  private  property  is  to  put  the 
possibilities  of  disagreeable  neighborhood  at  a 
distance  from  the  house  and  the  more  domestic 
grounds,  to  supply  a  pleasant  place  of  escape 
from  the  confinement  and  orderliness  of  the 
more  artificial  parts  of  the  establishment,  and 
for  prolonged  and  vigorous  out-of-door  exer- 
cise. The  kept  grounds,  being  used  inciden- 
tally to  in-door  occupations,  are  designed  in 
close  adaptation  to  the  plan  of  the  house,  rich- 
ly decorated,  and  nicely,  often  exquisitely,  or- 
dered by  the  constant  labor  of  gardeners.  An- 
ciently the  kept  grounds  were  designed  as  a 
part  of  the  same  general  architectural  plan 
with  the  house,  and  were  enclosed  and  decora- 
ted with  masses  of  foliage  clipped  in  imitation 
of  cut  and  sculptured  stone.  Their  lofty  hedges 
often  completely  intercepted  the  view  from  the 
house  toward  the  park.  A  recognition  of  the 
fact  that  the  parks  were  much  more  beautiful 
than  the  kept  grounds  when  thus  fashioned, 
led  early  in  the  16th  century  to  the  art  of 
landscape  gardening,  or,  as  it  is  more  gener- 
ally called  out  of  England,  landscape  architec- 
ture. The  aim  of  the  new  art  was,  while  still 
keeping  the  park  fenced  off,  to  manage  the 


Windsor  Park. 


pleasure  grounds  in  such  a  way  that  they  would 
provide  a  harmonious  and  appropriate  fore- 
ground to  landscapes  extending  over  the  park, 
and  to  make  such  changes  in  the  park  itself 
as  would  improve  the  composition  of  these 
landscapes.  The  scenery  of  the  old  parks  often 
vol.  xiii. — 7 


has  great  beauty  of  a  special  character,  which 
is  the  result  of  the  circumstances  under  which 
the  more  ancient  and  famous  of  them  have  been 
formed.  These  were  originally  enclosed  many 
centuries  since  for  keeping  deer.  In  choosing 
ground  for  this  purpose,  rich  land  having  broad 


96 


PARK 


stretches  of  greensward  pasturage,  with  trees 
more  sparingly  distributed  than  usually  in  the 
forest,  was  to  be  preferred,  and  this  character 
would  be  increased  intentionally  by  felling  a 
portion  of  the  trees,  and  unintentionally  by 
the  browsing  of  the  deer ;  water,  either  flow- 
ing or  still,  was  a  necessity.  In  process  of 
time  the  proprietors  of  parks  established  resi- 
dences in  them,  and  at  length  the  size  of  their 
trees  and  the  beauty  of  their  grouping  came 
to  be  matters  of  family  pride.  As  the  old  de- 
cayed, new  trees  were  planted,  with  the  pur- 
pose of  maintaining  the  original  character,  or 
perhaps  of  carrying  it  nearer  its  ideal.  Prop- 
erties of  this  class,  being  associated  with  that 
which  was  oldest  and  most  respectable  in  the 
land,  came  to  be  eagerly  sought  for,  and  to  be 
formed  to  order  as  nearly  as  possible  after  the 
older  type ;  and  they  are  to  be  seen  now  in 
England  by  thousands.  As  a  general  rule,  each 
element  in  their  scenery  is  simple,  natural  to 
the  soil  and  climate,  and  unobtrusive  ;  and  yet 
the  passing  observer  is  very  strongly  impressed 
with  the  manner  in  which  views  are  succes- 
sively opened  before  him  through  the  innumer- 
able combinations  into  which  the  individual- 
ly modest  elements  constantly  rearrange  them- 
selves ;  views  which  often  possess  every  qual- 
ity of  complete  and  impressive  landscape  com- 
positions. It  is  chiefly  in  this  character  that 
the  park  has  the  advantage  for  public  purposes 
over  any  other  type  of  recreation  ground, 
whether  wilder  or  more  artificial.  Other  forms 
of  natural  scenery  stir  the  observer  to  warmer 
admiration,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  any,  and  cer- 
tain that  none  which  under  ordinary  circum- 
stances man  can  of  set  purpose  induce  nature 
to  supply  him,  are  equally  soothing  and  re- 
freshing ;  equally  adapted  to  stimulate  simple, 
natural,  and  wholesome  tastes  and  fancies,  and 
thus  to  draw  the  mind  from  absorption  in  the 
interests  of  an  intensely  artificial  habit  of  life. 
— Private  and  public  parks  differ  only  in  the 
extent  of  their  accommodations  for  certain 
purposes,  and  most  of  the  public  parks  in  Eu- 
rope are  old  private  parks  adapted  to  public 
use.  When  this  is  not  the  case,  and  a  park  for 
public  use  has  to  be  formed  essentially  from 
the  bare  ground,  its  value  will  chiefly  depend 
on  provisions  that  cannot  be  fully  matured  or 
have  their  best  operation  for  many  years  after 
their  groundwork  is  established.  For  this  rea- 
son the  selection  of  a  site,  the  design  for  lay- 
ing out,  and  the  system  of  continuous  manage- 
ment of  a  public  park  should  be  determined 
with  great  caution.  The  aim  should  be  to  pro- 
duce the  park  rather  than  the  more  elaborate 
pleasure  ground  or  garden  style  of  scenery,  not 
only  for  the  reasons  above  indicated  but  be- 
cause a  ground  of  this  character  can  be  con- 
sistently and  suitably  maintained  at  much  less 
cost ;  because,  also,  it  will  allow  the  necessary 
conveniences  for  the  enjoyment  of  it  by  large 
numbers  of  persons  to  be  introduced  in  such 
a  way  as  not  to  be  unpleasantly  conspicuous 
or  disastrously  incongruous;   and  because  it 


favors  such  a  distribution  of  those  who  visit  it 
that  few  shall  be  seen  at  a  time,  and  that  the 
ground  shall  not  seem  overcrowded.  It  is  a 
common  impression  that  the  loftier  and  more 
rugged  and  mountain-like  the  site  of  a  public 
ground  may  be,  and  the  more  wild,  pictu- 
resque, and  grand  scenery  can  be  imitated  in  its 
improvement,  the  better  it  will  answer  its  pur- 
pose. A  principle  of  art  however  interposes, 
which  M.  Taine,  in  a  discussion  of  the  un- 
impressiveness  of  certain  forms  of  mountain 
scenery,  explains  as  follows :  u  A  landscape  in 
order  to  be  beautiful  must  have  all  its  parts 
stamped  with  a  common  idea  and  contributing 
to  a  single  sensation.  If  it  gives  the  lie  here 
to  what  is  said  yonder,  it  destroys  itself,  and 
the  spectator  is  in  the  presence  of  nothing  but 
a  mass  of  senseless  objects."  It  is  extremely 
difficult  to  provide  suitably  extensive  and  va- 
ried conveniences  for  the  public  use  of  a  piece 
of  ground,  the  elements  of  which  are  strong- 
ly picturesque  with  an  approach  to  grandeur, 
without  destroying  much  of  its  original  char- 
acter ;  and  the  result  of  such  attempts,  unless 
under  unusually  fortunate  circumstances  and 
the  guidance  of  unusual  taste  and  skill,  with 
the  use  of  large  means,  is  sure  to  be  confusing 
and  ineffective.  Sites  of  much  natural  grand- 
eur or  even  of  bold  picturesqueness  are,  there- 
fore, to  be  selected  for  a  park  only  where  all 
necessary  improvements  for  the  convenience  of 
a  great  number  of  visitors  can  be  so  managed 
that  they  will  in  some  way  strengthen  rather 
than  weaken  the  prevailing  character.  No  in- 
stance of  a  public  park  exists  in  which  this  has 
been  accomplished,  but  the  principle  is  illus- 
trated in  various  landscapes  of  the  great  paint- 
ers. Examples  may  be  found,  for  instance,  in 
almdst  any  book  of  engravings  after  Turner,  in 
which  the  original  effect  of  a  crag  of  rock  is 
shown  to  be  augmented  by  buildings  designed 
for  the  purpose,  the  bases  of  which  are  skilful- 
ly merged  in  its  face,  or  where  a  single  great 
building  of  very  simple  outline  is  given  a  firm 
and  tranquil  standing  in  a  wild  and  broken  land- 
scape of  steep  declivities  and  rugged  heights. 
Under  good  direction,  sites  with  features  of 
much  natural  grandeur,  on  a  scale  so  large  and 
of  such  a  character  that  the  necessary  construc- 
tions for  the  intended  visitors  can  be  insignifi- 
cant, are  to  be  preferred  to  any  other ;  but 
such  sites  have  not  yet  been  appropriated  to 
the  purpose  with  the  advantage  of  a  sufficient- 
ly long  continued  adequate  direction  of  their 
improvement,  and  there  can  be  but  few  cases 
where  they  will  be.  After  them,  and  more 
commonly  attainable,  are  sites  the  natural 
character  of  which  would  usually  and  signifi- 
cantly be  termed  "park-like."  If  the  ideal  of 
the.  old  English  park  scenery  is  kept  in  view, 
rather  than  either  that  of  a  more  picturesque 
or  more  artificially  refined,  finical,  and  elabo- 
rately embellished  kind,  it  will  be  readily  seen 
that  in  the  site  for  a  public  recreation  ground 
it  is  desirable  that  views  of  considerable  extent 
should  be  controllable  within  its  borders,  and 


PARK 


97 


that  in  order  to  command  them  it  should  not 
be  necessary  that  views  beyond  its  borders  be 
opened  the  elements  of  which  cannot  be  con- 
trolled, and  are  liable,  even  in  the  distant  fu- 
ture, to  be  made  inharmonious  with  those  of 
the  park;  especially  so,  where  such  elements 
will  have  urban  rather  than  rural  associations. 
It  is  generally  better,  therefore,  that  the  outer 
parts  should  be  the  higher,  the  central  parts 
the  more  depressed;  that  the  surface  should 
be  tame  rather  than  rugged,  gently  undulating 
rather  than  hilly.  Water  is  desirable,  and  it 
will  be  best  situated  where  it  can  be  seen  from 
the  greatest  number  of  widely  distributed  points 
of  view.  Relatively  to  the  residences  of  those 
who  are  expected  to  benefit  by  it,  the  park 
will  be  best  situated  where  there  can  be  but  lit- 
tle occasion  to  make  thoroughfares  through  it. 
Otherwise,  the  less  the  distance  and  the  more 
convenient  and  agreeable  the  intermediate 
roads,  the  better.  As  roads  which  radiate 
from  a  town  are  usually  more  important  to  be 
kept  open  than  those  which  cross  them,  and 
as  land  near  a  town  is  relatively  more  need- 
ed for  other  uses  than  that  more  distant,  it  is 
commonly  better  that  the  breadth  of  the  site 
should  increase  with  its  distance  from  the  near- 
est point  to  the  town,  as  in  Prospect  park, 
Brooklyn,  N".  Y.  In  the  improvement  of  the 
site,  attractive  and  suitable  scenery  has  to  be 
formed,  and  unsuitable  elements  of  existing 
scenery  changed  or  obscured ;  and  at  the  same 
time  and  on  the  same  ground  accommodations 
of  various  kinds  are  to  be  prepared  for  great 
numbers  of  people,  many  in  carriages  and  on 
horseback,  many  ignorant,  selfish,  and  wilful, 
of  perverted  tastes  and  lawless  dispositions, 
each  one  of  whom  must  be  led  as  far  as  possi- 
ble to  enjoy  and  benefit  by  the  scenery  with- 
out preventing  or  seriously  detracting  from 
the  enjoyment  of  it  by  all  others.  The  most  es- 
sential element  of  park  scenery  is  turf  in  broad, 
unbroken  fields,  because  in  this  the  antithe- 
sis of  the  confined  spaces  of  the  town  is  most 
marked.  In  the  climate  of  Great  Britain  turf 
will  endure  on  favorable  soils  twice  as  much 
foot  wear  as  it  will  in  that  of  Paris  or  northern 
France  or  the  United  States  ;  yet  in  the  more 
frequented  London  parks  it  is  found  neces- 
sary to  surround  with  strong  iron  hurdles  the 
glades  on  which  their  landscape  attraction  is  de- 
pendent. For  this  and  other  obvious  reasons, 
a  great  extent  of  ground  must  be  prepared  ex- 
pressly for  the  wear  of  feet  and  wheels.  In 
the  two  principal  recreation  grounds  of  Paris, 
the  woods  of  Boulogne  and  Vincennes,  though 
both  are  suburban  parks  and  not  readily  used 
by  the  mass  of  the  people,  the  extent  of  such 
flooring,  prepared  by  macadamizing,  paving, 
and  otherwise,  is  480  acres,  or  ten  times  the 
whole  recreation  ground  of  Boston,  "  the  Com- 
mon." In  the  Central  park  of  New  York  it  is 
100  acres,  and  there  is  a  constant  public  de- 
mand for  its  enlargement,  which  can  only  be 
met  by  reducing  the  verdant  elements  of  land- 
scape, and  consequently  the  benefit  to  be  ob- 


tained by  the  use  of  the  park.  In  a  public 
park  for  a  city,  therefore,  the  purpose  of  es- 
tablishing such  natural  beauty  as  soil,  climate, 
and  topography  would  otherwise  allow  to  be 
aimed  at,  must  be  greatly  sacrificed  under  the 
necessity  of  providing  accommodations  for  the 
travel  and  repose  of  many  thousands  of  men 
and  horses ;  and  on  the  other  hand,  the  extent 
of  such  accommodations  must  be  made  less 
than  would  otherwise  be  thought  desirable,  in 
order  that  the  special  objects  of  the  park  may 
be  secured  in  a  suitable  degree.  A  plan  for  a 
park  is  good,  indifferent,  or  bad,  mainly  ac- 
cording to  the  ingenuity,  tact,  and  taste  with 
which  these  conflicting  requirements  are  rec- 
onciled, and  to  the  degree  in  which  local  cir- 
cumstances are  skilfully  turned  to  account  if 
they  can  be  made  favorable,  or  skilfully  over- 
come if  unfavorable  for  this  purpose.  The 
problem  is  sufficiently  difficult  under  the  sim- 
plest conditions,  and.  it  is  undesirable  that  it 
should  be  unnecessarily  complicated  by  a  re- 
quirement to  provide  for  various  purposes 
which  have  nothing  in  common  with  that  of 
tranquillizing  rest  and  exercise,  and  to  which 
the  element  of  landscape  beauty  is  not  essential. 
Soldiers,  for  example,  drill  and  manoeuvre, 
horses  race,  gymnasts  and  ball  players  exercise, 
on  a  piece  of  flat  ground  surrounded  by  build- 
ings as  well  as  in  the  glades  of  a  wood.  It  is 
true  that,  when  a  suburban  park  is  very  spa- 
cious relatively  to  the  number  of  people  re- 
sorting to  it  for  park  recreation,  a  limited  use 
of  the  larger  turf  areas  for  athletic  exercises 
will  injure  it  but  little ;  but  their  frequent  use 
for  such  purposes,  especially  if  large  assemblages 
of  spectators  are  likely  to  be  attracted,  will  be 
destructive  of  the  value  of  the  ground  as  a 
park,  in  the  specific  sense  of  the  term.  It  is 
also'  to  be  considered  that  the  proper  rules  and 
police  arrangements  for  a  park  are  different 
from  those  for  a  parade,  ball,  or  gymnasium 
ground,  or  for  a  race  course.  Hence,  when 
the  most  suitable  ground  near  a  town  for  these 
purposes  adjoins  that  which  is  most  suitable 
for  a  park,  it  is  yet  much  better  that  there  should 
be  a  marked  division  between  them.  Public 
buildings  can  be  reconciled  with  the  purposes  of 
a  park  only  in  a  limited  degree.  Ground  about 
any  building  designed  for  an  important  pub- 
lic service  should  be  laid  out  with  a  view, 
first,  to  convenience  of  communication  with  it; 
secondly,  to  its  best  exhibition  as  a  work  of 
architectural  art.  The  -neighboring  grounds 
should  be  shaped  and  planted  in  strict  subor- 
dination to  these  purposes,  which  will  involve 
an  entirely  different  arrangement  from  that 
which  the  purpose  of  forming  a  quiet  rural 
retreat  would  prescribe.  A  similar  consider- 
ation will  prevent  monuments  and  statues  from 
being  placed  profusely  in  a  park,  or  at  all  in 
situations  where  they  will  be  obtrusive.  The 
same  cautions  apply  to  the  introduction  of 
botanic,  zoological,  and  other  gardens.  Their 
main  object  is  as  different  from  that  of  a  park 
as  that  of  a  billiard  room  from  a  library.    Both 


98 


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one  and  the  other  may  serve  for  recreation, 
and  there  is  an  advantage  in  being  able  to  pass 
from  one  to  the  other ;  but  the  kind  of  recre- 
ation to  be  gained  by  one  is  not  that  of  the 
other,  the  appropriate  furniture  of  the  one  is 
not  that  of  the  other ;  and  their  perfect  com- 
bination being  impracticable,  the  two  can  be 
much  better  used  apart,  one  at  a  time. — In  the 
larger  part  of  the  civilized  world,  circumstan- 
ces are  as  unfavorable  to  park-like  scenery  as  to 
grand  scenery  in  the  vicinity  of  large  towns. 
The  climate  of  France  is  nowhere  as  favorable 
to  it  as  that  of  Great  Britain,  and  even  in  the 
north  it  cannot  be  found  in  perfection  unless 
on  unusually  suitable  soil.  'In  the  south  of 
France,  in  Italy,  and  on  all  the  borders  of  the 
Mediterranean,  in  Mexico  and  California,  and 
in  short  wherever  a  rich  close  perennial  turf 
cannot  be  established,  parks  properly  so  called 
ought  not  to  be  attempted.  In  these  cases,  the 
two  natural  elements  of  scenery  to  be  devel- 
oped in  a  suburban  public  ground  of  great 
extent  are  forests  (or  "  woods ")  and  water. 
While  trees  in  woods  are  by  no  means  as  beau- 
tiful as  trees  in  parks,  and  a  forest  is  apt  to  be 
gloomy  and  to  produce  an  oppressive  sense  of 
confinement,  the  mystery  of  this  confinement, 
so  different  from  that  of  the  walls  of  a  town, 
makes  it  interesting  and  recreative.  In  the 
midst  of  well  grown  woods,  public  accommo- 
dations, no  matter  how  obviously  artificial, 
nor  within  reasonable  limits  how  large  they 
may  be,  detract  but  little  from  the  main  im- 
pression, and  if  fairly  well  designed  supply  a 
grateful  relief  to  what  might  otherwise  be  too 
prolonged  a  mass  and  too  nearly  a  monotone  of 
color.  The  introduction  of  long  strips  of  clear 
ground,  even  if  covered  with  gravel  or  poor 
herbage  (as  at  Versailles  and  most  of  the  great 
old  gardens),  giving  vistas  through  which  the 
light  may  stream  in  visible  beams,  touching 
the  walls  of  foliage  at  the  side  with  an  in- 
finite number  of  lustrous  flecks,  produces  a 
most  agreeable  impression.  Bodies  of  water, 
whether  formal  or  naturalistic  in  outline,  in 
the  midst  of  deep  dark  tall  "  woods,"  are  still 
more  effective.  For  the  same  reason  statues, 
monuments,  and  gardens  of  highly  colored 
flowers  may  be  introduced  in  the  midst  of 
woods  to  much  better  advantage  than  in  parks. 
— The  use  in  America  of  the  word  park  as  a 
general  designation  for  gardens,  green  courts, 
and  all  sorts  of  public  places,  is  an  exaggera- 
tion of  a  French  application  of  the  word  to 
the  more  private  or  kept  grounds  of  a  chateau 
connected  with  a  forest.  To  avoid  confusion, 
open  spaces  for  public  use  in  a  city  .may  be 
termed  "places;"  grounds  in  turf  and  trees 
within  places,  "place  parks;"  and  broad  thor- 
oughfares planted  with  trees  and  designed  with 
special  reference  to  recreation  as  well  as  for 
common  street  traffic,  "  parkways."  .  The  value 
of  public  gardens,  places,  place  parks,  and  park- 
ways, in  distinction  from  parks  and  "  woods," 
is  dependent  less  on  the  extent  of  their  sylvan 
elements  than  on  the  degree  of  convenience 


with  which  they  may  be  used ;  those  being  the 
most  valuable,  other  things  being  equal,  through 
which  the  greatest  number  of  people  may  be 
induced  to  pass  while  following  their  ordinary 
occupations  and  without  serious  hindrance  or 
inconvenience.  Hence  the  most  important  im- 
provement made  of  late  in  the  general  plan 
of  cities  has  been  the  introduction  or  increase 
in  number  and  breadth  of  parkways  which, 
if  judiciously  laid  out,  become  principal  chan- 
nels or  trunk  lines  of  common  traffic,  to  which 
the  ordinary  streets  serve  as  feeders,  so  that 
a  man  wishing  to  go  to  a  considerable  distance 
shall  find  it  a  saving  of  time  and  trouble  to 
take  one  of  them  on  his  way.  In  this  respect 
Paris  has  taken  the  lead,  having  formed  since 
1855  over  80  m.  of  such  trunk  lines  of  com- 
munication from  100  to  300  ft.  in  width,  pro- 
vided with  borders  of  trees  or  shrubbery,  walks 
and  drives  of  a  special  character,  seats,  spe- 
cial lighting  arrangements,  and  other  condi- 
tions more  interesting  and  agreeable  than  those 
of  common  streets.  The  total  length  of  boule- 
vards and  avenues  lined  with  trees  under  the 
direction  of  the  municipality  within  the  en- 
ceinte of  Paris  is  120  m.  Most  of  the  large 
towns  of  Europe  are  making  similar  improve- 
ments, and  at  Washington,  Chicago,  Cleveland, 
Buffalo,  Syracuse,  and  Brooklyn  excellent  ex- 
amples of  them  exist  or  are  in  process  of  for- 
mation. New  York,  with  an  area  of  about 
42  sq.  m.,  has  7  m.  of  planted  parkways,  all 
of  which  are  suburban  and  as  yet  but  partly 
finished.  Simple  places,  piazzas,  or  plazas  (the 
two  latter  being  equivalent  terms  derived  from 
the  Italian  and  Spanish)  have  the  sanitary  value 
of  making  a  city  more  airy  than  it  would  be 
without  them.  If  furnished  with  parks  (place 
parks),  they  have  the  additional  advantage  of 
providing  refreshment  to  the  eye  through  the 
mind.  If  a  piece  of  ground  of  one  or  two  acres 
in  the  midst  of  a  busy  town  is  laid  out  and 
managed  with  a  view  to  providing  upon  it  the 
greatest  practicable  degree  of  plant  beauty  in 
trees,  shrubs,  flowers,  and  turf,  and  on  the 
same  general  principles  that  a  private  garden 
for  the  same  purpose  would  be,  it  will  be  of 
comparatively  little  use;  for  the  walks  will 
probably  be  indirect,  the  low  planting  of  the 
outer  parts  will  obscure  the  general  view  for 
passers  by,  and  there  will  be  frequent  crowding 
and  jostling  and  disturbance  of  quiet.  Neat- 
ness and  the  maintenance  of  orderly  conduct 
among  visitors  in  such  a  ground  becomes  also 
exceedingly  difficult.  Hence,  as  a  rule,  at  least 
in  the  United  States,  public  grounds  designed 
with  this  motive  soon  become  more  forlorn 
than  open  places  would  be.  It  is  much  bet- 
ter to  decorate  them  in  such  a  manner  as  will 
not  destroy  their  openness  or  cause  inconve- 
nience to  those  who  have  occasion  to  cross 
them.  For  this  purpose  their  plans  should  be 
simple  and  generally  formal  in  style,  their ' 
passages  should  be  broad  and  direct,  and  they 
should  be  provided  with  seats  in  recesses  or  on 
the  borders  of  the  broader  paved  or  gravelled 


PARK 


99 


spaces,  leaving  ample  room  for  free  movement. 
Their  trees  should  be  high-stemmed  and  um- 
brageous; conifers,  except  in  rare  instances, 
as  permanent  dwarfs,  should  be  excluded,  and 
flowers  and  delicate  plants  little  if  at  all  used 
except  in  vases  and  baskets  (corbeilles)  or  as 
fringes  of  architectural  objects.     Interest  will 


desirably  centre  in  a  fountain. — Every  consid- 
erable town  in  Europe  now  possesses  grounds 
which  are  resorted  to  for  public  recreation, 
and  most  have  several  of  different  types  spe- 
cially prepared  and  kept  at  public  expense.  In 
France  the  state  has  long  held  and  managed 
extensive  "woods  and  forests,"  remnants  of 


Fontainebleau— View  from  the  Chateau. 


the  original  forests  which  covered  the  coun- 
try in  the  time  of  Caesar.  More  than  20  such 
are  found  within  a  distance  from  Paris  which 
makes  them  available  for  a  day's  pleasuring 
by  means  of  railway  excursion  trains.  They 
vary  in  extent  from  about  1,000  acres,  as 
at  St.  Cloud,  to  41,000,  as  at  Fontainebleau. 
Each  of  these  contains  a  chateau  which  at 
some  time  has  been  a  royal  residence,  in  con- 
nection with  which  there  is  a  "  park  "  or  gar- 
den of  several  acres,  generally  containing  a 
lake,  fountains,  statuary,  monuments,  parterres 
(as  in  the  above  engraving),  and  sometimes 
conservatories,  aviaries,  or  other  interesting 
objects.  More  or  less  historical  interest  also 
attaches  to  each,  and  in  some  quaint  old  cus- 
toms are  maintained,  by  which  visitors  are 
attracted.  The  forest  proper  is  wilder,  and  in 
its  depths  many  animals  are  found  in  a  state  of 
nature.  It  is  however  divided,  by  a  network 
of  broad  avenues  crossed  by  first,  second,  and 
third  class  roads  and  walks,  into  spaces  of  five 
to  ten  acres,  so  that  in  passing  through  it 
vistas  open  at  frequent  intervals  on  both  sides 
and  in  all  directions.  Some  of  these  forests 
are  distinguished  for  great  rocks,  trees,  and 
picturesque  scenery;  some  contain  in  their 
depths  broad  meadows  and  savannas,  others 
lakes  or  streams  with  cascades ;  all  are  guarded 
from  depredations  and  policed  by  an  organized 
body  of  men  thoroughly  trained  in  their  du- 


ties under  a  military  discipline.  Among  the 
more  noted  of  these  suburban  resorts  around 
Paris  are  those  of  Boulogne,  Vincennes,  St. 
Cloud,  Marly,  St.  Germain,  Rambouillet,  Chan- 
tilly,  and  Compiegne,  which  together  contain 
more  than  170,000  acres.  The  first  five  are 
within  10  m.  of  the  city,  and  may  be  reached 


Fontainebleau— View  in  the  Forest. 

by  rail  in  less  than  half  an  hour.  Versailles 
is  another  resort  yet  more  famous,  and  in 
which  the  woods  are  of  less  importance  than 
the  palace  and  gardens.  The  woods  of  Bou- 
logne and  Vincennes,  being  nearest  the  city, 
one  at  its  west  and  the  other  at  its  east  side, 


100 


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have  since  1854  been  placed  under  the  jurisdic- 
tion of  the  municipality,  and  fitted  by  exten- 
sive and  important  improvements,  the  better 
to  serve  as  recreation  grounds  for  the  daily 
use  of  the  citizens.  The  wood  of  Boulogne 
contains  about  2,500  acres,  and  the  fortified 


line  of  the  city  forms  its  eastern  boundary. 
The  soil  is  naturally  gravelly  and  poor,  the 
trees  are  generally  thickly  sown,  spindled,  and 
weak,  and  the  scenery  flat  and  uninteresting. 
Several  departmental  roads  (broad,  straight, 
paved  wagon  ways)  pass  through  it.     Except 


Map  of  the  Bois  de  Boulogne. 

A,  Hippodrome;  P,  Bagatelle;  0,  Zoological  Ground;  D,  Military  Magazine;  E,  Nursery;  F,  Upper  Lake;  G,  G,  Lower 

Lake;  H,  Pre  Catalan;  I,  I,  avenue  Bois  de  Boulogne;  J,  J,  the  Seine;  K,  Palace  and  Park  of  St.  Cloud. 


in  the  refreshing  wildness  of  a  forest,  it  offered 
as  late  as  1855  but  little  to  attract  a  visitor. 
Yet  because  of  its  close  vicinity  to  the  city  it 
was  already  much  frequented  by  the  Parisians, 
and  Napoleon  III.  saw  in  the  neglect  to  which 
it  had  been  abandoned  the  opportunity  of 
making  one  of  those  sensations,  to  the  fre- 
quent succession  of  which  he  owed  so  much  of 
his  popularity.  The  coarse,  silicious  soil  was 
less  costly  to  handle  than  better  earth ;  good 
roads  could  be  cheaply  graded  in  it,  and  the 
materials  of  a  sufficiently  firm  superstructure 
for  so  porous  a  base  were  to  be  had  on  the 
spot  by  simply  screening  its  pebbles ;  for  the 
same  reason  scarcely  any  artificial  drainage 
was  necessary.  There  were  open  meadows 
which  could  be  extended  to. the  banks  of  the 
Seine.  The  plan  of  improvement  was  adroitly 
adapted  to  turn  all  these  advantages  to  account, 
so  that  in  a  short  time,  to  those  who  kept 


to  certain  routes,  the  character  of  the  wood 
seemed  to  have  been  completely  changed.  On 
the  immediate  borders  of  the  new  roads,  and 
on  the  lines  of  certain  vistas  opening  from 
them,  the  surface  of  the  ground  and  the  foli- 
age appear  varied  and  picturesque,  and  there 
are  certain  features  of  scenic  interest,  as  a  cas- 
cade and  grotto,  the  rock  of  which  was  brought 
from  the  distant  forest  of  Fontainebleau  and 
skilfully  wrought  into  masses  with  patches  of 
concrete  imitation  of  stone.  The  greater  part 
of  the  old  wood'  remained,  as  far  as  the  oper- 
ations of  improvement  are  concerned,  little 
changed  and  as  uninteresting  as  a  wood  might 
be.  The  approach  to  the  improved  ground  from 
the  central  parts  of  the  town  is  first  through 
the  Champs  filysees,  afterward  for  a  distance 
of  1-^-  m.  by  the  new  avenue  Bois  de  Boulogne 
(formerly  de  l'lmperatrice).  This  consists  of  a 
driveway  60  ft.  wide,  a  bridle  road  on  one  side 


PARK 


101 


of  it  40  ft.  wide,  and  a  walk  opposite  of  the 
same  width,  with  borders  of  lawn-like  ground 
on  each  side,  the  whole  space  being  300  ft.  in 
width.  In  the  original  design  this  avenue  was 
expected  to  become  the  fashionable  prome- 
nade of  Paris ;  but,  probably  because  it  was  not 
in  the  outset'  sufficiently  well  shaded,  fashion 
pushed  further  out  to  the  road  on  the  south 
bank  of  a  new  lake  in  the  wood  If  m.  in 
length,  where  no  tolerable  provision  had  been 
made  for  it.  To  meet  the  demand,  the  original 
drive  on  the  lake  was  widened  to  45  ft.,  and  a 
pad  or  bridle  path  introduced  by  its  side,  40  ft. 
wide.  Under  ordinary  circumstances  the  great- 
er part  of  the  visitors  to  the  wood  concentrate 
on  these  roads  and  the  adjoining  walk.  There 
were  in  the  whole  wood  of  Boulogne  before 
1870,  when  a  considerable  space  both  of  the 
old  and  new  planting  was  cleared  in  prepara- 
tion for  the  defence  of  Paris  against  the  Ger- 
mans, 1,009  acres  of  wooded  land,  674  of  un- 
shaded turf,  75  of  water  surface,  and  286  of 
drives,  rides,  and  walks  (not  including  the 
race  track).  The  race  ground  of  Longchamps, 
which  is  a  part  of  the  property,  contains  195 
acres,  the  ground  leased  to  the  acclimation 
society  for  a  zoological  garden,  50  acres,  and 
the  leased  amusement  garden,  the  Pre  Catalan, 
in  the  midst  of  the  wood,  to  which  a  charge  for 
admission  is  made,  21  acres.  There  are  36  m. 
of  public  drive  (including  the  old  straight  for- 
est and  departmental  highways),  7  m.  of  ride, 
and  15  m.  of  walk.  The  larger  part  of  the  plea- 
sure drives  are  25  to  36  ft.  broad,  the  widest  48 
ft. ;  the  rides  12  to  17  ft. ;.  the  walks  8  to  12  ft. 
The  wood  of  Vincennes,  similar  in  other  re- 
spects to  that  of  Boulogne,  contained  an  an- 
cient castle  which  was  the  centre  of  a  great 
military  establishment,  and  a  large  plain  in  the 
midst  of  the  wood,  used  as  a  training  ground. 


This  has  been  maintained,  but  in  other  respects 
the  design  for  improvement  has  been  similar 
to  that  for  the  wood  of  Boulogne,  the  princi- 
pal difference  being  that  the  accommodations 
and  attractions  for  foot  visitors  at  Vincennes 
are  relatively  more  important.  The  extent  of 
the  ground  is  2,225  acres,  of  which  about  half 
is  wooded.  There  is  a  race  course  on  the 
plain,  and  a  lake  of  60  acres.  The  public  ways, 
not  including  the  race  track,  take  up  183  acres. 
There  are  no  large  parks  within  the  fortified 
lines  of  Paris,  but  several  beautiful  place  parks 
and  gardens.  (See  Paeis.)  A  detailed  account 
of  them  and  of  their  admirable  method  of 
administration  may  be  found  in  Eobinson's 
"Parks,  Promenades,  and  Gardens  of  Paris" 
(London,  1869),  and  one  still  more  complete  in 
Les  promenades  de  Paris,  by  M.  Alphonse,  the 
chief  designer  of  the  recent  improvements. 
The  extent  of  the  public  recreation  grounds 
within  the  fortified  *lines  of  the  city  is  about 
250  acres.  The  area  of  suburban  grounds  com- 
monly resorted  to  for  recreation  and  main- 
tained at  public  expense,  not  including  those 
too  far  away  for  an  afternoon  excursion,  may 
be  estimated  at  20,000  acres.  The  extent  of 
pleasure  drive  maintained  by  the  municipal 
government  is  87  m.,  being  about  3  m.  of 
roadway  to  each  square  mile  of  the  city,  or, 
counting  the  parkways  (boulevards)  shaded 
and  with  asphalt  driveways,  over  7  m.  to  the 
square  mile.  New  York  has  less  than  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  to  the  square  mile. — The  parks  and 
open  spaces  of  London  are  very  numerous,  and 
their  total  extent  is  larger  perhaps  than  that 
of  those  belonging  to  any  other  metropolis 
of  the  first  magnitude.  They  are  very  various 
in  area,  ranging  from  one  to  several  hundred 
acres.  It  has  been  long  recognized  that  London 
owes  a  great  deal  of  its  physical  and  political 


Map  of  Victoria  Park. 


health  to  its  parks  and  open  spaces.  All  the 
year  round  they  act  as  great  lungs  to  the 
mighty  city,  while  in  summer  and  even  to  a 
considerable  extent  in  winter  they  are  the  Sun- 
day resort  of  the  weary  workers.  The  open 
spaces  of  London  are  not  confined  to   any 


quarter.  The  East  End  has  Victoria  park  (300 
acres) ;  Finsbury  park  (115  acres),  too  new  to 
be  so  pleasant  to  the  eye,  but  still  rapidly  be- 
coming what  it  is  intended  to  be  ;  and  the  half 
dozen  "downs,"  "fields,"  and  "commons" 
that  go  under  the  general  name  of  Hackney 


102 


PARK 


Downs  (50  acres).  It  has  also,  lying  just  out- 
side its  boundaries,  the  two  forests  of  Ep- 
ping  and  Hainault,  and  several  green  breadths 
that  may  be  called  everybody's  and  yet  no 
man's  land.  South  London  has  some  of  the 
finest  of  the  parks  and  open  spaces.  To  the 
southeast  lie  Woolwich  common,  Greenwich 
park  (174  acres),  and  Greenwich  common,  and 
nearer  at  hand  Lewisham  common,  Peckham 
Kye,  and  Southwark  park  (63  acres).  Direct- 
ly south  lie  Gamberwell  (55  acres)  and  various 
little  remnants  of  ancient  greens  and  com- 
mons, while  the  grounds  of  the  Crystal  palace 
may  almost  be  said  to  answer  as  a  park  for 
the  wide  districts  of  Sydenham,  Norwood,  and 
Penge.  Southwest  lie  Clapham  common  (10 
acres),  Wandsworth  common  (302),  and  Wim- 
bledon common  (628).  Tooting  Beck  and 
Tooting  Graveney  commons  and  Battersea  park 
(230  acres)  also  belong  to  this  district.    In  the 


north  lie  Hampstead  heath  (240  acres),  the 
Greenlanes,  the  grounds  of  Alexandra  park 
(192),  and  Primrose  hill.  In  the  west  are 
found  Hyde  park  (about  400  acres),  the  Green 
park,  St.  James's  park,  Eegent's  park  (450), 
Kensington  gardens  (290),  and  several  small 
"  greens,"  such  as  Shepherd's  Bush.  All  these 
parks,  commons,  and  open  spaces  are  within 
the  actual  metropolitan  district.  Taking  in  a 
little  wider  radius,  the  heaths,  downs,  parks, 
and  greens  within  easy  reach  of  London  be- 
come almost  innumerable.  First,  beginning 
at  the  southeast  and  sweeping  round  by  the 
south,  west,  north,  and  east,  we  find  Chisel- 
hurst  common ;  a  little  southwest  of  this  Hayes 
common,  a  great  resort  of  cockneys  in  sum- 
mer, where  any  day  a  score  of  pleasure  'vans 
may  be  seen ;  a  little  further  to  the  west  Ad- 
dington  common,  also  much  frequented ;  still 
further  west  Mitcham  common  and  Banstead 


Map  of  Hyde  Park  and  Kensington  Gardens.— A,  Kensington  Palace;  B  B,  the  Serpentine;  C,  Bound  Pond;  D  D,  Eotten 
Eow;  E  E,  the  Ladies'  Mile;  F  F  F,  the  Eing;  G,  Hyde  Park  Corner;  H,  Marble  Arch;  I,  Prince  Consort's  Memorial. 


downs,  not  to  speak  of  those  of  Epsom,  famous 
for  horse  races,  or  of  the  score  of  small  spaces 
kept  "  open  "  by  the  strong  hand  of  the  law 
and  the  general  consent  of  the  people.  Ap- 
proaching the  Thames  by  a  northwest  course, 
we  next  meet  with  Kichmond  park  (2,253 
acres)  the  largest  park  near  London  except 
that  at  Windsor  (3,800),  Hampton  Court  park 
and  Bushy  parks  (1,842),  and  Kew  park  and 
gardens  (684),  the  finest  botanic  garden  in  Eng- 
land. Crossing  the  river,  we  come  next  upon 
Ealing  and  Acton  greens  (leaving  Hownslow 
heath  on  the  left  as  out  of  our  radius),  Worm- 
wood Scrubs,  and  numerous  little  greens  and 
commons.  North  of  Hampstead  and  Alexan- 
dra park  the  open  spaces  are  fewer  and  smaller, 
and  owing  to  a  more  scattered  population  less 
required.  Northeast  lie  Epping  and  Hainault 
forests,  mentioned  before,  each  of  them  very 
large  and  full  of  natural  beauty.  Hyde  park, 
the  most  noted  of  the  public  grounds  of  Lon- 
don, takes  its  name  from  the  ancient  manor 
of  Hyde,  which  at  one  time  belonged  to  the 
abbey  of  Westminster,  became  public  property 


in  1535,  was  sold  by  order  of  parliament  in 
1652,  and  again  recovered  to  the  crown  on  the 
restoration  in  1660.  It  was  originally  of  the 
usual  character  of  English  private  parks,  a 
broad  piece  of  quiet  pasture  ground,  with  nu- 
merous fine  great  trees  scattered  over  it  singly 
and  in  groups  and  masses.  In  1730-33  a  body 
of  water  was  introduced  (the  Serpentine),  but 
with  no  care  to  give  it  a  natural  or  even  a 
graceful  outline.  Roads  have  also  been  form- 
ed in  the  park  from  time  to  time,  less  with  a 
view  to  public  pleasure  driving  than  for  con- 
venient passages.  What  is  called  the  Rotten 
Row  (a  corruption  of  the  French  route  du  roi) 
was  originally  the  passage  for  the  king  and  his 
cavalcade  between  Westminster  and  his  palace 
of  Kensington ;  it  is  a  mile  long  and  90  ft. 
wide,  has  a  surface  of  loose  fine  gravel,  and  is 
used  by  the  public  only  on  horseback ;  it  is  sepa- 
rated from  the  Serpentine  and  "ladies'  mile" 
(45  ft.  wide),  the  fashionable  drive  of  London, 
by  a  walk  and  strip  of  turf  of  variable  width. 
It  divides  and  overpowers  what  might  other- 
wise be  a  pleasing  landscape  expanse,  and  no 


PARK 


103 


attempt  has  been  made  to  mitigate  the  harsh- 
ness of  the  invasion.  Parts  of  Hyde  park  have 
lately  been  made  into  gardens,  and  in  these 
during  parts  of  the  summer  there  is  a  very 
brilliant  display  of  flowers,  "  specimens,"  and 
subtropical  plants;  but  the  old  trees  are  dis- 
appearing more  rapidly  than  young  ones  are 
brought  forward;  the  turf  is  not  well  kept, 
and  to  avoid  its  destruction  in  many  parts  iron 
hurdles  are  placed  along  the  walks.  It  is  thus 
gradually  losing  its  beauty  as  a  park,  for  which 
its  streaks  of  fine  gardening  here  and  there  of- 
fer no  compensation.  The  crystal  palace  was 
erected  in  Hyde  park  in  1851,  and  on  the  site 
now  stands  the  Albert  memorial,  completed  in 
1872.  (See  London.)  Regent's  park,  former- 
ly part  of  old  Marylebone  park,  was  laid  out 
in  1812.  There  is  a  drive  of  nearly  two  miles 
around  it,  and  within  are  the  botanic  and 
zoological  gardens,  and  a  lake.  Victoria  park 
in  E.  London  was  opened  to  the  public  in  1845. 
A  fine  drinking  fountain,  60  ft.  high  and  cost- 
ing £5,000,  given  by  Lady  Burdett-Ooutts,  was 
erected  in  it  in  1862.  St.  James's  park  was 
formed  and  walled  in  by  Henry  VIII.,  was 
much  improved  under  Charles  II.,  and  was  ar- 
ranged as  it  now  appears  chiefly  under  George 
IV.  The  public  property  in  many  of  the  larger 
commons  of  London  is  so  complicated  by  an- 
cient manorial  and  local  rights  that  its  extent 
cannot  be  accurately  stated.  The  aggregate 
area  of  the  several  public  and  crown  parks  that 


have  been  named,  together  with  so  much  of 
the  commons  lying  within  the  metropolitan  dis- 
trict as  is  under  the  board  of  works,  is  about 
13,000  acres.  There  is  also  in  the  squares 
and  gardens  (place  parks),  most  of  which  have 
been  established  by  landlords  and  are  private 
property  but  of  great  public  advantage,  about 
1,200  acres. — Liverpool  and  its  suburb  Birken- 
head have  six  parks,  five  of  which  are  recent 
acquisitions  and  yet  incompletely  prepared  for 
public  use.  The  largest,  Sefton  park,  contains 
387  acres.  Birkenhead  park  contains  120  acres, 
besides  the  leased  villa  grounds  (60  acres)  by 
which  it  is  surrounded.  It  was  undertaken 
as  a  land  speculation,  and  though  too  small 
in  scale  and  too  garden-like  for  the  general 
popular  use  of  a  large  community,  is  very 
pleasing,  and  is  one  of  the  most  instructive 
to  study  in  Europe,  having  been  laid  out  and* 
the  trees  planted  under  the  direction  of  the 
late  Sir  Joseph  Paxton,  over  30  years  ago. 
The  corporation  of  Leeds  has  lately  purchased 
a  noble  park  of  800  acres,  containing  a  fine 
stream  of  water  and  a  lake,  formed  by  the 
previous  owner,  of  33  acres.  Its  scenery  is 
diversified,  and  it  commands  fine  distant  rural 
views.  These  advantages  and  its  exemption 
from  injury  by  factory  smoke  compensate  for 
the  necessity  the  citizens  will  be  under  of 
reaching  it  by  rail,  its  distance  from  the  town 
being  4  m.  Birmingham,  Manchester,  Brad- 
ford, and  other  manufacturing  towns  of  Eng- 


Man  of  Birkenhead  Park  and  adjoining  Yilla  Sites. 


land  have  acquired  parks  by  subscriptions  of 
citizens  or  by  joint-stock  companies.  At  Hali- 
fax a  park  has  been  formed  and  given  to  the 
town  by  a  benevolent  citizen.  Derby  is  pro- 
vided in  the  same  way  with  an  arboretum. 
The  city  of  Lincoln  is  forming  an  arboretum 


on  land  purchased  for  this  purpose.  Most  of 
the  small  towns  of  England  have  some  place 
of  recreation,  as  for  instance  the  old  city  walls 
and  the  river  banks  above  the  town  at  Ches- 
ter, the  common  and  the  old  castle  grounds  at 
Hereford,  and  the  cathedral  greens  at  Salis- 


104 


PARK 


bury  and  Winchester.  These  consist  in  each 
case  either  of  a  long  broad  walk  pleasantly 
bordered  and  leading  to  fine  views,  or  a  few 
acres  of  smooth  turf  with  shaded  borders. 
Most  villages  in  England  have  a  private  park 
near  them,  which  people  are  allowed  to  use. 
When  this  is  not  the  case,  even  a  hamlet  al- 
most invariably  has  at  least  a  bit  of  cricket 
ground  or  common,  where,  on  benches  under 
a  patriarchal  oak  or  elm,  the  old  people  meet 
to  gossip  and  watch  the  sports  of  the  vigorous 
youth.  Phoenix  park  at  Dublin  (1,752  acres) 
is  a  fine  upland  meadow  fringed  and  dotted 
with  trees,  but  badly  laid  out  and  badly  kept, 
being  much  larger  than  the  town  requires  or 
can  afford  to  take  suitable  care  of. — The  old 
towns  of  the  continent  have  generally  provided 
themselves  with  recreation  grounds  by  out- 
growing their  ancient  borders  of  wall  and  moat 
and  glacis,  razing  the  wall,  filling  part  of  the 
moat,  and  so,  with  more  or  less  skilful  manage- 
ment of  the  materials,  making  the  groundwork 
of  a  garden  in  the  natural  style.  This  is  done 
admirably  at  Frankfort,  Leipsic,  and  Vienna. 
Elsewhere  simple  broad  walks  bordered  with 
trees  have  been  laid  out  upon  the  levelled 
parts.  The  principal  promenade  of  Vienna  is 
the  Prater,  the  chief  feature  of  which  is  a 
straight  carriage  road  over  a  mile  long,  with  a 
walk  on  one  side  and  a  riding  pad  on  the  other. 
It  contains  near  the  town  a  great  number  of 
coffee  houses  and  playhouses;  but  as  it  is  5 
m.  long,  considerable  portions  are  thorough- 
ly secluded  and  rural.  Before  the  recent  im- 
provements of  the  Bois  de  Boulogne,  it  was 
the  most  frequented  large  recreation  ground  in 
the  world.  There  are  numerous  other  public 
grounds  at  Vienna,  both  urban  and  suburban. 
The  English  garden  at  Munich  was  laid  out 
under  the  direction  of  Count  Rumford  by  the 
baron  von  Skell.  It  has  serious  defects,  but 
its  scenery  in  the  English  style  has  been  con- 
sidered more  agreeable  than  that  of  any  other 
public  park  on  the  continent ;  it  is  about  4  m. 
long  and  half  a  mile  wide.  The  Thiergarten 
at  Berlin  contains  over  200  acres  of  perfect- 
ly flat  land,  chiefly  a  close  wood,  laid  out  in 
straight  roads,  walks,  and  riding  pads ;  its  sce- 
nery is  uninteresting.  The  Prussian  royal  gar- 
dens of  Sans  Souci,  Charlottenourg,  and  Heili- 
gensee  are  all  extensive  grounds,  the  two  for- 
mer in  mixed,  the  latter  in  natural  style.  Pub- 
lic grounds  worthy  of  a  traveller's  attention  ex- 
ist at  Cologne,  Dresden,  Diisseldorf,  Stuttgart, 
Hanover,  Brunswick,  Baden,  Cassel,  Darm- 
stadt, Gotha,  Weimar,  Worlitz,  Schwetzingen, 
Teplitz,  Prague,  and  Hamburg.  Coffee  or  beer 
houses  are  important  adjuncts  of  German  pub- 
lic gardens.  The  refreshments  furnished  are 
plain  and  wholesome,  and  the  prices  moderate. 
Many  families  habitually  resort  to  these  for 
their  evening  meal,  especially  when,  as  is  usual- 
ly the  case,  there  is  the  additional  attraction  of 
excellent  music  furnished  by  the  government. 
The  gardens  of  Antwerp,  the  Hague,  and  War- 
saw, and  the  "  city  grove  "  of  Pesth,  are  also 


remarkable.  The  famous  summer  gardens  of 
St.  Petersburg  are  not  extensive,  being  but 
half  a  mile  long  by  a  quarter  of  a  mile  wide, 
and  formal  in  style.  They  contain  fine  trees, 
are  rich  in  statuary  (boxed  up  in  winter),  and 
are  the  most  carefully  kept  public  gardens  in 
the  world,  as  shown  in  the  exceeding  fresh- 
ness and  vigor  of  the  plants  and  flowers  and 
in  the  deep  vivid  green  of  the  turf.  The  more 
fashionable  promenade  of  St.  Petersburg  is 
in  the  gardens  of  Katharinenhof,  where  on 
the  first  of  May  an  annual  procession  of  pri- 
vate carriages  of  almost  endless  length  is  head- 
ed by  that  of  the  emperor.  A  remarkable 
ground  is  that  of  Tzarskoye  Selo,  in  which 
is  the  residence  of  the  imperial  family,  about 
two  hours  from  St.  Petersburg.  Besides  the 
palace,  it  contains  temples,  banqueting  houses, 
and  theatres,  a  complete  village  in  the  Chi- 
nese style,  a  Turkish  mosque,  a  hermitage,  and 
numerous  monuments  of  military  and  other 
achievements.  But  beyond  this  museum  of 
incongruous  objects  there  is  a  part  in  which 
there  is  natural  and  very  beautiful  scenery 
both  open  and  wooded,  and  much  of  it  is 
simple.  The  keeping  of  the  ground  employs 
600  men.  Stockholm  has  a  great  variety  of 
delightful  waterside  rural  walks ;  but  the  chief 
object  of  pride  with  its  people  is  the  Djurgard 
or  deer  park,  which  is  a  large  tract  of  undu- 
lating ground  about  3  m.  in  circumference, 
containing  grand  masses  of  rock  and  some  fine 
old  trees.  The  Haga  park,  also  at  Stockholm, 
is  picturesque,  and  has  the  peculiarity  of  nat- 
ural water  communications  between  its  differ- 
ent parts  and  the  city,  so  that  it  is  much  visited 
in  boats.  The  environs  of  Copenhagen  contain 
many  grounds  of  public  resort,  but  the  notable 
promenade  of  the  city  is  the  royal  deer  park 
(Dyrhave).  In  all  the  Italian  cities,  the  chief 
public  rural  resorts  are  gardens  attached  to  the 
villas  of  ancient  noble  families.  The  Cascine 
of  Florence  is  an  old  pasture  of  the  dairy  of 
the  former  grand  dukes  on  the  banks  of  the 
Arno,  passing  through  which  are  broad  straight 
carriage  drives.  It  contains  little  that  is  at- 
tractive, but  commands  delicious  views.  At  a 
space  whence  several  roads  radiate,  a  band  of 
music  usually  performs  at  intervals  during  the 
promenade  hours.  The  municipality  is  now 
preparing  promenades  and  recreation  grounds 
which  promise  to  be  of  remarkable  interest. 
The  fashionable  promenade  of  Rome  has  been 
on  the  Pincian  hill,  which  has  few  attractions 
except  in  its  magnificent  distant  views.  Since 
Rome  was  made  the  capital  of  the  new  king- 
dom of  Italy,  large  public  grounds  in  other 
quarters  have  been  projected  and  in  great  part 
formed  by  the  municipality.  At  Naples  the 
fashionable  promenade  is  the  Riviera  di  Chi* 
aja,  a  public  street.  It  is  divided  into  a  ride,  a 
drive,  and  a  walk,  and  is  nearly  a  mile  in  length, 
with  a  breadth  of  200  ft.  A  part  of  it  is 
separated  from  the  shore  of  the  bay  of  Naples 
by  the  villa  Reale,  planted  in  the  garden  style. 
Most  towns  of  Spanish  or  Portuguese  origin 


PARK 


105 


are  provided  with  a  promenade  of  formal  ave- 
nues, to  which,  generally  at  dusk,  custom  brings 
the  ladies  in  open  carriages  and  the  gentlemen 
on  foot  or  on  horseback. — Until  some  years 
after  the  middle  of  the  present  century  no  city 
in  North  America  had  begun  to  make  provision 
for  a  park.  To  a  certain  extent  cemeteries 
were  made  to  serve  the  purpose.  In  1849  Mr. 
A.  J.  Downing  began  in  the  "  Horticulturist " 
a  series  of  papers  which  were  widely  copied 
and  did  much  to  create  a  demand  on  this  sub- 
ject. At  length  a  large  tract  of  land  was  pro- 
vided in  New  York,  upon  which  in  1858  the 
preparation  of  the  present  Central  park  was 
begun.  The  topography  of  the  ground  was 
in  all  important  respects  the  reverse  of  that 
which  would  have  been  chosen  with  an  in- 
telligent understanding  of  the  desiderata  of  a 
park.  The  difficulties  presented  could  only 
have  been  tolerably  overcome  by  an  enormous 
outlay.  The  popularity  of  the  parts  of  the 
park  first  prepared,  however,  was  so  great  that 
the  necessary  means  for  improvements  on  a 
large  scale  were  readily  granted.  The  magni- 
tude of  the  operations  (nearly  4,000  men  being 
at  one  time  employed  on  the  works),  the  ra- 


Map  of  Central  Park. 
A,  the  Mall;  B,  Belvedere;  C,  Terrace;  D,  Green;  E,  Ball  Ground;  F,  East  Green;  G,  site  for  Art  Museum;  H.  E amble; 
I,  I,  I,  Eeservoirs  of  City  Water  Works;  K,  K,  the  Meadows;  L,  Harlem  Heights;  M,  Mount  St.  Vincent;  N,  N,  Sub- 
ways for  street  traffic ;  O,  temporary  Museum  and  Offices ;  P,  temporary  Museum,  Eefectory,  and  Offices. 


106 


PARK 


pidity  of  the  changes  wrought,  and  the  nov- 
elty of  the  scenes  presented,  soon  gave  the 
enterprise  great  celebrity;  and  the  rapid  rise 
in  the  taxable  value  of  the  land  near  it  more 
than  met  the  interest  on  its  cost.  An  efficient 
management  of  its  public  use  was  maintain- 
ed, and  though  frequented  by  great  crowds  of 
people  it  was  found,  contrary  to  general  ex- 
pectation, that  a  degree  of  good  order  and  of 
social  amenity  prevailed,  nowhere  surpassed 
and  rarely  equalled  in  the  public  places  of  Eu- 
rope. Philadelphia,  Brooklyn,  Albany,  Prov- 
idence, Baltimore,  Buffalo,  Chicago,  St.  Louis, 
Cincinnati,  Montreal,  and  San  Francisco  have 
since  each  acquired  land  for  one  or  more  parks 
of  considerable  extent,  the  average  being  over 
500  acres.  As  in  the  case  of  New  York,  the 
selection  of  ground  has  often  been  made  more 
with  reference  to  other  considerations  than 
to  that  of  fitness  for  the  intended  use.  Some 
are  as  yet  only  held  for  future  use,  while  in 
others  provisions  essentially  temporary,  and 
which  will  be  in  the  way  of  substantial  im- 
provement, are  made;  none  are  so  far  com- 
plete and  well  fitted  as  fairly  to  illustrate  the 
ends  which  a  park  should  be  designed  to  serve. 
— The  Central  park  of  New  York  is  2£  miles 
long  and  half  a  mile  wide,  but  this  space  is 
practically  divided  by  the  reservoirs  of  the 
city  water  works,  which  are  elevated  above  its 
general  level  and  occupy  142  acres.  Deduct- 
ing besides  this  certain  other  spaces  occupied 
for  special  public  purposes,  the  area  of  the 
park  proper  is  683  acres.  Of  this,  55  acres  is 
meadow-like  ground,  54  in  smaller  glades  of 
turf,  400  of  rocky  and  wooded  surface,  43  in 
six  pieces  of  water,  the  largest  being  of  20 
acres,  15  in  riding  ways,  52  in  carriage  ways, 
and  39  in  walks.  There  are  5£  m.  of  rides, 
9£  m.  of  drives,  and  28  m.  of  walks.  Omit- 
ting a  few  by-roads,  the  average  breadth  of  the 
drives  is  50  ft.,  and  of  the  walks  13  ft.  There 
are  8  bridges  (over  water)  and  38  tunnels  and 
subway  arches,  15  of  which  are  concealed  from 
view  by  plantations  carried  over  them,  and  all 
of  which  are  expedients  for  reconciling  within 
narrow  limits  the  large  amount  of  foot,  horse, 
and  wheel  room  required  with  sylvan  and  pas- 
toral landscapes.  On  the  east  side,  near  the 
middle  of  the  parallelogram  containing  the  park 
and  reservoirs,  ground  is  reserved  for  a  great 
museum  of  art;  and  beyond  its  boundary  on 
the  west  side  another  plot  is  held  for  a  museum 
of  natural  history.  The  first  block  of  each  is 
now  building.  There  are  carriage  and  foot  en- 
trances at  the  two  southern  corners,  and  be- 
tween them  on  the  south  end,  at  the  termini  of 
street  railroads,  there  are  two  foot  entrances ; 
and  14  other  entrances  are  in  use  or  provided 
for.  From  the  S.  E.  or  Fifth  avenue  approach, 
which  is  most  used,  the  visitor  is  led  by  a 
nearly  direct  course  to  a  slightly  elevated  point 
in  the  interior  of  the  park,  northwardly  from 
which,  at  great  cost  in  reducing  the  original 
rocky  knolls,  broad  green  surfaces  have  been 
prepared  (D,  E  on  the  map),  and  views  of  a 


tranquil  landscape  character  obtained  of  con- 
siderable extent.  At  the  most  distant  visible 
point  a  small  tower  of  gray  stone  (B)  has  been 
built  to  draw  the  eye,  and  the  perspective  effect 
is  aided  by  the  character  and  disposition  of  the 
foliage,  and  especially  by  an  avenue  of  elms  (A) 
leading  toward  it.  At  the  end  of  this  avenue, 
termed  the  mall,  the  ground  falls  rapidly  to  the 
arm  of  a  lake,  and  here  a  structure  called  the 
terrace  (C)  has  been  introduced,  which,  though 
mainly  below  the  general  plane  of  the  land- 
scape and  unobtrusive,  supplies  a  considerable 
shelter  and  place  of  reunion.  It  is  designed  to 
be  richly  decorated  with  sculptured  works.  On 
one  side  of  it  is  the  concert  ground  of  the  park, 
on  the  other  a  fountain  surmounted  by  a  bronze 
typifying  the  angel  of  Bethesda.  The  concert 
ground  is  overlooked  by  a  shaded  gallery  called 
the  Pergola,  back  of  which  is  a  small  house  of 
refreshment  in  cottage  style.  On  the  opposite 
side  of  the  water  is  a  rocky  and  wooded  slope, 
threaded  by  numerous  paths,  called  the  ramble 
(F).  These  with  the  green  (D),  play  ground 
reserved  for  the  scholars  of  the  public  schools, 
two  irregular  bodies  of  water,  and  several  rocky 
knolls  (on  one  of  which  is  the  Kinderberg,  a 
place  for  little  children),  form  the  chief  fea- 
tures of  the  south  park.  Those  of  the  north 
are  a  central  meadow  (K)  divided  by  a  rocky 
spur,  the  high  wooded  ground  beyond  it  (L), 
with  a  steep  rocky  face  on  the  north,  and 
an  intermediate  glen  with  a  chain  of  waters. 
The  number  of  visits  to  the  park  sometimes  ex- 
ceeds 100,000  in  a  day,  and  is  about  10,000,000 
a  year. — Prospect  park  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  con- 
tains, with  the  adjoining  parade  ground,  550 
acres.  There  is  included  in  it  a  considerable 
amount  of  old  wood,  and  for  this  reason,  and 
because  of  the  better  soil,  climate,  and  early 
horticultural  management,  it  has  a  finer  rural 
and  more  mature  character  than  the  New  York 
park,  though  its  construction  was  begun  eight 
years  later.  It  has  about  6  m.  of  drives,  4  m. 
of  ride,  and  20  m.  of  walks.  Its  artificial  water 
covers  a  space  of  50  acres,  and  is  supplied  from 
a  well  by  a  steam  pump.  It  commands  a  fine 
view  over  the  ocean.  (See  Brooklyn.)  There 
are  33  smaller  public  grounds  in  New  York  an<J 
Brooklyn,  all  but  three  of  which  are  improved 
and  in  use,  the  total  pleasure  ground  space  of 
the  two  cities  being  1,600  acres. — Fairmount 
park  of  Philadelphia  is  a  body  of  land  2,740 
acres  in  extent,  having  a  great  variety  of  sur- 
face, all  of  it  of  considerable  natural  beauty. 
The  heights  command  fine  distant  prospects; 
it  bears  many  noble  trees,  and  at  the  part  most 
remote  from  the  city  there  is  a  glen  through 
which  dashes  a  charmingly  picturesque  stream. 
It  is  divided  by  the  Schuylkill  river  and  cross- 
ed by  a  common  highway  and  in  two  directions 
by  railroads,  the  cuttings  and  embankments  of 
which  unfortunately  completely  break  the  nat- 
urally most  quiet  scenes.  These  with  other 
structures,  some  of  which  have  been  recently 
erected  and  are  designed  to  be  permanent, 
greatly  disturb  its  natural  beauty.     The  object 


PARK 


107 


of  the  city  in  acquiring  the  ground  was  to  con- 
trol it  against  such  occupations  as  would  peril 
its  water  supply,  and  its  permanent  disposition 
is  not  fully  determined.     Appropriations  have 


been  already  made  for  two  large  reservoirs,  for 
pumping  works,  and  for  a  zoological  garden. 
No  measure  has  yet  been  taken  looking  to  the 
permanent  preservation  or  special  preparation 


Map  of  Prospect  Park. 
A,  A,  A,  the  Long  Meadow;  B,  the  Nether  Mead;  C,  Deer  Park;  L\  Lookout  Hill;  E,  Breeze  Hill;  F,  Concert  Grove;  G, 
Promenade;  H,  Children's  Play  Ground;  I,  Picnic  Ground;  K,  Parade  Ground. 

cally.  The  aggregate  area  of  ground  occupied, 
including  the  parkways,  is  530  acres.  Chi- 
cago is  situated  in  a  region  most  unfavorable 
to  parks,  and  should  she  ever  have  any  that  are 
deserving  the  name,  it  will  be  because  of  a  per- 
sistent wisdom  of  administration  and  a  scien- 
tific skill  as  well  as  art  in  the  constant  manage- 
ment of  those  which  she  is  setting  about,  such 
as  has  been  nowhere  else  applied  to  a  similar  pur- 
pose. The  grounds  appropriated  are  flat,  poor 
in  soil,  and  devoid  of  desirable  natural  growth, 
or,  except  two  which  look  upon  Lake  Michigan, 
of  any  natural  features  of  interest.  In  one  it  is 
proposed  to  transform  a  series  of  marshes  part- 
ly overflowed  by  high  water  of  the  lake  into 
lagoons,  the  quiet  water  surface  of  which  is 
designed  to  take  the  place  ordinarily  given  to 
lawns  in  sylvan  landscapes ;  this,  if  the  idea  is 
consistently  carried  out,  will  be  unique  and  in- 
teresting. The  Chicago  park  system  contains 
nearly  1,900  acres  of  land  in  six  parks  of  an 
average  extent  of  250  acres  each,  three  in  one 
chain,  and  all  with  one  exception  connected 
by  parkways.  About  20  m.  of  parkway,  from 
200  to  250  ft.  wide,  has  been  laid  out  (in  the 
city  and  suburbs),  nearly  half  of  which  is  al- 
ready provided  with  good  macadamized  or  con- 
crete roads  and  well  planted.  St.  Louis  now 
controls  2,100  acres  of  lands  held  for  recre- 
ation grounds,  of  which  about  100  are  in  place 
parks,  the  greater  part  improved  and  in  use, 
and  the  remainder  suitable  for  parks  proper, 
the  smallest  field  being  of  180  acres  and  the 


of  any  considerable  part  distinctly  as  a  park ; 
but  drives,  rides,  and  walks  have  been  formed, 
mainly  temporary,  by  which  all  parts  are  trav- 
ersed or  laid  open  to  view.  Several  houses 
which  were  originally  private  villas  are  used  as 
refectories ;  the  river  is  well  adapted  to  plea- 
sure boating ;  the  spaces  are  so  large  that  few 
restrictions  on  the  movements  of  visitors  are 
necessary ;  and  in  spite  of  the  defects  to  which 
allusion  has  been  made,  the  ground  offers  bet- 
ter and  larger  opportunities  for  popular  rural 
recreation  than  are  possessed  in  a  single  prop- 
erty by  any  other  city  in  the  world.  Druid 
Hill  park  in  Baltimore,  of  600  acres,  is  a  very 
beautiful  old  wood,  acquired  by  the  city  in 
1860,  the  original  private  improvements  of 
which  have  been  enlarged  and  extended  for  pub- 
lic use.  Buffalo  is  forming  the  most  complete 
system  of  recreation  grounds  of  any  city  in  the 
United  States.  It  will  consist  of  an  inland 
suburban  park  of  300  acres,  of  very  quiet  rural 
character,  with  an  ample  approach  from  the 
centre  of  the  city,  and  parkways  200  ft.  wide 
extending  from  it  in  opposite  directions,  one 
to  a  promenade  overlooking  Lake  Erie,  the 
other  to  a  parade  ground  and  a  garden  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  town.  There  is  a  fine 
natural  growth  of  trees  in  the  main  park,  a 
lake  of  46  acres  has  been  formed,  and  several 
miles  of  fair  macadamized  roads  and  walks 
constructed,  together  with  various  suitable 
buildings.  The  work  was  begun  in  1871,  and 
has  been  advanced  very  steadily  and  economi- 


108 


PARK 


largest  of  1,350.  Of  the  latter,  one  only,  Tower 
Grove  park,  containing  277  acres,  is  yet  at  all 
adapted  to  use.  A  parkway  120  ft.  wide  and 
12  m.  long  is  under  construction.  Cincinnati 
has  a  little  over  400  acres  of  public  recreation 
ground,  207  being  in  Eden  park,  which  lies  on 
undulating  ground  commanding  fine  distant 
views,  and  168  in  Burnett  wood,  which  has  a 
similar  surface  with  a  fine  growth  of  indigenous 
trees.  There  will  be  about  3  m.  of  pleasure 
road  in  each.  Cincinnati  possesses  in  Spring 
Grove  cemetery  the  best  example  in  the  world, 
probably,  of  landscape  gardening  applied  to  a 
burial  place;  and  her  parks  are  likely  to  be 
improved  with  the  same  taste  and  skill.  San 
Francisco  holds  1,100  acres  of  land  for  recrea- 
ation  grounds,  of  which  over  1,000  acres  is 
in  one  body,  called  the  Golden  Gate  park. 
This  borders  on  the  ocean,  and  is  very  bleak 
and  partly  covered  with  drift  sand ;  no  trees 
grow  upon  it  except  in  an  extremely  dwarfed 
and  distorted  form,  and  turf  can  only  be 
maintained  by  profuse  artificial  watering  ;  but 
wherever  shelter,  fertility,  and  sufficient  root 
moisture  can  be  secured,  a  low,  southern,  al- 
most subtropical  vegetation  maybe  maintained 
throughout  the  year,  of  striking  luxuriance  and 
beauty.  Experiments  in  arresting  the  sand 
and  forming  a  screen  of  foliage  on  the  shore 
have  been  made  with  promising  success.  If 
steadily,  boldly,  and  generously  pursued,  with  a 
cautious  humoring  of  the  design  to  the  unique 
natural  conditions,  and  skilful  adaptation  of 
available  means,  a  pleasure  ground  not  at  all 
park-like,  but  strikingly  original  and  highly 
attractive,  may  be  expected.  Nearly  7  m.  of 
carriage  road  has  already  been  formed  on  the 
ground,  and  it  is  much  used.  A  parkway 
stretching  3  m.  along  the  shore  is  provided 
for,  the  reservation  for  it  ranging  from  200 
to  400  ft.  in  breadth. — For  other  information 
concerning  the  parks  mentioned  above,  see  the 
articles  on  the  cities  where  they  are  situated ; 
and  for  accounts  of  the  so-called  national  parks 
see  Wyoming  (territory),  and  Yosemite. 

PARR,  a  central  county  of  Colorado,  situated 
amid  the  loftiest  ranges  of  the  Rocky  moun- 
tains; area,  about  2,000  sq.  m. ;  pop.  in  1870, 
447.  It  includes  the  South  park,  a  plateau 
over  10,000  ft.  high,  nearly  level  except  where 
crossed  by  spurs  of  the  mountains  that  form 
its  boundaries,  watered  by  tributaries  of  the 
S.  Platte,  and  covered  with  a  luxuriant  growth 
of  grass  and  with  forests  of  pine.  The  soil  is 
fertile,  and  produces  the  hardiest  cereals,  po- 
tatoes, turnips,  &c.  Hot  and  warm  mineral 
springs  and  extensive  salt  springs  exist,  and 
lignite  has  been  found  in  the  N".  part.  Gold 
is  extensively  mined.  The  chief  productions 
in  1870  were  1,480  bushels  of  oats,  1,675  of  bar- 
ley, 3,430  of  potatoes,  281  tons  of  hay,  and 
5,750  lbs.  of  butter.  The  value  of  live  stock 
was  $45,025.     Capital,  Fair  Play. 

PARR,  Edwards  Amasa,  an  American  theolo- 
gian, born  in  Providence,  R.  I.,  Dec.  29,  1808. 
He  graduated  at  Brown  university  in  1826, 


and  at  Andover  theological  seminary  in  1831, 
when  he  was  ordained  pastor  of  the  second 
Congregational  church  in  Braintree,  Mass.  In 
1835  he  became  professor  of  moral  and  intel- 
lectual philosophy  in  Amherst  college,  in  1836 
Bartlett  professor  of  sacred  rhetoric  at  Ando- 
ver, and  in  1847  Abbot  professor  of  Chris- 
tian theology  there,  which  post  he  still  holds 
(1875).  He  has  contributed  extensively  to 
periodical  literature,  and  has  been  one  of  the 
editors  of  the  "Bibliotheca  Sacra"  from  the 
beginning.  He  translated  with  Prof.  B.  B. 
Edwards  a  volume  of  "  German  Selections  " 
(1839) ;  and  has  edited  the  M  Writings  of  Rev. 
William  Bradford  Homer,"  with  a  memoir 
(1842) ;  a  volume  on  homiletics  called  u  The 
Preacher  and  Pastor,"  with  an  introductory 
essay  (1845);  the  "Writings  of  Prof.  B.  B. 
Edwards,"  with  a  memoir  (2  vols.,  1853)  ;  and 
with  Drs.  Phelps  and  Lowell  Mason  the  "  Sab- 
bath Hymn  Book  "  (1858).  In  1859  he  assisted 
in  editing  a  volume  of  "  Discourses  and  Trea- 
tises on  the  Atonement,"  for  which  he  wrote 
an  introductory  treatise  on  "  The  Rise  of  the 
Edwardean  Theory  of  the  Atonement."  In 
1861,  with  Dr.  Phelps  and  the  Rev.  D.  L.  Fur- 
ber,  he  published  a  critical  volume  on  hym- 
nology,  entitled"  Hymns  and  Choirs."  He  has 
also  published  memoirs  of  Dr.  Samuel  Hopkins 
(1852),  and  Dr.  Nathanael  Emmons  (1861), 
prefixed  to  editions  of  their  works. 

PARR,  Mungo,  a  Scottish  traveller,  born  at 
Fowlshiels,  Selkirkshire,  Sept.  10,  1771,  killed 
in  Africa  probably  in  the  early  part  of  1806. 
At  the  age  of  15  he  was  apprenticed  to  a  sur- 
geon in  Selkirk.  He  afterward  studied  medi- 
cine at  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  and  made 
a  voyage  to  Sumatra  as  assistant  surgeon  to  an 
East  Indiaman.  On  his  return  he  offered  his 
services  to  the  African  association  for  the  ex- 
ploration of  the  river  Niger,  sailed  from  Ports- 
mouth May  22,  1795,  and  in  one  month  an- 
chored at  Jillifrey  on  the  Gambia,  whence  he 
proceeded  to  the  British  factory  of  Pisania  in 
the  kingdom  of  Yani.  During  an  illness  of 
five  months  he  acquired  the  Mandingo  language, 
and  on  Dec.  2,  accompanied  by  six  negroes, 
set  out  on  horseback  toward  the  east.  Unable 
on  account  of  wars  to  traverse  the  country  of 
Bambarra  to  Timbuctoo,  he  resolved  to  make 
a  detour  toward  the  north  in  hopes  of  reaching 
the  same  destination  through  the  Moorish  king- 
dom of  Ludamar.  At  Benowm,  the  capital,  a 
wild  boar  was  let  loose  upon  him,  but,  to  the 
surprise  of  the  natives,  it  attacked  the  Moslems 
and  let  alone  the  Christian.  He  was  then 
placed  in  a  hut,  in  a  corner  of  which  the  boar 
was  tied,  and  it  was  debated  between  the  king 
and  his  advisers  whether  he  should  lose  his 
right  hand,  his  eyes,  or  his  life.  After  more 
than  a  month's  captivity  and  torture,  he  made 
his  escape  alone,  and  reached  Bambarra.  On 
July  21,  1796,  he  struck  the  Joliba  or  Niger  at 
Sego,  a  city  of  four  distinct  quarters,  two  on 
each  side  of  the  river.  Communication  was 
kept  up  by  large  canoes,  and  Park  had  to  wait 


PARK 


PARKER 


109 


.  two  hours  before  there  was  room  for  him  in 
the  boat.  Then  came  an  order  from  the  king 
forbidding  him  to  cross,  and  he  was  indebted 
for  relief  to  a  woman  who  took  him  into  her 
hut,  gave  him  supper  and  a  bed,  and  with  the 
female  part  of  her  family  sang  a  song  about 
the  "  poor  white  man  "  which  the  traveller  has 
preserved  in  his  journal.  The  king  sent  him 
a  guide  and  a  present  of  5,000  cowries,  with 
which  he  pursued  his  journey  down  the  left 
bank  of  the  river  to  Kea,  where  he  dismissed 
the  guide  and  went  by  water  to  Silla  on  the 
opposite  bank.  Here  he  was  again  attacked 
by  sickness,  and  despaired  of  advancing  fur- 
ther into  a  country  where  the  fanatical  Mo- 
hammedans were  paramount,  and  at  a  sea- 
son when  the  tropical  rains  rendered  travel  im- 
possible except  by  water.  He  set  out  on  his 
return  July  30,  and  after  a  long  series  of  suf- 
ferings and  robberies  arrived  at  Pisania  June 
10,  1797.  An  American  vessel  carried  him  to 
Antigua,  whence  he  took  ship  for  England,  and 
on  Dec.  22  landed  at  Falmouth.  His  unex- 
pected return,  after  he  had  long  been  given 
up  for  dead,  created  an  extraordinary  enthusi- 
asm. An  outline  of  his  adventures  was  drawn 
up  by  Bryan  Edwards,  accompanied  with  geo- 
graphical illustrations  by  Major  Rennell  (4to, 
London,  1799),  but  it  threw  little  light  upon 
the  problem  of  the  direction  of  the  Niger. 
Park  now  returned  to  his  father's  farm  in  Scot- 
land, married,  and  commenced  the  practice  of 
medicine  at  Peebles.  In  1805  he  undertook  a 
second  journey  to  the  Niger  under  the  auspi- 
ces of  the  British  government.  The  king  gave 
him  the  brevet  rank  of  captain,  and  his  com- 
panion and  brother-in-law  Mr.  Anderson  that 
of  lieutenant.  The  other  members  of  the  ex- 
pedition were  Mr.  Scott,  draughtsman,  an  offi- 
cer and  34  soldiers  of  the  garrison  of  Goree, 
two  sailors,  and  four  artificers.  They  reached 
Pisania  April  28,  and  at  once  pushed  into  the 
interior,  keeping  considerably  to  the  south 
of  Park's  former  route,  and  winding  among 
the  head  streams  of  the  Senegal  and  Gambia. 
They  were  not  much  molested  by  the  negroes, 
but  the  climate  proved  a  more  deadly  enemy, 
and  before  they  came  in  sight  of  the  Niger 
near  Bammakoo  28  of  the  soldiers  and  three 
carpenters  had  died.  With  the  remnant  of 
his  force  Park  floated  down  to  Sansanding 
in  canoes,  where  he  sold  some  of  his  goods. 
There  died  Mr.  Anderson.  Scott  had  also  died, 
and  when  a  boat  was  prepared  for  resuming 
the  voyage,  Park's  only  companions  were  Lieut. 
Martyn  and  three  soldiers,  one  of  whom  was 
deranged.  About  the  middle  of  November 
they  set  out,  having  first  sent  back  their  guide 
Isaaco  with  a  journal  of  their  discoveries.  In 
1806  rumors  reached  the  British  settlements  of 
Mungo  Park's  death,  but  nothing  was  known 
of  his  fate  until  the  governor  of  Senegal  in 
1810  despatched  Isaaco  into  the  interior  to  as- 
certain what  had  become  of  him.  From  a 
man  at  Sansanding  who  had  accompanied  the 
party  from  that  place  to  Yauri,  Isaaco  received 


a  later  journal,  and  learned  that  after  passing 
Jennee,  Timbuctoo,  and  Yauri,  and  repelling 
several  attacks  of  the  natives,  they  reached  at 
Boossa  a  narrow  pass  where  the  river  flows 
between  precipitous  rocks.  Here  they  were 
set  upon  by  the  soldiers  of  the  king  of  Yauri, 
with  lances,  arrows,  and  stones.  Two  negro 
slaves  were  killed  in  the  canoe,  and  the  white 
men  jumping  into  the  water  were  drowned. 
Olapperton  found  full  confirmation  of  this  sto- 
ry, and  learned  that  Park's  manuscripts  were 
still  in  the  king's  possession,  but  was  unable 
to  obtain  them.  The  narrative  of  Park's  sec- 
ond journey,  with  a  biography  (London,  1815), 
has  been  translated  into  French  and  German. 
D'Avezac  published  in  Paris  in  1834  Examen 
et  rectifications  des  positions  determinees  as- 
tronomiquement  par  Mungo  Park ;  and  an- 
other biography  of  the  traveller  appeared  at 
Edinburgh  in  1835.  A  monument  was  erect- 
ed in  his  honor  at  Selkirk  in  1859. 

PARKE,  a  W.  county  of  Indiana,  bounded 
W.  by  the  Wabash  river  and  drained  by  Sugar 
and  Raccoon  creeks ;  area,  440  sq.  m. ;  pop. 
in  1870,  18,166.  It  has  an  undulating  surface 
and  a  very  fertile  soil,  with  extensive  beds 
of  coal.  The  Logansport,  Crawfordsville,  and 
Southwestern  railroad  traverses  it,  and  the 
Evansville,  Terre  Haute,  and  Chicago  crosses 
the  S.  W.  corner.  The  chief  productions  in 
1870  were  502,230  bushels  of  wheat,  982,628  of 
Indian  corn,  48,391  of  oats,  65,004  of  potatoes, 
314,099  lbs.  of  butter,  110,813  of  wool,  and 
14,512  tons  of  hay.  There  were  7,384  horses, 
5,104  milch  cows,  10,277  other  cattle,  31,583 
sheep,  and  32,264  swine ;  4  manufactories  of 
carriages  and  wagons,  8  of  cooperage,  7  of 
saddlery  and  harness,  2  of  woollens,  13  flour 
mills,  and  19  saw  mills.     Capital,  Rockville. 

PARKER,  a  N.  county  of  Texas,  intersected 
by  the  Brazos  river ;  area,  900  sq.  m. ;  pop.  in 
1870,  4,186,  of  whom  293  were  colored.  It 
consists  of  prairie  and  woodland  in  about  equal 
proportions.  The  soil  is  productive.  Wheat, 
corn,  cotton,  and  fruits  and  vegetables  thrive. 
The  chief  productions  in  1870  were  13,658 
bushels  of  wheat,  70,685  of  Indian  corn,  10,905 
of  oats,  13  bales  of  cotton,  and  20,050  lbs.  of 
butter.  There  were  1,497  horses,  1,222  milch 
cows,  10,348  other  cattle,  944  sheep,  and  4,383 
swine.     Capital,  Weatherford. 

PARKER,  Matthew,  the  second  Protestant  arch- 
bishop of 'Canterbury,  born  in  Norwich,  Aug. 
6,  1504,  died  in  London,  May  17,  1575.  He 
entered  Corpus  Christi  college,  Cambridge,  in 
1520,  and  in  1527  was  ordained,  made  M.  A., 
and  received  a  fellowship,  and  was  offered  by 
Cardinal  Wolsey  a  professorship  in  his  newly 
founded  college  at  Oxford.  In  1533  he  received 
a  license  to  preach,  and  soon  after  became 
chaplain  to  Anne  Boleyn,  dean  of  the  college 
of  Stoke  Clare  in  1535,  chaplain  to  Henry  VIII. 
in  1537,  master  of  Corpus  Christi  college  in 
1544,  vice  chancellor  of  Cambridge  university 
in  1545,  and  dean  of  Lincoln  in  1552.  Upon 
the  outbreak  of  Kett's  insurrection  in  1549, 


110 


PARKER 


he  had  the  boldness  to  preach  to  the  rebels 
in  their  camp,  exhorting  them  to  submission. 
Having  married  in  1547,  he  was  deprived  upon 
the  accession  of  Queen  Mary  of  his  offices,  and 
during  her  reign  was  obliged  to  remain  in  ob- 
scurity. Part  of  this  time  he  spent  in  trans- 
lating the  Psalms  into  English  verse,  and  wri- 
ting a  treatise  entitled  "A  Defence  of  Priests' 
Marriages."  On  the  accession  of  Queen  Eliz- 
abeth he  was  chosen  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
and  on  Dec.  17,  1559,  consecrated  in  Lambeth 
chapel.  He  successfully  combated  the  queen's 
lingering  affection  for  the  use  of  images,  filled 
all  the  vacant  sees  with  men  of  decided  Protes- 
tant opinions,  and  strove  to  render  the  rites  and 
ceremonies  of  the  church  as  uniform  as  pos- 
sible. He  founded  several  schools,  and  made 
many  valuable  presents  to  the  colleges  at  Cam- 
bridge, besides  establishing  scholarships  and 
fellowships.  He  was  one  of  the  first  chosen  to 
review  the  "  Book  of  Common  Prayer,"  and  the 
revision  called  the  "Bishop's  Bible"  was  made 
in  great  part  under  his  inspection,  and  pub- 
lished at  his  expense  in  1568.  He  published  a 
Saxon  homily  on  the  sacraments,  and  caused  to 
be  printed  the  chronicles  of  Matthew  of  West- 
minster, Matthew  Paris,  and  Thomas  Walsing- 
ham,  and  Asser's  "  Life  of  King  Alfred."  The 
work  entitled  De  Antiquitate  Britannicm  Ec- 
clesicB  (1572)  is  commonly  attributed  to  him, 
and  without  doubt  he  had  much  to  do  with  its 
preparation. 

PARKER,  Nathan,  an  American  clergyman, 
born  in  Reading,  Mass.,  June  5,  1782,  died  in 
Portsmouth,  K  H.,  Nov.  8,  1833.  He  grad- 
uated at  Harvard  college  in  1803,  became  a 
tutor  in  Bowdoin  college  in  1805,  and  was  or- 
dained pastor  of  the  South  church  in  Ports- 
mouth Sept.  14,  1808,  which  office  he  retained 
through  life.  When  the  division  of  the  Con- 
gregational body  in  New  England  into  two 
parties  was  recognized,  he  took  his  stand  as  a 
professed  Unitarian.  After  his  death  a  vol- 
ume of  his  sermons  was  published,  with  a 
memoir  by  the  Rev.  Henry  Ware,  jr. 

PARKER,  Peter,  an  American  missionary, 
born  in  Framingham,  Mass.,  June  18, 1804.  He 
graduated  at  Yale  college  in  1831,  studied 
theology  and  medicine  there,  and  was  ordained 
and  went  to  China  in  1834.  He  established  a 
hospital  at  Canton,  intended  particularly  for 
the  treatment  of  eye  diseases ;  but  it  was  soon 
found  impracticable  to  exclude  patients  suffer- 
ing from  other  maladies.  Over  2,000  patients 
were  admitted  the  first  year.  In  surgery 
Dr.  Parker  manifested  remarkable  skill  and 
wrought  wonderful  cures,  and  the  fame  of  the 
hospital  spread  rapidly.  He  often  preached 
to  its  inmates,  and  trained  several  Chinese 
students  in  the  arts  of  medicine  and  surgery, 
some  of  whom  attained  considerable  skill.  In 
1840,  on  the  occurrence  of  hostilities  between 
England  and  China,  the  hospital  was  closed, 
and  Dr.  Parker  revisited  his  native  land.  Re- 
turning to  China  in  1842,  he  reopened  the  hos- 
pital, and  it  was  thronged  as  before.     In  1845 


he  resigned  his  connection  with  the  American 
board,  and  became  a  secretary  and  interpreter 
to  the  new  embassy  from  the  United  States, 
still  keeping  the  hospital  in  operation.  In  the 
absence  of  the  minister  Dr.  Parker  acted  as 
charge  d'affaires.  In  1855,  finding  his  health 
seriously  impaired,  he  again  visited  this  coun- 
try, but  by  special  desire  of  the  government 
returned  the  same  year  to  China  as  commis- 
sioner, with  full  power  to  revise  the  treaty  of 
1844.  He  acted  in  this  capacity  until  a  change 
of  administration  in  1857;  and  his  health 
again  failing,  he  has  since  resided  in  the  United 
States.  He  has  published  "A  Statement  re- 
specting Hospitals  in  China"  (London,  1841), 
and  an  account  of  his  visit  to  the  Loo  Choo 
islands  and  Japan  in  1837. 

PARKER,  Theodore,  an  American  clergyman, 
born  in  Lexington,*Mass.,  Aug.  24,  1810,  died 
in  Florence,  Italy,  May  10,  1860.  He  worked 
on  the  farm  which  had  been  in  his  family  for 
150  years,  and  in  the  tool  shop,  and  at  the  age 
of  17  began  to  teach  school  in  the  winter 
months.  In  1830  he  entered  Harvard  college, 
but  studied  at  home,  only  attending  the  exam- 
inations. In  1831  he  was  teaching  a  private 
class  in  Boston.  Latin,  Greek,  Hebrew,  Ger- 
man, French,  Spanish,  and  metaphysics  filled 
his  leisure.  In  1832  he  opened  a  private  school 
in  Watertown  with  two  scholars,  one  of  whom 
was  on  charity;  but  he  soon  had  more  than 
50.  For  their  benefit,  and  for  his  class  in  the 
Sunday  school,  he  wrote  a  history  of  the  Jews, 
which  is  still  in  manuscript.  He  entered  the 
divinity  school  in  Cambridge  in  1834.  Syriac, 
Arabic,  Danish,  and  Swedish  were  here  added 
to  his  list  of  languages ;  and  Anglo-Saxon  and 
modern  Greek  were  commenced.  He  was  one 
of  the  editors  of  the  "Scriptural  Interpret- 
er," a  magazine  conducted  by  members  of  the 
school.  During  the  autumn  and  winter  of 
1836  he  preached  in  various  pulpits  of  Massa- 
chusetts, and  was  settled  as  pastor  of  the  Uni- 
tarian church  at  West  Roxbury  in  June,  1837. 
Here  he  formed  views  upon  the  authority  and 
inspiration  of  the  Bible  which  were  not  in 
harmony  with  those  of  his  Unitarian  brethren. 
At  the  ordination  of  Mr.  Shackford  in  South 
Boston,  May  19,  1841,  Mr.  Parker  preached  a 
discourse  on  the  "  Transient  and  Permanent  in 
Christianity,"  which,  assuming  the  humanity 
and  natural  inspiration  of  Christ,  gave  rise  to 
a  controversy,  during  which  Mr.  Parker  de- 
veloped his  anti-supernaturalism  in  various 
writings  and  sermons.  In  the  autumn  of  1841 
he  delivered  in  Boston  five  lectures,  which 
were  published  under  the  title  of  "A  Dis- 
course of  Matters  pertaining  .to  Religion " 
(1842).  During  the  autumn  and  winter  of 
1842  he  delivered  six  "  Sermons  for  the  Times  " 
in  Boston  and  elsewhere.  He  travelled  in 
England,  France,  Italy,  and  Germany  in  1843 
-'4 ;  and  after  his  return  the  controversy  was 
renewed  on  occasion  of  his  exchanging  pul- 
pits with  some  of  the  more  liberal  Unitarian 
preachers.     He  began  to  preach  at  the  Melo- 


PARKER 


PARKERSBURG 


111 


deon,  Boston,  Feb.  16,  1845,  and  was  installed 
there  over  a  newly  organized  parish,  styled 
the  28th  Congregational  society,  in  the  spring 
of  1846.  Up  to  this  time,  besides  the  writings 
above  mentioned,  his  more  notable  productions 
were  articles  in  the  "Dial"  and  other  period- 
icals. His  translation  of  De  Wette's  "  Intro- 
duction to  the  Old  Testament,"  with  additions, 
appeared  in  1843.  Other  translations,  from 
Ammon,  Eichhorn,  and  Gesenius,  seem  to  have 
been  preparatory  to  that  work.  In  Decem- 
ber, 1847,  appeared  the  first  number  of  the 
"  Massachusetts  Quarterly,"  which  he  conduct- 
ed during  its  life  of  three  years.  He  became 
popular  as  a  lecturer,  vigorously  opposed  the 
Mexican  war,  and  was  one  of  the  earliest  ad- 
vocates of  temperance  and  anti-slavery.  After 
the  passage  of  the  fugitive  slave  law  in  1850, 
every  case  of  attempted  rendition  in  Boston 
enlisted  his  personal  activity ;  and  at  the  time 
of  the  rendition  of  Anthony  Burns  (May  24 
to  June  8,  1854),  an  indictment  was  brought 
against  him  for  resisting  an  officer  of  the  Uni- 
ted States  in  his  attempt  to  execute  process, 
based  upon  a  speech  delivered  at  Faneuil  hall 
before  an  anti-rendition  meeting.  It  was 
quashed  upon  a  technicality ;  but  Mr.  Parker 
had  prepared  an  elaborate  defence,  which  he 
printed.  In  November,  1852,  his  congregation 
occupied  for  the  first  time  the  great  music  hall 
in  Boston,  which  was  crowded  every  Sunday. 
He  was  now  often  ill,  and  compelled  for  a 
while  to  cease  preaching  and  writing ;  but  his 
persistent  will  carried  him  through  till  Jan- 
uary, 1859,  when  an  attack  of  bleeding  at  the 
lungs  brought  to  a  close  his  public  services  at 
the  music  hall.  On  Feb.  3  he  sailed  for  Santa 
Cruz,  whence  in  May  he  sent  a  letter  to  his 
parish  entitled  "  Theodore  Parker's  Experience 
as  a  Minister."  Thence  he  sailed  to  Europe, 
spent  some  time  in  Switzerland,  and  went  to 
Rome,  where  he  passed  the  winter  of  1859. 
Setting  out  thence  in  April,  1860,  very  much 
enfeebled,  he  reached  Florence  with  difficulty, 
where  he  died.  He  was  buried  in  the  cem- 
etery outside  the  walls. — Parker's  published 
works  are :  "A  Discourse  of  Matters  pertain- 
ing to  Religion"  (1842) ;  "Miscellaneous  Wri- 
tings" (12mo,  Boston,  1843);  "Occasional 
Sermons  and  Speeches"  (2  vols.  12mo,  ^852); 
"  Ten  Sermons  on  Religion  "  (1853) ;  "  Sermons 
on  Theism,  Atheism,  and  the  Popular  Theolo- 
gy" (1853);  "Additional  Speeches,  Address- 
es," &c.  (2  vols.  12mo,  1855)  ;  "Trial  of  Theo- 
dore Parker  for  the  '  Misdemeanor  of  a  Speech 
in  Faneuil  Hall  against  Kidnapping'"  (1855)  ; 
"Two  Christmas  Celebrations;"  and  "Expe- 
rience as  a  Minister  "  (1859).  A  collective  edi- 
tion of  his  works  was  edited  by  Frances  Power 
Cobbe  (12  vols.,  London,  1863-'5),  and  a  later 
edition  by  H.  B.  Fuller  (10  vols.  12mo,  Bos- 
ton, 1870).  His  "Life  and  Correspondence" 
was  published  by  the  Rev.  John  Weiss  (2  vols. 
8vo,  New  York,  1864),  and  his  "Life"  by  the 
Rev.  O.  B.  Frothingham  (New  York,  1874). 
See  also  Albert  Reville's  Tlieodore  Parker,  sa 
VOL.  xiii. — 8 


me  et  ses  muvres  (Paris,  1865).  His  library  of 
more  than  13,000  volumes  he  bequeathed  to 
the  public  library  of  Boston. 

PARKER,  Willard,  an  American  surgeon,  born 
in  Hillsboro,  N.  H.,  Sept.  2,  1800.  He  is  the 
sixth  in  descent  from  one  of  five  brothers  who 
came  from  England  in  1644  and  settled  at 
Chelmsford,  Mass.,  to  which  place  his  father 
returned  when  Willard  was  five  years  old.  He 
graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1826,  com- 
menced the  study  of  medicine  under  Dr.  John 
C.  Warren,  the  professor  of  surgery  in  Har- 
vard university,  and  received  the  degree  of 
M.  D.  there  in  1830.  He  was  at  once  appoint- 
ed professor  of  anatomy  in  the  Vermont  med- 
ical college,  and  in  the  same  year  accepted 
the  chair  of  anatomy  in  the  Berkshire  medical 
college,  and  in  1833  also  that  of  surgery.  In 
1836  he  was  appointed  professor  of  surgery  in 
the  Cincinnati  medical  college,  and  afterward 
spent  some  time  in  the  hospitals  of  Paris  and 
London.  In  1839  he  became  professor  of  sur- 
gery in  the  college  of  physicians  and  surgeons 
of  New  York,  which  post  he  resigned  after  a 
service  of  30  years,  but  accepted  that  of  pro- 
fessor of  clinical  surgery,  which  he  now  holds 
(1875).  In  1865  he  was  elected  president  of 
the  New  York  state  inebriate  asylum  at  Bing- 
hamton,  succeeding  Dr.  Valentine  Mott.  This 
was  the  first  institution  ever  established  for 
the  treatment  of  inebriety  as  a  disease.  In 
1870  he  received  the  degree  of  LL.  D.  from 
the  college  of  New  Jersey  at  Princeton.  Dr. 
Parker  was  the  first  to  point  out  a  condition 
which  is  known  as  concussion  of  the  nerves, 
as  distinguished  from  concussion  of  the  nerve 
centres,  and  which  had  been  previously  mis- 
taken for  one  of  inflammation.  The  operation 
of  cystotomy  for  the  relief  of  chronic  cystitis, 
and  also  that  for  the  cure  of-  abscess  of  the 
appendix  vermiformis,  are  among  his  contri- 
butions to  the  art  of  surgery. 

PARKERSBURG,  a  port  of  delivery  and  the 
capital  of  Wood  co.,  West  Virginia,  the  second 
city  in  the  state  in  population,  on  the  Ohio 
river,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Little  Kanawha,  92 
m.  below  Wheeling,  and  65  m.  N.  of  Charles- 
ton; pop.  in  1850,  1,218;  in  1860,  2,493;  in 
1870,  5,546,  of  whom  447  were  colored;  in 
1875,  about  7,000.  The  site  rises  gradually  to 
a  plateau  100  ft.  above  low-water  mark,  and 
extends  more  than  a  mile  up  the  Ohio  and 
nearly  two  miles  along  the  Little  Kanawha, 
embracing  about  three  square  miles.  In  the 
rear  rises  an  isolated  eminence,  known  as  Pros- 
pect hill,  affording  extensive  views.  The  city 
is  regularly  laid  out  in  squares,  with  streets 
60  ft.  and  alleys  20  ft.  wide.  The  principal 
public  buildings  are  the  court  house,  market 
house,  two  brick  school  houses,  and  seven  brick 
churches.  A  building  for  the  accommodation 
of  the  United  States  courts,  post  office,  and 
custom  house  is  in  course  of  erection.  Par- 
kersburg  is  favorably  situated  for  trade  and 
manufactures.  The  tributary  country,  inclu- 
ding the  valley  of  the  Little  Kanawha,  is  f  er- 


112 


PARKMAN 


PARLIAMENT 


tile  and  well  timbered,  and  contains  petroleum, 
coal,  iron,  and  salt.  Four  medicinal  springs, 
6£  m.  from  the  city  and  2  m.  from  the  Little 
Kanawha,  have  been  much  frequented.  There 
is  a  covered  bridge  across  the  Little  Kanawha, 
and  one  across  the  Ohio  costing  $1,000,000, 
over  which  the  Parkersburg  division  of  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  railroad  passes  into  Ohio. 
Regular  lines  of  steamers  run  to  Wheeling, 
Charleston,  Cincinnati,  and  other  points  on  the 
Ohio  and  Great  Kanawha  rivers.  Recent  im- 
provements in  the  Little  Kanawha  render  it 
navigable  38  m.  above  Parkersburg,  and  afford 
abundant  water  power.  One  of  the  most  im- 
portant interests  is  the  refining  of  petroleum, 
for  which  there  are  six  or  seven  establish- 
ments, producing  about  200,000  barrels  of  illu- 
minating and  100,000  of  lubricating  oil  annu- 
ally. The  annual  value  of  oil  shipments  is 
about  $3,000,000.  Other  important  establish- 
ments are  a  barrel  factory,  a  chemical  labora- 
tory, three  founderies,  with  two  of  which  ma- 
chine shops  are  connected,  the  repair  shops  of 
the  railroad,  two  flouring  mills,  two  saw  mills, 
a  mill  for  sawing,  planing,  and  manufacturing 
doors,  blinds,  &c,  a  boat-building  yard,  a  fur- 
niture factory,  a  carriage  factory,  a  tannery, 
three  tobacco  factories,  two  potteries,  two 
brick  yards,  and  a  sandstone  quarry.  There 
are  three  national  banks,  with  an  aggregate 
capital  of  $450,000,  a  fire  insurance  company, 
a  high  school,  several  free  ward  schools,  sev- 
eral academies,  two  daily  and  three  weekly 
newspapers,  a  monthly  periodical,  and  ten 
churches  :  Baptist,  Episcopal,  Methodist,  Pres- 
byterian, Roman  Catholic,  and  United  Breth- 
ren. The  United  States  circuit  court  is  held 
here  annually. — Parkersburg  was  incorporated 
as  a  town  in  1820,  and  as  a  city  in  1860. 

P  IKK  MAX,  Francis,  an  American  author,  born 
in  Boston,  Sept.  16,  1823.  He  made  in  the 
latter  part  of  1843  and  the  beginning  of  1844 
a  rapid  tour  in  Europe,  graduated  at  Harvard 
college  in  the  latter  year,  and  studied  law  for 
two  years,  but  abandoned  it  in  1846  and  start- 
ed to  explore  the  Rocky  mountains.  He  lived 
for  several  months  among  the  Dakota  Indians 
and  the  still  wilder  and  remoter  tribes,  and 
incurred  hardships  and  privations  which  made 
him  an  invalid  for  the  rest  of  his  life.  An  ac- 
count of  this  expedition  was  given  in  "Prairie 
and  Rocky  Mountain  Life  "  (New  York,  1849), 
reissued  subsequently  as  "The  California  and 
Oregon  Trail."  This  was  followed  by  "The 
Conspiracy  of  Pontiac"  (Boston,  1851),  the 
first  of  a  series  intended  to  illustrate  the  his- 
tory of  the  rise  and  fall  of  the  French  dominion 
in  America.  His  next  work  was  "  Vassall 
Morton  "  (Boston,  1856),  a  novel  the  scene  of 
which  was  partly  in  America  and  partly  in 
Europe.  He  visited  France  in  1858,  and  again 
in  1868,  to  examine  the  French  archives,  and 
the  result  of  his  researches  is  given  in  "  Pio- 
neers of  France  in  the  New  World"  (1865), 
"Jesuits  in  North  America"  (1867),  "Discov- 
ery of  the  Great  West"  (1869),  and  "The  Old 


Regime  in  Canada"  (1874).  These  works  are 
distinguished  for  their  brilliant  style  and  for 
accurate  research,  and  have  been  written  under 
the  disadvantages  of  feeble  health  and  of  an 
affection  of  the  eyes  which  renders  him  often 
wholly  unable  to  read  or  write.  In  1866  Mr. 
Parkman  published  "  The  Book  of  Roses,"  and 
in  1871  he  was  appointed  professor  of  horti- 
culture in  the  agricultural  school  of  Harvard 
university,  which  post  he  resigned  in  1872. 

PARLIAMENT  (low  Lat.  parlamentum;  Fr. 
parlement,  f rom parler,  "to  speak"),  original- 
ly a  meeting  or  assembly  for  conference  or  de- 
liberation ;  afterward  applied  in  France  to  the 
principal  judicial  courts,  and  in  England  to  the 
legislature  of  the  kingdom.  The  word,  or  one 
very  like  it,  was  long  in  use  in  France,  and  was 
first  applied  there  to  general  assemblies  in  the 
time  of  Louis  VII.,  about  the  middle  of  the  12th 
century.  I.  The  British  Parliament.  The 
earliest  mention  of  the  word  parliament  in  the 
statutes  of  England  occurs  in  the  preamble  to 
the  statute  of  Westminster,  1272.  Many  wri- 
ters have  asserted  the  identity  of  the  modern 
parliament  with  the  general  councils  of  the 
Saxons,  with  their  michel-gemote  or  great  meet- 
ing, or  their  witena-g emote  or  meeting  of  the 
wise  men ;  and  also  with  the  commune  conci- 
lium and  magnum  concilium  of  later  times.  It 
is  indeed  indisputable,  as  Blackstone  says,  that 
general  councils  are  coeval  with  the  kingdom 
itself ;  but  that  those  of  early  times  bore  any 
essential  resemblance  to  the  present  parliament 
is  far  from  certain.  We  may  probably  with 
safety  assume  that  the  present  constitution  of 
parliament  existed  early  in  the  14th  century. 
In  Magna  Charta,  King  John  promises  to  sum- 
mon all  archbishops,  bishops,  abbots,  earls,  and 
greater  barons  personally,  and  all  other  tenants 
in  chief  under  the  crown  by  the  sheriffs  and 
bailiffs ;  and  there  are  still  extant  writs  of  the 
date  of  1265,  summoning  "  knights,  citizens, 
and  burgesses  "  to  parliament.  A  statute  passed 
in  the  reign  of  Edward  II.  (1322)  declares  that 
certain  matters  shall  be  established  in  par- 
liament "by  the  king  and  by  the  assent  of  the 
prelates,  earls,  barons,  and  the  commonalty  of 
the  realm,  as  has  before  been  accustomed." 
The  imperial  parliament  of  the  United  King- 
dom of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  is  composed 
of  the  crown  and  the  three  estates  of  the  realm, 
the  lords  spiritual,  the  lords  temporal,  and  the 
commons.  It  is  the  prerogative  of  the  crown 
to  convoke,  continue,  or  dissolve  it.  Former- 
ly it  was  the  theory  of  English  constitutional 
law,  that  the  power  of  the  crown  in  these  re- 
spects was  measured  only  by  its  pleasure ;  that 
the  sovereign  might  omit  during  his  whole 
reign  to  call  a  parliament;  or  if  he  called  one, 
might  keep  it  undissolved  for  the  same  period. 
But  now,  on  the  authority  of  statute  and  other- 
wise, it  is  established  that  no  parliament  can 
last  longer  than  seven  years,  and  that  writs  for 
summoning  a  new  parliament  shall  issue  within 
three  years  from  the  dissolution  of  the  last  one. 
The  sessions  of  parliament  may  be  suspended 


PAELIAMENT 


113 


by  adjournment  or  prorogation,  and  ended  by 
dissolution.  The  power  of  adjournment  be- 
longs to  each  house  respectively ;  the  sovereign 
may  request  but  not  command  an  adjournment. 
A  royal  proclamation  may  issue,  however,  sum- 
moning parliament  to  meet  within  not  less  than 
14  days,  notwithstanding  an  adjournment  be- 
yond that  period.  Parliament  may  be  pro- 
rogued to  a  certain  day  only  by  the  sovereign ; 
it  is  effected  through  the  lord  chancellor,  or 
by  writ  under  the  great  seal,  or  by  commission. 
The  effect  of  a  prorogation  is  to  put  an  end  to 
all  proceedings  pending  at  the  time,  except  im- 
peachments by  the  commons  and  appeals  and 
writs  of  error  in  the  house  of  lords.  On  the 
meeting  of  parliament  after  prorogation,  a  bill 
pending  before  must  be  renewed  as  if  it  had 
never  been  introduced.  The  power  of  dissolv- 
ing parliament  is  vested  in  the  sovereign ;  its 
existence  is  ended  by  dissolution,  after  which 
writs  of  election  for  a  new  parliament  must  be 
issued.  In  practice,  parliaments  assemble  an- 
nually, and  must  continue  to  do  so  while  the 
legislation  for  the  army,  the  judiciary,  and  the 
whole  service  of  the  kingdom  has  validity  and 
makes  appropriations  for  only  a  twelvemonth. 
Among  the  other  constitutional  prerogatives 
of  the  crown,  as  a  branch  of  parliament,  are  its 
negative  upon  the  choice  of  a  speaker  by  the 
commons,  and  upon  bills  passed  by  both  houses. 
But  neither  of  these  prerogatives  could  now 
with  safety  be  arbitrarily  asserted  by  the  "sov- 
ereign.— House  of  Lords.  This  body  is  com- 
posed of  the  lords  spiritual  and  temporal,  the 
former  consisting  of  the  archbishops  of  Canter- 
bury and  York,  and  24  bishops.  Until  the  dis- 
solution of  the  monasteries  in  the  time  of  Henry 
VIII.,  the  mitred  abbots  and  two  priors  had 
seats  with  the  lords ;  and  after  the  union  with 
Ireland  one  archbishop  and  three  bishops  of 
the  church  of  Ireland  also  had  seats  until  the 
disestablishment  of  that  church  on  Jan.  1, 1871. 
The  whole  number  of  peers  in  1873  was  479. 
Most  of  the  peerages  are  of  recent  creation. 
The  three  oldest  date  from  the  13th  century, 
and  only  four  others  go  back  to  the  14th.  Up 
to  1874,  239  had  been  created  within  the  presr 
ent  century.  The  bishops  were  excluded  from 
parliament  during  the  commonwealth,  but  were 
restored  by  statute.  With  this  single  interrup- 
tion, they  have  always  been  present  in  parlia- 
ment, and  with  unquestioned  right.  The  lords 
spiritual  are  lords  of  parliament,  though  not 
peers  of  the  realm.  When  therefore  a  peer  is 
to  be  tried,  the  bishops  are  entitled  to  take  part 
in  the  proceedings,  though,  in  conformity  with 
the  canons  of  the  church,  which  forbid  them  to 
vote  in  capital  causes,  they  are  generally  absent 
from  the  judgment.  Being  not  of  noble  blood, 
like  the  hereditary  peers,  for  a  capital  offence 
they  are  tried  by  a  jury  like  other  commoners. 
The  lords  temporal  are  divided  into  dukes,  mar- 
quises, earls,  viscounts,  and  barons.  They  are 
the  hereditary  peers  of  the  realm,  ennobled  in 
blood,  and  subject  to  loss  of  their  dignities  only 
by  attainder  or  by  act  of  parliament.     Since 


the  union  with  Scotland  in  1707,  and  with  Ire- 
land in  1801, 16  Scottish  and  28  Irish  represen- 
tative peers  have  been  returned  to  parliament 
by  the  peerages  of  those  countries.  The  former 
sit  during  one  parliament  only ;  the  latter  are 
chosen  for  life.  They  enjoy  all  the  privileges 
of  parliament,  and  may  sit  upon  the  trial  of 
peers.  A  peer  is  made  so  by  the  royal  patent 
or  writ  which  summons  him  to  parliament,  and 
the  dignity  is  usually  made  hereditary  by  limita- 
tion to  the  heirs  male  of  his  body,  although  it 
is  sometimes  provided  that  it  may  descend  to 
others,  as  for  instance  to  his  nephew  or  brother. 
The  power  of  the  crown  to  create  a  life  peer- 
age raised  in  1856  an  important  question,  which 
was  earnestly  debated.  On  retiring  from  the 
bench  Sir  James  Parke  (Lord  Wensleydale)  was 
created  baron  of  the  United  Kingdom  for  and 
during  his  life,  instead  of  the  usual  limitation. 
Government  urged  as  a  reason  for  granting 
life  peerages,  the  convenience  of  adding  to  the 
number  of  law  lords  in  the  house,  these  being 
peers  who  have  held  high  judicial  office  in  the 
kingdom,  and  who  substantially  alone  determine 
all  judicial  causes.  It  had  happened  in  1855 
that  only  two  law  lords,  the  lord  chancellor  and 
Lord  St.  Leonards,  had  sat  to  hear  arguments. 
Upon  some  of  the  causes  they  differed  in  opin- 
ion, and  as,  upon  a  familiar  maxim  in  the  proce- 
dure of  the  lords,  this  equality  of  votes  led  in 
each  case  to  affirmance  of  the  decrees  brought 
up  from  inferior  courts,  appellants  argued  that 
there  was  virtually  no  decision,  and  expressed 
great  discontent.  For  the  remedy  of  this  and 
other  mischiefs  the  creation  of  life  peerages 
was  proposed.  After  prolonged  discussion,  the 
lords  decided,  if  not  against  the  strict  legality 
of  the  measure,  yet  against  its  constitutional 
expediency.  The  crown  retreated  from  its  po- 
sition, and  Lord  Wensleydale  received  a  patent 
in  the  usual  form.  The  peers  of  the  realm 
possess  titles  of  honor  which  give  them  the 
privileges  of  rank  and  precedence,  and  they  are 
individually  the  hereditary  counsellors  of  the 
crown ;  with  the  lords  spiritual  they  form, 
when  not  assembled  in  parliament,  the  perma- 
nent council  of  the  sovereign,  though  they  may 
act  in  the  same  capacity  when  so  assembled,  as 
for  example  in  addressing  the  throne  upon  mat- 
ters of  foreign  or  of  domestic  policy.  When 
sitting  in  parliament  the  peers  form  in  con- 
junction with  the  lords  spiritual  a  branch  of 
the  supreme  legislature  of  the  kingdom ;  and, 
in  the  exercise  of  peculiar  functions,  they  con- 
stitute a  court  of  judicature.  In  its  judicial 
office  the  house  of  lords  has  a  distinctive  char- 
acter as  the  highest  tribunal  of  the  realm. 
The  lords  have  an  original  and  exclusive  juris- 
diction in  the  trial  of  peers,  and  under  refer- 
ence from  the  crown  upon  claims  of  peerage 
and  affairs  of  honors.  By  the  acts  of  union 
they  have  a  like  jurisdiction  over  cases  of  con- 
tested elections,  or  the  rotation  of  the  Scottish 
or  Irish  representative  peers.  They  also  had 
until  recently  a  general  jurisdiction  as  the  su- 
preme court  of  appeals.    These  judicial  func- 


114 


PARLIAMENT 


tions  the  house  of  lords  had  as  the  representa- 
tive of  the  ancient  concilium  regis,  or  council 
of  the  king,  which  under  the  early  Norman 
kings  had  jurisdiction  both  in  civil  and  crimi- 
nal causes,  especially  in  those  relating  to  great 
persons  and  to  officers  of  state,  and  by  way  of 
appeal  from  all  other  courts.  In  respect  to 
the  construction  of  the  house  for  any  legisla- 
tive purpose,  there  is  no  distinction  between 
the  lords  temporal  and  the  lords  spiritual. 
The  presence  of  three  members  who  have  been 
duly  summoned  and  sworn  constitutes  a  quo- 
rum ;  and  when  a  speaker  has  been  appointed, 
the  house  may  proceed  to  act  either  as  a  branch 
of  the  legislature  or  as  a  supreme  court  of  ju- 
dicature. The  lord  chancellor  or  lord  keeper 
of  the  great  seal  is  speaker  ex  officio,  and  an 
ancient  order  declares  it  to  be  "  his  duty  ordi- 
narily to  attend  the  lords'  house  of  parlia- 
ment." To  make  provision  for  his  necessary 
absence,  deputy  speakers  are  appointed  by 
commission  from  the  crown,  "to  officiate  from 
time  to  time  during  the  royal  pleasure  in  the 
room  and  place  of  the  lord  chancellor."  The 
office  is  generally  conferred  upon  the  chief 
justice  of  the  king's  bench,  or  the  chief  baron 
of  the  exchequer.  In  the  absence  of  both  the 
lord  chancellor  or  keeper  and  the  deputy 
speakers,  the  lords  themselves  select  a  speaker 
pro  tempore.  The  person  who  acts  as  speaker 
need  not  be  a  member  of  the  house,  nor  in- 
deed of  the  peerage.  Commoners  have  often 
been  raised  to  the  office.  They  may  sit  as 
speakers  upon  the  woolsack,  for  constitution- 
ally that  is  not  within  the  limits  of  the  house. 
The  lords  answer  "Content"  or  "Not  con- 
tent" in  voting,  and  on  an  equality  of  votes 
the  effect  is  the  same  as  if  there  were  a  ma- 
jority of  "not  content,"  for  the  maxim  of  the 
house  is:  Semper  prcesumitur  pro  negante. — 
Until  the  establishment  of  the  supreme  court 
of  England  (1873-5)  the  lords  had  jurisdiction 
of  writs  of  error  and  appeals  from  the  com- 
mon law  and  equity  courts.  The  former  was 
of  great  antiquity ;  the  latter  dates  only  from 
1621,  and  was  not  acquiesced  in  until  after 
angry  and  prolonged  disputes  between  the  two 
houses  of  parliament.  The  right  to  exercise  it 
was  questioned  by  some  of  the  first  lawyers 
of  the  time,  including  Sir  Matthew  Hale.  The 
triumph  of  the  peers  is  usually  ascribed  to  the 
earl  of  Shaftesbury,  who  insisted  that  the  lords' 
power  of  review  extended  over  all  the  courts 
in  the  kingdom,  civil,  criminal,  and  ecclesias- 
tical. But  from  the  last  named  courts  appeals 
have  never  been  entertained.  So  orders  made 
on  motion  or  petition  in  matters  of  idiocy, 
lunacy,  or  bankruptcy  were  not  carried  up  to 
the  lords,  but  to  the  king  in  council.  Writs 
of  error  to  the  lords  were  confined  to  matters 
of  law.  They  might  lie  from  all  judgments  of 
the  courts  of  exchequer  chamber  in  England 
and  Ireland,  and  from  all  judgments  in  com- 
mon law  of  the  court  of  exchequer  of  Scotland ; 
from  all  such  judgments  of  the  courts  of  queen's 
bench  in  England  or  Ireland  as  were  not  inter- 


mediately reviewable  by  the  courts  of  exchequer 
chamber  of  the  two  countries ;  from  all  judg- 
ments of  the  common  law  or  "petty  bag"  side 
of  the  high  court  of  chancery ;  and  from  the 
decisions  of  the  commissioners  of  error  appoint- 
ed to  review  the  common  law  proceedings  of 
the  London  municipal  jurisdictions.  The  act  of 
1873  (which  as  originally  enacted  was  to  take 
effect  in  November,  1874,  but  in  August  of  that 
year  was  postponed  to  November,  1875),  crea- 
ting the  supreme  court  of  England,  takes  from 
the  house  of  lords  its  jurisdiction  on  writs  of 
error  and  appeals  from  the  several  superior 
courts  of  England,  and  confers  it  upon  "  Her 
Majesty's  Court  of  Appeal "  thereby  provided 
for.  (See  Couet.) — Souse  of  Commons.  The 
lowest  branch  of  parliament,  the  third  estate 
in  dignity,  but  in  fact  the  foremost  in  substan- 
tial power,  is  the  commons  ;  or,  to  use  the  title 
which  suggests  the  composition  of  this  house, 
the  knights,  citizens,  and  burgesses.  We  have 
seen  that  the  first  clear  intimation  of  two 
branches  of  parliament  (not  then  necessarily 
sitting  separate,  however)  is  afforded  by  Mag- 
na Charta.  That  instrument  provides  a  mode 
of  summons  according  to  rank.  The  greater 
barons  were  to  be  individually  cited  by  special 
writs,  while  the  other  tenants  in  capite  were 
to  be  called  by  general  summons.  That  is  to 
say,  with  regard  to  the  former  of  these  classes 
an  individual  and  absolute  right  seems  to  be 
conceded ;  while  with  regard  to  the  •  latter, 
those  were  considered  to  be  entitled  and  sum- 
moned whom  the  general  body  should  select 
as  their  representatives.  Thus  these  inferior 
landed  proprietors,  or  lesser  barons  as  they 
have  been  called,  ceasing  gradually  to  be  re- 
garded as  peers,  were  allowed  and  sometimes 
directed  to  be  summoned  as  knights  of  shires. 
Gradually,  too,  their  privilege  diminished,  till 
they  lost  altogether  the  right  of  sitting  with 
their  superiors ;  and,  merging  in  the  common- 
alty, they  came,  probably  at  the  close  of  the 
13th  century,  to  form  with  the  representatives 
of  cities  and  boroughs  the  lower  house.  Du- 
ring the  reigns  of  the  first  three  Edwards,  the 
power  of  the  commons  was  materially  enlarged 
and  firmly  established ;  and  to  the  time  of  Ed- 
ward IV.  Hallam  refers  the  foundation  of  the 
principle  that  the  assent  of  the  two  houses  is 
necessary  to  every  legislative  act.  But  owing 
to  the  jealousy  of  the -upper  house,  and  to  its 
opportunities  for  defeating  the  rights  of  the 
commons,  the  principle  was  for  a  long  time 
not  carried  out.  In  the  reign  of  Henry  VI.  it 
first  became  true  in  fact,  as  it  had  long  been  in 
the  theory  of  the  government,  that  "the  law 
of  the  land  is  made  in  parliament  by  the  king 
and  the  lords  spiritual  and  temporal  and  all  the 
commonalty  of  the  realm." — It  is  the  exclusive 
right  of  the  commons  to  originate  all  bills 
which  either  directly  or  by  construction  impose 
any  burden  or  charge  on  the  people  ;  and  these 
bills  include  not  only  those  which  provide  sup- 
plies for  the  general  administration  of  the  gov- 
ernment, but  also  all  those  which  contemplate 


PARLIAMENT 


115 


a  tax  upon  the  public  for  any  purpose  or  in 
any  mode.  All  other  bills  of  whatever  nature 
may  originate  in  either  house  indifferently. 
In  practice,  each  house  appropriates  to  itself 
peculiar  cognizance  of  those  matters  of  which, 
from  its  experience  and  constitution,  it  is  the 
most  competent  judge.  For  example,  bills 
which  concern  the  settlement  of  peerages  be- 
gin naturally  with  the  lords;  while  bills  for 
regulating  elections  originate  as  naturally  with 
the  commons.  The  commons  have  not  final 
appellate  jurisdiction  like  the  lords ;  yet  in 
certain  cases  they  exercise  judicial  functions, 
and  when  proceeding  in  such  cases  they  are 
a  court  of  record,  and  their  journals  bear  the 
credit  of  public  records.  Examples  of  these 
functions  are  the  consideration  of  cases  of  con- 
tested elections  and  returns,  and  the  hearing 
and  punishing  of  contempts.  Acting  in  con- 
currence with  the  lords,  they  exercise  higher 
powers  of  judicature,  as  in  matters  of  attain- 
der and  pardon,  and  until  lately  of  divorce. 
The  house  of  commons  consists  at  present  of 
658  members.  Of  these  England  and  Wales 
send  from  counties  187,  from  the  universities 
5,  and  from  the  towns  308.  Of  the  Scottish 
members,  30  come  from  counties  and  23  from 
towns.  Ireland  returns  64  members  for  coun- 
ties, 39  for  towns,  and  2  for  the  university  of 
Dublin.  Although  the  ordinary  cost  of  an 
election  to  parliament  is  considerable,  and  im- 
mense sums  are  sometimes  spent  in  a  close 
contest,  the  members  receive  no  salary.  For- 
merly they  were  paid  a  prescribed  amount  by 
their  constituencies,  the  poorer  of  which  some- 
times got  excused  from  electing  members  to 
avoid  the  expense.  The  religious  disqualifica- 
tions which  formerly  excluded  some  persons 
from  parliament  were  removed,  partly  by  the 
repeal  of  the  test  act  in  1828,  and  partly  by 
the  Catholic  emancipation  act  of  1829.  Un- 
til 1858  Jews  were  shut  out  from  both  houses 
by  that  clause  which  required  the  oath  to  be 
taken  "  on  the  true  faith  of  a  Christian."  This 
disabling  clause  has  not  been  stricken  from  the 
formulas  of  the  oaths,  but  in  the  year  just 
named  a  statute  was  passed  which  permits 
either  house  to  dispense  with  it  at  its  plea- 
sure in  the  administration  of  them.  No  peer 
of  parliament  is  eligible  to  the  commons ;  yet 
any  Irish  peer,  not  of  the  number  of  the  28 
representatives,  may  sit  in  the  lower  house. 
This  rule  is  not  true  of  the  same  class  of  Scot- 
tish peers.  No  person  officially  employed 
about  duties  or  taxes  created  since  1692  (ex- 
cept commissioners  of  the  treasury),  no  officer 
of  excise,  customs,  stamps,  &c,  no  pensioner 
of  the  crown,  no  contractor  with  govern- 
ment, no  judge  of  the  king's  bench,  common 
pleas,  or  exchequer,  no  chancellor  or  vice 
chancellor  (it  is  otherwise  with  the  master  of 
the  rolls),  and  no  police  justice  of  London,  is 
eligible ;  and  by  statute  6  Anne,  c.  27,  it  is  pro- 
vided that  no  person  holding  any  new  office 
under  the  crown  created  since  1705  is  eligible. 
If  any  member  of  the  house  of  commons  accept 


any  office  of  profit  under  the  crown  while  he  is 
a  member,  his  seat  becomes  vacant,  but  he  may 
be  again  elected.  The  house  of  commons  has 
given  various  constructions  of  this  statute,  and 
expressly  excepted  from  it  a  large  number  of 
offices.  The  clergy  of  the  church  of  England 
and  Ireland  are  ineligible.  Sheriffs  of  counties, 
mayors,  and  bailiffs  of  boroughs,  as  returning 
officers,  are  also  incapacitated.  Ministers  of  the 
crown,  however,  are  required  to  hold  seats  in 
one  house  or  the  other ;  and  members  of  the 
lower  house,  on  receiving  a  cabinet  appoint- 
ment, resign  their  seats  and  appeal  to  their 
constituents  for  reelection,  as  an  indication  of 
confidence  in  the  ministry. — Until  it  was  re- 
modelled in  1832  by  the  reform  act,  the  parlia- 
mentary franchise  remained  as  it  had  been  fixed 
by  statutes  of  the  time  of  Henry  VI.  It  had 
been  narrowly  restricted  by  these  statutes,  both 
in  the  counties  and  in  the  boroughs,  and  the 
necessity  of  a  thorough  change  had  long  been 
insisted  on.  The  tory  ministry  of  the  duke  of 
Wellington  in  1830  was  brought  to  an  end  by 
the  determined  opposition  of  the  premier  to 
any  change  in  the  representation  and  suffrage, 
and  was  succeeded  by  a  ministry  headed  by 
Earl  Grey,  who  had  been  the  steady  advocate 
of  parliamentary  reform  for  40  years,  and  who 
then  stood  at  the  head  of  the  whig  aristocra- 
cy. The  first  reform  bill  was  introduced  into 
the  house  of  commons,  March  1, 1831,  by  Lord 
John  Russell,  and  was  carried  on  the  second 
reading  after  great  debates,  by  a  vote  of  302  to 
301.  Subsequently  the  ministers  were  defeated 
on  several  questions,  and  parliament  was  dis- 
solved, April  22.  The  new  house  of  commons 
was  chosen  under  great  popular  excitement,  and 
in  a  full  house  the  ministerial  majority  was 
about  130.  Another  reform  bill  was  brought 
forward,  and  after  a  discussion  of  many  weeks 
was  passed,  345  to  236.  The  house  of  lords 
threw  out  the  bill  by  41  majority.  This  caused 
great  indignation.  Immense  popular  meetings 
were  held,  and  there  were  riots  at  Derby,  Not- 
tingham, and  Bristol.  On  Dec.  12  a  third  re- 
form bill  was  brought  forward,  which  passed 
to  a  second  reading  by  162  majority.  The  lords 
passed  it  to-  a  second  reading  by  9  majority, 
April  14,  1832 ;  but  on  May  7,  in  committee, 
they  defeated  the  ministry  by  a  majority  of  35. 
The  court  was  almost  entirely  opposed  to  re- 
form, and  the  king's  mind  had  been  acted  on 
by  most  persons  who  surrounded  him  adverse- 
ly to  the  popular  cause.  He  had  been  averse 
to  the  creation  of  peers,  and  it  was  understood 
that  the  peers  should  allow  the  bill  to  pass. 
This  understanding  having  been  departed  from, 
the  ministry  demanded  a  creation  of  peers 
from  the  king.  He  refused,  and  they  resigned. 
Wellington  undertook  to  form  a  government, 
but  the  house  of  commons  set  itself  in  resolute 
opposition  to  the  duke,  and  advised  the  king  to 
create  as  many  peers  as  should  be  necessary  to 
carry  the  bill  through  the  upper  house.  On 
May  15  the  whigs  announced  their  return  to 
power,  and  in  June  the  lords  passed  the  reform 


116 


PAKLIAMENT 


bill.  Fifty-six  boroughs  that  had  returned  111 
members  were  extinguished ;  30  others  lost  one 
member  each ;  and  2  united  boroughs  that  had 
sent  4  members  were  reduced  to  2.  As  no  re- 
duction of  the  numbers  of  the  lower  house  was 
made,  this  left  143  members  to  be  disposed 
of,  65  of  whom  were  given  to  counties,  22  to 
the  metropolitan  districts  and  other  boroughs 
with  populations  of  25,000  and  upward,  and 
21  to  boroughs  having  12,000  inhabitants  and 
upward.  New  and  great  constituencies  were 
created  in  England  and  Wales.  Numerous  im- 
provements in  elections  were  provided.  In- 
habitancy was  made  the  basis  of  the  borough 
franchise.  Under  certain  regulations  occu- 
pants of  houses  of  the  yearly  value  of  £10 
became  electors.  The  county  franchise  was 
extended  to  copyholders  and  leaseholders,  and 
under  some  circumstances  to  occupiers  of  the 
value  of  40^.,  thus  destroying  the  monopoly  of 
the  freeholders,  who  were  not  allowed  to  vote 
for  both  county  and  borough.  It  was  also  ex- 
tended to  tenants  at  will  of  the  annual  value 
of  £50.  In  1867-8  a  new  reform  bill  was  car- 
ried through  by  the  conservative  ministry  of 
Disraeli.  Under  this,  voters  may  be  classed 
as  follows:  In  counties:  1,  405.  freeholders, 
or  those  owning  property  in  fee  of  that  value 
per  annum ;  2,  those  possessing  an  estate  for 
life  or-lives  of  the  annual  value  of  40$.,  which, 
if  not  occupied  by  them,  must  have  been  pos- 
sessed before  June  7,  1832,  or  must  have  been 
acquired  by  marriage,  marriage  settlement,  or 
devise,  or  by  virtue  of  some  benefice  or  office ; 
3,  those  possessing  an  estate  for  life  or  lives  of 
the  annual  value  of  £5  ;  4,  lessees  for  terms 
not  less  than  60  years  of  the  annual  value  of  £5, 
or  *not  less  than  20  years  of  the  annual  value 
of  £50 ;  5,  occupiers  of  lands  rated  at  £12  per 
annum.  In  boroughs :  1,  the  rated  occupiers 
of  dwelling  houses  within  the  borough  who 
have  duly  paid  their  poor  rates ;  2,  rated  occu- 
piers of  premises  other  than  dwelling  houses 
of  the  annual  value  of  £10;  3,  occupiers  of 
lodgings  of  the  annual  value  of  £10  if  let  un- 
furnished and  in  one  and  the  same  dwelling 
house.  Following  this  reform  bill  others  were 
passed  for  Scotland  and  Ireland,  enlarging  the 
franchise,  but  not  in  entire  conformity  to  that 
in  England.  Voting  for  members  of  parlia- 
ment had  always  been  by  show  of  hands  or 
viva  voce  until,  after  long  agitation,  the  secret 
ballot  was  adopted  under  the  Gladstone  admin- 
istration in  1872.— The  presiding  officer  of  the 
commons  is  called  the  speaker,  who  is  chosen 
by  the  house  from  among  its  own  members, 
subject  to  the  approval  of  the  crown,  holding 
his  office  till  the  dissolution  of  the  parliament 
in  which  he  was  elected.  His  salary  is  £6,000 
a  year,  exclusive  of  a  furnished  residence.  At 
the  end  of  his  official  labors  he  is  generally  re- 
warded with  a  peerage  and  a  pension.  Until 
1853  business  could  not  be  transacted  in  his 
absence;  but  in  August  of  that  year  it  was 
resolved  that,  during  his  unavoidable  absence, 
the   chairman  of    committees  of   the  whole 


house  should  preside  in  his  stead.  Forty  mem- 
bers must  be  present  to  constitute  a  house, 
excepting  when  the  commons  are  summoned 
by  the  sovereign  or  the  royal  commissioners 
to  attend  at  the  bar  of  the.  lords,  which  per 
se  constitutes  a  house,  whether  40  members  be 
present  or  not.  According  to  ancient  practice, 
the  house  always  adjourns  to  10  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  and  should  the  speaker  take  the  chair 
(40  members  being  present)  at  any  time  be- 
tween that  hour  and  4  P.  M.,  the  appointed 
proceedings  may  immediately  commence ;  oth- 
erwise no  business  can  be  transacted  on  that 
day,  and  the  house  will  consequently  adjourn 
to  10  o'clock  A.  M.  on  the  following  day.  The 
present  general  practice  is  to  commence  busi- 
ness at  4  P.  M.,  with  the  exception  of  Wednes- 
days, when  the  house  sits  from  12  to  6.  The 
house  does  not  usually  sit  on  Saturday.  It  was 
an  ancient  privilege  of  the  house  of  commons 
to  judge  of  the  qualification  and  return  of  its 
own  members,  and  this  has  never  seriously 
been  questioned  since  the  quarrel  with  James 
I.  regarding  it  in  1603.  The  royal  proclama- 
tion for  the  election  of  members  to  the  first  par- 
liament of  that  monarch  expressly  commanded 
that  u  care  be  had  that  there  be  not  chosen  any 
persons  bankrupts  or  outlawed;"  and  when 
Sir  Francis  Goodwin,  who  had  been  outlawed 
in  civil  proceedings,  was  chosen  by  the  electors 
of  Bucks,  the  returning  officer  refused  to  re- 
turn him,  and  Sir  John  Fortescue  was  sent  up 
in  his  stead.  Nevertheless  the  house  seated 
Sir  Francis  Goodwin,  and  refused  to  confer 
with  the  lords  on  the  subject,  or  to  defer  to 
the  opinion  of  the  judges  that  his  election  was 
void,  insisting  upon  its  right  to  judge  solely 
and  finally  in  the  premises.  A  prolonged  con- 
troversy took  place,  ending  in  a  compromise 
under  which  a  new  election  was  had.  Under 
recent  legislation,  however,  in  the  belief  that 
the  house  is  an  unsuitable  body  to  try  contest- 
ed questions  of  fact,  election  cases  are  tried 
before  judges  assigned  for  the  purpose.  II. 
Scottish  and  Ikish  Parliaments.  Scotland 
while  an  independent  kingdom  had  a  parlia- 
ment, dating,  it  is  supposed,  from  the  13th 
century,  and  very  similar  at  first  to  that  of 
England,  but  never  like  the  English  divided 
into  two  houses.  It  comprised  the  high  eccle- 
siastics, the  great  nobles,  and  the  representa- 
tives of  the  freeholders  of  the  counties  and  of 
the  citizens  of  the  royal  burghs,  who  all  sat  in 
one  hall.  The  functions  of  a  house  of  lords 
or  higher  house  were  performed  in  some  de- 
gree by  a  committee  called  u  the  lords  of  the 
articles,"  consisting  latterly  of  32  members, 
who  did  all  the  work  of  parliament,  the  house 
doing  scarcely  more  than  to  pass  the  acts  pro- 
posed by  the  committee.  The  Scottish  parlia- 
ment was  abolished  by  the  legislative  union  of 
Scotland  with  England  in  1707. — In  Ireland  a 
parliament  was  formed  by  the  English  settlers 
toward  the  end  of  the  13th  century,  but  it  was 
not  till  the  reign  of  James  I.  that  the  whole 
island  was  represented.     The  Irish  parliament, 


PARLIAMENTARY  LAW  AND  PKIYILEGES 


117 


however,  was  held  to  he  subordinate  to  that 
of  England  till  1783,  when  its  exclusive  au- 
thority in  matters  of  legislation  and  judicature 
for  Ireland  was  formally  admitted.  Its  brief 
independence  and  its  existence,  however,  ter- 
minated in  1800  by  the  union  of  Ireland  with 
Great  Britain.  III.  Fbenoh  Paeliaments. 
These  bodies  were  supreme  courts  of  law,  and 
were  established  at  successive  periods  in  the 
principal  cities  of  the  kingdom.  The  most 
ancient  and  important  was  the  parliament  of 
Paris,  the  foundation  of  which  is  ascribed  to 
Louis  VII.  about  the  middle  of  the  12th  cen- 
tury. It  was  at  first  a  court  of  justice  which 
accompanied  the  kiDg  wherever  he  went,  till 
Philip  the  Fair  fixed  it  at  Paris  by  an  ordi- 
nance dated  March  23,  1302.  The  other  prin- 
cipal parliaments  of  France  were  instituted 
in  the  following  order  :  Toulouse,  1302  ;  Gre- 
noble, 1451 ;  Bordeaux,  1462 ;  Burgundy,  1497 
(established  in  Dijon,  1494) ;  Aix,  1501 ;  Bouen, 
1499  and  1515;  Rennes,  1553;  Pau,  1620; 
Metz,  1633  ;  Besancon  (at  first  at  Dole),  1676  ; 
Douai  (at  first  at  Tournay),  1713.  The  chief 
officers  of  these  bodies  were  a  first  president 
and  nine  presidents  d  mortier,  as  they  were 
called  from  the  shape  of  their  caps.  The 
parliaments  received  appeals  from  the  lower 
tribunals,  and  had  jurisdiction  over  causes  re- 
lating to  peers,  bishops,  seneschals,  chapters, 
communities,  and  bailiwicks ;  and  they  regis- 
tered the  laws,  edicts,  and  orders  promulgated 
by  the  king.  The  members  of  these  courts 
were  at  first  appointed  by  the  crown.  Francis 
I.  introduced  the  practice  of  selling  seats  in 
them,  and  they  continued  thenceforth  to  be 
objects  of  purchase.  The  parliament  of  Paris, 
which  was  at  first  merely  judicial,  gradual- 
ly assumed  a  considerable  degree  of  political 
power.  It  frequently  refused  to  register  laws 
which  it  did  not  approve,  and  held  spirited 
contests  with  the  crown  on  some  occasions. 
But  the  king  had  the  right  to  compel  it  to 
register  his  decrees  by  appearing  in  person  in 
the  court  and  giving  the  order  to  register,  a 
proceeding  which,  from  some  of  the  attendant 
forms,  was  called  holding  a  bed  of  justice. 
The  parliament  of  Paris  played  an  important 
part  in  the  troubles  of  the  Fronde  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV.,  and  also 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  reign  of  his  successor. 
It  was  finally  suppressed,  with  all  the  other 
parliaments  of  France,  by  a  decree  of  the  con- 
stituent assembly,  Sept.  7,  1790. 

PARLIAMENTARY  LAW  AND  PRIVILEGES.  In 
the  gradual  establishment  of  parliamentary 
government  in  England  the  customary  meth- 
ods of  doing  business  by  the  two  houses  have 
resulted  in  rules  of  procedure  which  constitute 
a  common  law  of  parliament,  and  are  recog- 
nized and  enforced  as  obligatory.  These  rules 
supplement  the  written  laws  of  parliamentary 
procedure  much  as  the  general  common  law 
of  the  land  supplements  the  general  statutes. 
At  the  same  time  certain  privileges  necessary 
to  the  proper  independence  of  the  legislature 


and  to  the  free  and  unobstructed  discharge  of 
legislative  duties  have  also  become  established, 
which  are  defined  by  the  same  customary  law, 
and  evidenced  by  parliamentary  precedents. 
Among  the  most  important  of  these  privileges 
is  that  of  each  house  to  judge  of  the  election 
and  qualification  of  its  own  members.  The 
house  of  commons  cannot  therefore  intermed- 
dle with  questions  concerning  the  election  or 
qualification  of  Irish  or  Scotch  peers,  neither 
will  it  permit  the  house  of  lords  to  question 
its  own  action  in  the  admission  or  rejection  of 
those  claiming  seats  therein.  Until  the  acces- 
sion of  the  house  of  Stuart  to  the  throne  it  was 
not  very  definitely  settled  what  authority,  if 
any,  the  executive  had  to  prescribe  the  quali- 
fications of  members  to  the  lower  house,  or  to 
judge  of  the  returns  ;  but  James  I.  having  un- 
dertaken by  the  writs  issued  for  his  first  par- 
liament to  exclude  bankrupts  and  outlawed 
persons,  the  house  insisted  upon  its  own  right 
in  the  premises  as  being  ample  and  exclusive, 
and  admitted  Sir  Francis  Goodwin,  who  had 
been  outlawed  in  civil  proceedings,  and  whom 
for  that  reason  the  sheriff  had  refused  to  re- 
turn. Although  the  controversy  with  the  king 
that  sprung  up  in  consequence  was  finally  de- 
termined by  a  compromise,  the  case  is  regarded 
as  having  settled  the  right  beyond  dispute. 
Another  privilege  is  that  of  the  members  to 
exemption  from  arrest  or  detention  on  the  pro- 
cess of  courts  during  attendance  upon  its  ses- 
sions, and  for  a  reasonable  time  before  and 
after  the  session  for  going  to  and  returning 
from  the  same.  This  privilege  extends  to  all 
civil  process  including  subpoenas  ad  testifican- 
dum, and  to  all  criminal  process  except  on 
charges  of  treason,  felony,  or  breach  of  the 
peace.  Another  privilege  is  that  of  complete 
exemption  of  the  members  from  being  ques- 
tioned elsewhere  for  words  uttered  in  debate 
or  as  members  of  committees  in  the  discharge 
of  their  duties.  This,  like  the  last,  is  the  priv- 
ilege not  of  the  individual  members  alone, 
but  of  the  house  itself;  and  any  violation  of 
it,  whether  by  means  of  judicial  process  or  by 
lawless  violence,  may  be  punished  as  a  con- 
tempt of  the  house.  Each  house  has  also  a 
right  to  judge  of  its  own  privilege,  and  in 
general  its  decision  must  be  final,  though  it  is 
quite  possible  that  parliament,  like  any  judi- 
cial tribunal,  even  the  highest,  may  so  clearly 
exceed  its  jurisdiction  that  its  process  may 
be  treated  as  a  nullity.  Such  a  case  was  ad- 
judged to  have  arisen  a  few  years  ago,  when 
the  house  of  commons  proceeded  to  punish 
sheriffs  as  for  contempt  in  executing  the  pro- 
cess of  courts  in  a  suit  brought  against  its 
printer  for  an  alleged  libel.  The  libel  was  con- 
tained in  a  report  made  to  the  house,  and  that 
body  insisted  upon  its  right  to  cause  its  publi- 
cation, and  to  protect  those  who  should  make 
it  in  obedience  to  its  order.  The  courts,  how- 
ever, denied  that  the  publication  of  a  libel  could 
be  justified  on  the  order  of  the  house,  and  dis- 
charged the  sheriff  from  custody;  but  an  act 


118 


PARLIAMENTARY  LAW  AND  PRIVILEGES 


was  at  once  passed  which  established  the  privi- 
lege the  house  had  insisted  upon.  The  Eng- 
lish courts  have  also  held  that  though  a  member 
was  privileged  in  his  utterances  in  the  house, 
yet  if  his  speech  was  libellous  and  he  afterward 
published  it  for  general  distribution,  this  pub- 
lication was  not  privileged.  Another  privilege 
of  each  house  is  to  protect  itself  against  any- 
thing calculated  to  impede  or  disturb  the  regu- 
lar course  of  legislation.  Disorder  during  one 
of  the  sessions  might  be  such  an  impediment, 
and  so  might  be  the  attempt  to  bribe  a  mem- 
ber, or  to  influence  his  action  by  threats.  So 
also  might  be  the  refusal  of  a  witness  to  give 
evidence  before  a  committee,  or  the  divulging 
by  a  member  of  any  of  the  secrets  of  the  house 
in  violation  of  its  injunctions,  or  an  attempt  to 
influence  the  action  of  the  house  by  reporting 
the  opinion  Or  pretended  opinion  of  the  execu- 
tive on  any  measure  or  proceedings  pending 
therein.  To  enumerate  all  the  privileges  of 
parliament  is  something  it  has  never  attempt- 
ed for  itself.  Blackstone  says  :  "  Privilege  of 
parliament  was  principally  established  in  order 
to  protect  its  members  not  only  from  being 
molested  by  their  fellow  subjects,  but  also  more 
especially  from  being  oppressed  by  the  power 
of  the  crown.  If  therefore  all  the  privileges 
of  parliament  were  once  to  be  set  down  and 
ascertained,  and  no  privilege  to  be  allowed  but 
what  was  so  defined  and  determined,  it  were 
easy  for  the  executive  power  to  devise  some 
new  case,  not  within  the  line  of  privilege,  and 
under  pretence  thereof  to  harass  any  refrac- 
tory member,  and  violate  the  freedom  of  par- 
liament." And  these  privileges  can  only  be 
preserved  intact  by  ample  authority  in  parlia- 
ment to  punish  all  breaches  thereof  under  its 
own  regulations  and  by  the  aid  of  officers  sub- 
ject to  its  own  exclusive  control. — The  custom- 
ary law  of  parliament  has  been  tacitly  adopted 
in  this  country,  and  its  leading  rules  and  princi- 
ples were  embodied  and  illustrated  in  a  manual 
by  Mr.  Jefferson,  prepared  by  him  while  pre- 
siding officer  of  the  senate,  and  which  has  been 
a  standard  authority  ever  since,  though  in  a 
measure  superseded  by  the  more  elaborate  work 
of  Mr.  L.  S.  Gushing  on  the  "Law  and  Prac- 
tice of  Legislative  Assemblies."  So  much  im- 
portance is  attached  to  legislative  privileges  in 
this  country,  and  so  imperative  the  necessity 
to  protect  them  against  encroachments  from 
any  quarter,  that  the  leading  privileges  are 
usually  declared  by  constitution ;  but  without 
such  declaration  all  customary  privileges  are 
covered  by  the  constitutional  principle  which 
recognizes  and  protects  the  independence  of 
each  department  of  the  government  within 
the  sphere  of  its  proper  action. — Without  ex- 
press adoption,  the  congressional  rules  of  or- 
der and  procedure  are  understood  as  in  force 
for  all  deliberative  bodies,  except  as  changed 
by  their  own  voluntary  action  or  other  com- 
petent legislation.  Even  political  conventions 
and  voluntary  associations  of  every  nature, 
when  acting  as  organized  bodies,  are  expected 


to  recognize  and  obey  the  same  rules,  unless 
provided  with  a  code  of  their  own.  Thus  in 
an  American  assembly  having  no  special  rules 
for  conducting  business,  the  motion  to  adjourn 
would  be  undebatable  as  in  congress,  notwith- 
standing the  English  parliamentary  law  to  the 
contrary ;  so  if  the  previous  question  were  neg- 
atived, the  debate  upon  the  subject  would 
continue  as  in  congress,  whereas  in  parliament 
the  subject  would  be  immediately  dismissed. 
An  assembly  should  be  organized  by  the  elec- 
tion of  at  least  two  officers:  1,  a  chairman  or 
president,  whose  duty  it  is  to  preside,  to  an- 
nounce the  business  in  its  order,  to  state  and 
put  all  questions  properly  brought  before  the 
assembly,  and  to  preserve  order  and  decorum 
and  decide  all  questions  of  order  (subject  to  an 
appeal),  and  who  can  vote  in  case  of  a  ballot 
or  where  his  vote  would  affect  the  result ;  2, 
a  clerk  or  secretary,  whose  duty  it  is  to  keep 
the  record  of  the  proceedings  and  to  have  the 
custody  of  all  papers  in  the  possession  of  the 
assembly.  It  is  a  common  practice  in  political 
meetings  to  organize  temporarily,  and  then 
refer  the  subject  of  permanent  organization, 
selection  of  officers,  &c,  to  a  committee,  upon 
whose  report  the  meeting  organizes.  It  is  not 
unusual  to  elect  one  or  more  vice  presidents 
and  several  secretaries.  In  some  legislative 
bodies,  as  the  senate  of  the  United  States  and 
some  of  the  state  senates,  the  presiding  officer 
is  not  a  member;  in  others,  as  the  national 
house  of  representatives  and  the  senate  of 
Massachusetts,  he  is  chosen  by  and  from  among 
the  members.  A  quorum  of  members  is  neces- 
sary to  the  transaction  of  business.  The  num- 
ber requisite  to  a  quorum  is  usually  fixed  by 
law ;  if  not,  a  majority  of  the  members  of  the 
assembly  is  essential.  Business  is  brought  be- 
fore the  assembly  either  by  a  communication 
to  it  or  by  a  motion  of  a  member.  In  order  to 
make  a  motion,  it  is  necessary  for  the  member 
to  rise  and  address  the  chairman  by  his  title, 
and  for  the  chairman  to  recognize  him,  which 
is  usually  done  by  announcing  his  name;  if 
required  by  the  chairman,  the  motion  must  be 
in  writing.  When  made  it  must  be  seconded 
by  another  member  to  entitle  it  to  any  notice  ; 
when  it  is  seconded,  the  chairman  states  the 
question  to  the  assembly,  and  it  is  then  for- 
mally before  the  body  to  be  disposed  of  as  they 
see  fit.  In  order  to  dispose  of  the  question 
properly,  various  motions  have  come  into  use, 
which  can  be  classified  as  follows :  1.  To  mod- 
ify. If  it  is  desired  to  modify  the  question 
in  any  way,  the  proper  motion  to  make  is  to 
amend  either  by  adding  words,  by  striking  out, 
or  by  striking  out  certain  words  and  inserting 
others,  or  by  substituting  a  different  motion 
on  the  same  subject,  or  by  dividing  the  ques- 
tion into  two  or  more  questions  which  the 
mover  specifies,  so  as  to  get  a  separate  vote  on 
any  particular  point.  When  this  motion  to 
amend  has  been  made,  seconded,  and  stated  by 
the  chairman,  it  takes  the  place  for  the  time 
being  of  the  original  question,  and  debate  must 


PARLIAMENTARY  LAW  AND  PRIVILEGES 


119 


be  confined  to  its  merits.  This  amendment 
can  itself  be  amended,  but  the  amendment  of 
an  amendment  cannot  be  amended.  If  the 
original  question  needs  more  amendment  than 
can  well  be  made  in  the  assembly,  it  is  then 
moved  to  refer  it  to  a  committee,  and  this  mo- 
tion can  be  made  even  while  an  amendment  is 
pending.  2.  To  defer  action.  When  it  is  de- 
sired to  defer  action  upon  the  question  till  a 
particular  time,  a  motion  is  made  to  postpone 
the  question  to  that  time ;  it  can  be  made  when 
either  of  the  previous  motions  is  pending,  and 
can  be  amended  by  altering  the  time.  A  mo- 
tion that  a  question  lie  on  the  table  is  used 
when  it  is  desired  to  lay  the  question  aside 
temporarily  and  at  the  same  time  retain  the 
privilege  of  taking  it  up  at  any  moment.  This 
motion  is  frequently  used  to  destroy  or"  kill " 
a  measure  when  it  is  known  that  a  sufficient 
vote  cannot  be  obtained  to  take  it  up  during 
that  session.  It  can  be  made  when  any  of  the 
previous  motions  are  pending.  3.  To  suppress 
debate.  The  usual  method  of  stopping  debate 
is  for  a  friend  of  the  measure  to  call  for  the 
previous  question,  which  if  ordered  brings  the 
assembly  at  once  to  a  vote  on  the  questions  be- 
fore it,  in  their  order,  until  the  main  question 
is  finally  disposed  of.  If  any  one  of  the  fol- 
lowing motions  is  pending,  the  previous  ques- 
tion is  exhausted  by  the  vote  on  it,  and  does 
not  cut  off  debate  on  any  other  motion  that 
may  be  pending,  viz. :  to  postpone  to  a  certain 
time,  to  postpone  indefinitely,  to  reconsider, 
and  an  appeal.  The  chairman  states  this  ques- 
tion as  follows :  "  Shall  the  main  question  be 
now  put  ? "  If  it  fails,  the  debate  continues. 
Other  methods  of  stopping  debate  are  to  adopt 
motions  limiting  the  time  allowed  each  speaker 
or  the  number  of  speeches  on  each  side,  or  to 
appoint  a  time  at  which  debate  must  cease  and 
the  question  be  put.  In  ordinary  societies, 
where  harmony  is  important,  a  two-thirds  vote 
is  usually  required  for  the  adoption  of  any  of 
the  above  motions  to  cut  off  debate.  4.  To 
suppress  the  question.  As  soon  as  a  motion 
is  introduced,  before  it  has  been  debated,  and 
only  then,  any  member  can  object  to  the  con- 
sideration of  the  question ;  this  requiring  no 
second,  the  chairman  instantly  puts  the  ques- 
tion, "Will  the  assembly  consider  it?"  or, 
"Shall  the  question  be  discussed? "  and  if  nega- 
tived the  question  is  dismissed  for  the  session. 
In  ordinary  meetings  whose  sessions  are  short, 
and  where  but  few  subjects  can  be  considered, 
this  motion  is  necessary  to  suppress  irrele- 
vant, useless,  or  contentious  questions.  But  it 
should  require  a  two-thirds  vote  to  suppress  a 
question  without  debate.  In  congress  the  ques- 
tion is  put  as  follows:  "Will  the  house  now 
consider  it? "  and  a  negative  vote  dismisses  the 
question  for  the  time.  The  motion  to  postpone 
indefinitely  is  the  usual  one  to  suppress  a  ques- 
tion for  the  whole  session,  and  the  only  one 
available  after  the  question  has  been  debated. 
It  cannot  be  made  while  any  motion  is  pending 
except  the  original  or  main  question,  and  yields 


to  all  other  motions  mentioned  except  to  amend. 
A  motion  to  lay  on  the  table  is  often  used  for 
this  purpose,  and,  if  there  is  no  possibility  of 
obtaining  during  the  session  a  sufficient  vote 
to  take  it  from  the  table,  it  is  the  preferable 
one  because  of  its  high  rank  and  its  being  un- 
debatable.  5.  To  consider  a  question  a  second 
time.  When  a  question  has  been  once  adopted, 
rejected,  or  suppressed,  it  cannot  be  again  con- 
sidered in  the  same  session  except  by  a  motion 
to  reconsider;  and  this  motion  can  only  be 
made  by  one  who  voted  on  the  prevailing  side 
and  on  the  day  the  vote  was  taken  which  it  is 
proposed  to  reconsider.  In  congress  it  can  be 
made  on  the  next  day,  and  if  the  yeas  and  nays 
were  not  taken  on  the  vote  it  can  be  made  by 
any  one.  It  can  be  made  and  entered  on  the 
record  in  the  midst  of  debate,  even  when  an- 
other member  has  the  floor ;  but  it  cannot  be 
considered  until  there  is  no  question  before  the 
assembly,  when,  if  called  up,  it  takes  prece- 
dence of  every  motion  except  to  adjourn  and 
to  fix  the  time  to  which  to  adjourn.  The  rule 
prohibiting  the  renewal  of  a  motion  does  not 
apply  to  the  motion  to  adjourn,  which  can  be 
renewed  if  there  has  been  mere  progress  in  de- 
bate. The  subsidiary  motions  already  described 
can  be  again  introduced  if  the  question  has 
changed  in  either  matter  or  form.  6.  Order 
and  rules.  If  the  assembly  has  directed  that 
certain  questions  shall  be  considered  at  a  cer- 
tain time,  when  that  time  arrives  any  member 
can  call  for  the  order  of  the  day ;  and  as  it  re- 
quires no  second,  the  chairman  must  at  once 
put  the  question  whether  the  assembly  will  now 
take  up  the  order  of  the  day ;  if  it  is  carried, 
the  subject  under  consideration  is  laid  aside, 
and  the  questions  appointed  for  that  time  are 
taken  up  in  their  order.  But  where  there  is  a 
rule  adopted,  it  must  be  enforced  by  the  chair- 
man without  any  question,  and  a  motion  to 
suspend  the  rules  for  a  particular  purpose  must 
be  adopted  by  a  two-thirds  vote  in  order  to  al- 
low that  particular  thing  to  be  done  if  it  con- 
flicts with  the  rules.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  chair- 
man to  announce  the  business  in  its  order,  to 
enforce  the  rules,  and  preserve  order ;  and  when 
any  member  notices  a  violation  of  order,  he  can 
call  for  the  enforcement  of  the  rules.  While 
in  all  such  cases  the  chairman  first  decides  the 
question,  any  member  can  appeal  from  his  de- 
cision ;  and  if  the  appeal  is  seconded,  the  chair- 
man states  the  question  thus*:  "  Shall  the  de- 
cision of  the  chair  stand  as  the  judgment  of 
the  assembly?"  The  chairman  can  speak  to 
the  question  without  leaving  the  chair,  which  is 
prohibited  in  all  other  cases.  7.  Miscellaneous. 
If  a  speaker  wishes  to  read  a  paper,  or  a  mem- 
ber to  withdraw  his  motion  after  it  has  been 
stated  by  the  chair,  it  is  necessary,  if  any  one 
objects,  to  make  a  motion  to  grant  permission. 
8.  To  close  the  meeting.  If  it  is  desired  to 
have  an  adjourned  meeting  of  the  assembly,  it 
is  best  some  time  before  its  close  to  move  to  fix 
the  time  to  which  the  assembly  shall  adjourn. 
The  question  is  of  this  form :  "  That  when  this 


120        PARLIAMENTARY  LAW 


PARMA 


assembly  adjourns,  it  adjourn  to  meet,"  &c., 
specifying  the  time.  A  motion  to  amend  by 
altering  the  time  can  be  made.  This  motion 
takes  precedence  of  all  others.  When  it  is 
desired  to  close  the  meeting,  a  member  moves 
to  adjourn,  which,  if  unqualified,  takes  prece- 
dence of  every  motion  but  the  preceding  one. 
— Debate  must  be  confined  to  the  question  be- 
fore the  assembly,  the  remarks  being  always 
addressed  to  the  chairman  and  personalities 
avoided.  The  following  motions  are  undeba- 
table,  and  excepting  the  first  one  they,  togeth- 
er with  the  motion  to  postpone  indefinitely, 
cannot  be  amended :  to  fix  the  time  to  which 
to  adjourn  ;  to  adjourn,  when  unqualified ; 
a  call  for  the  order,  of  the  day ;  questions  re- 
lating to  the  priority  of  business,  or  withdraw- 
ing a  motion,  or  reading  papers,  or  suspending 
the  rules ;  an  appeal,  if  it  relates  merely  to  in- 
decorum or  transgressions  of  the  rules  of  speak- 
ing, or  if  made  while  the  previous  question  is 
pending;  an  objection  to  the  consideration  of 
a  question;  to  lay  on  the  table,  and  to  take 
from  the  table ;  the  previous  question ;  and  to 
reconsider  a  question  which  is  itself  undeba- 
table.  All  other  questions  are  debatable,  but 
debate  is  very  limited  on  the  motion  to  post- 
pone to  a  certain  time,  being  confined  to  the 
propriety  of  the  postponement ;  while  on  the 
other  hand  the  motions  to  commit,  to  postpone 
indefinitely,  and  to  reconsider  a  debatable  ques- 
tion, open  for  discussion  the  entire  merits  of 
the  original  question. — In  regard  to  precedence, 
the  ordinary  motions  rank  as  follows,  and  any 
motion,  except  to  amend,  can  be  made  while 
one  of  a  lower  order  is  pending,  but  none  can 
supersede  one  of  a  higher  order:  to  fix  the 
time  to  which  to  adjourn ;  to  adjourn,  when 
unqualified;  a  call  for  the  order  of  the  day; 
to  lay  on  the  table ;  the  previous  question ;  to 
postpone  to  a  certain  time ;  to  commit,  amend, 
or  postpone  indefinitely.  The  privilege  of  a 
reconsideration  has  been  explained  under  that 
motion.  The  other  motions  are  incidental  to 
any  question,  and  take  precedence  of  and  must 
be  decided  before  the  questions  which  gave  rise 
to  them. — In  order  to  facilitate  business,  it  is 
customary  in  all  deliberative  assemblies  to  form 
committees,  whose  duty  it  is  to  consider  and 
report  upon  the  subjects  referred  to  them.  The 
members  are  usually  appointed  by  the  presiding 
officer,  but  are  sometimes  elected  by  the  as- 
sembly. Sometimes  the  assembly  resolves  it- 
self into  a  committee  of  the  whole  for  the  con- 
sideration of  a  particular  subject.  In  this  case 
the  chairman  is  usually  named  by  the  presiding 
officer  of  the  assembly,  but  he  may  be  chosen 
by  the  committee. — In  the  ordinary  course  of 
legislation  in  congress,  a  bill  is  introduced  into 
the  house  of  representatives  or  senate,  on  the 
report  of  a  committee,  or  on  motion  for  leave 
by  a  member  after  having  given  at  least  one 
day's  notice.  It  must  then  be  read  three  times 
on  as  many  different  days,  unless  it  is  other- 
wise specially  ordered.  Usually,  however,  the 
second  reading  immediately  follows  the  first, 


it  being  taken  for  granted  that  it  is  by  special 
order.  After  the  second  reading  the  merits  of 
the  bill  are  usually  discussed,  and  it  is  deter- 
mined whether  it  shall  be  referred  to  a  com- 
mittee, amended,  or  engrossed.  If  ordered  to 
be  engrossed,  a  day  is  appointed  for  the  third 
reading.  Having  been  read  a  third  time,  the 
question  is  whether  the  bill  shall  be  passed. 
The  second  and  third  readings  are  commonly 
effected  by  simply  reading  the  title.  If  the  bill 
pass,  it  is  certified  by  the  clerk  and  sent  to  the 
other  house.  Having  been  passed  by  that  body, 
it  is  enrolled  on  parchment,  examined  by  a 
joint  committee  of  two  from  each  house,  sign- 
ed by  the  speaker  of  the  house  and  the  presi- 
dent of  the  senate,  presented  to  the  president 
of  the  United  States,  and  upon  receiving  his 
signature  becomes  a  law.  If  it  is  vetoed,  it  is 
returned  to  that  house  in  which  it  originated, 
and  by  receiving  a  two-thirds  vote  of  each 
house  will  become  a  law  without  the  executive 
approval.  If  not  returned  by  the  president 
within  ten  days  (Sundays  excepted)  after  pre- 
sentation to  him,  it  becomes  a  law,  unless  con- 
gress by  adjournment  prevent  its  return.  The 
procedure  in  regard  to  the  progress  of  a  bill  is 
generally  the  same  in  the  state  legislatures. — 
See  Cushing's  "Manual"  (184V);  "Digest  of 
Eules  and  Practice  of  the  House  of  Represen- 
tatives of  the  United  States,"  by  I.  M.  Barclay 
(1868);  "Digest  of  Parliamentary  Law,"  by 
O.  M.  Wilson  (1869) ;  "  The  Pocket  Manual  of 
Rules  of  Order  for  Deliberative  Assemblies," 
by  H.  M.  Robert  (1875);  and  "Warrington's 
Manual,"  by  W.  S.  Robinson  (Boston,  1875). 

PARMA.  I.  A  1ST.  province  of  Italy,  in  the 
Emilia,  separated  N".  by  the  Po  from  Cre- 
mona, E.  by  the  Enza  from  Reggio,  S.  by  the 
Apennines  from  Massa  e  Carrara  and  Genoa, 
and  bounded  N".  W.  by  Piacenza;  area,  1,251 
sq.  m.;  pop.  in  1872,  264,381.  More  than 
half  the  province  is  covered  by  ridges  of  the 
Apennines,  some  of  the  mountains  being  over 
6,000  ft.  high;  one  fifth  of  the  territory  is 
hilly,  and  the  rest  consists  of  fertile  plains. 
The  principal  rivers  are  the  Po  and  its  afflu- 
ents the  Taro  and  Enza.  The  agricultural 
products,  though  considerable,  are  not  quite 
sufficient  for  the  population.  The  most  abun- 
dant productions  are  wine,  oil,  fruits,  rice, 
timber,  marble,  alabaster,  copper,  and  salt. 
The  principal  manufacture  is  of  silk.  Dairy 
products,  particularly  the  celebrated  Parmesan 
cheese,  are  largely  exported.  The  province 
comprises  the  districts  of  Parma,  Borgo  San- 
donino,  and  Borgotaro. — Under  the  Romans, 
who  subdued  this  territory  in  184  B.  C,  it 
formed  part  of  Cisalpine  Gaul.  After  the  fall 
of  the  western  empire  it  was  held  succes- 
sively by  the  Ostrogoths,  the  Longobards,  and 
by  Charlemagne,  who  ceded  it  to  the  pope. 
It  became  independent  during  the  wars  be- 
tween the  holy  see  and  the  German  emperors, 
and  afterward  passed  under  the  dominion  of 
local  dynasties,  until  in  1346  it  fell  into  the 
hands  of  the  Visconti  of  Milan.    In  1511  the 


PARMA 


PARMENIO 


121 


congress  of  Mantua  restored  it  to  Pope  Julius 
II.  After  being  for  a  while  occupied  by  the 
French  under  Francis  I.,  it  was  in  1545  be- 
stowed by  Pope  Paul  III.  upon  his  natural  son 
Pietro  Luigi  Farnese,  whose  successors  held 
the  duchies  of  Parma  and  Piacenza  till  1731, 
when  the  male  line  became  extinct.  Eliza- 
beth Farnese,  the  wife  of  Philip  V.  of  Spain, 
now  obtained  the  duchies  as  a  fief  for  her  son 
Don  Carlos ;  but  when  he  became  king  of  the 
Two  Sicilies  they  were  annexed  to  Austria. 
The  treaty  of  Aix-la-Ohapelle  (1748)  gave  the 
duchies,  along  with  Guastalla,  to  Don  Philip, 
brother  of  Don  Carlos.  Philip  was  succeeded  in 
1765  by  his  son  Ferdinand,  who  was  permitted 
to  retain  the  territories  even  after  the  French 
invasion  and  until  1801,  when  the  treaty  of 
Luneville  gave  to  his  son  Louis  the  grand  duchy 
of  Tuscany  and  the  title  of  king  of  Etruria, 
instead  of  his  father's  duchies.  On  Ferdi- 
nand's death  in  1802,  France  incorporated  them 
under  the  name  of  the  department  of  the  Taro, 
although  the  formal  annexation  of  Parma  and 
Piacenza  was  not  effected  till  July,  1805,  and 
in  1806  Guastalla  was  annexed  to  the  French 
kingdom  of  Italy.  The  three  duchies  were  be- 
stowed in  1814  upon  the  ex-empress  of  France 
Maria  Louisa.  To  meet  the  objections  of  Spain 
a  separate  treaty  (June,  1817)  vested  the  suc- 
cession to  the  duchies  on  Maria  Louisa's  death 
in  the  descendants  of  the  infanta  of  Spain  (the 
queen  of  Etruria),  who  in  the  interval  became 
ruler  of  Lucca ;  but  after  the  extinction  of  the 
house  of  Lucca  the  duchy  of  Piacenza  was  to 
revert  to  Sardinia  and  Parma  to  Austria,  which 
latter  power  was  in  the  mean  time  authorized 
to  retain  all  the  territory  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Po  and  to  garrison  the  fortress  of  Piacenza. 
Maria  Louisa  left  Parma  in  consequence  of  the 
revolutionary  movements  in  1846,  and  after 
her  death  in  December,  1847,  Duke  Charles  of 
Lucca  reigned  in  Parma  and  Piacenza  till  the 
revolution  of  1848,  when  the  country  was  for 
a  short  time  occupied  by  Sardinian  troops. 
The  defeat  of  Charles  Albert  soon  restored 
the  duke,  who  resigned  in  favor  of  his  son 
Charles  III.  in  1849.  The  latter  was  assassi- 
nated in  March,  1854,  and  his  minor  son  Rob- 
ert succeeded  him  under  the  regency  of  his 
mother,  a  sister  of  the  count  de  Chambord, 
whose  administration  was  not  unpopular.  The 
victories  of  the  allied  French  and  Sardinians 
in  1859  put  an  end  to  the  rule  of  the  house  of 
Lucca.  Parma  and  Piacenza  became  part  in 
1860  of  the  kingdom  of  Sardinia,  and  in  1861 
of  that  of  Italy,  forming  now  two  distinct  prov- 
inces. (See  Faenese.)  II.  A  city,  capital  of 
the  province,  12  m.  S.  of  the  Po  and  70  m.  S. 
E.  of  Milan;  pop.  in  1872,  45,511.  The  river 
Parma  passes  through  the  city,  and  is  crossed 
by  three  bridges.  Parma  is  divided  into  two 
almost  equal  parts  by  the  Via  iEmilia.  The 
most  celebrated  building  is  the  Farnese  palace, 
containing  a  large  theatre  and  the  academy 
of  sciences,  valuable  collections,  and  a  library 
with  140,000  volumes.     In  a  hall  of  the  li- 


brary is  one  of  Correggio's  frescoes.  The  pal- 
ace contains  also  a  museum  of  antiquities  and 
the  public  printing  establishment,  where  more 
than  50,000  of  Bodoni's  models  of  types  are 
preserved.  There  are  three  other  notable  pal- 
aces in  the  city.  The  cathedral  is  an  impo- 
sing edifice  in  the  Lombard  style,  with  Cor- 
reggio's "Assumption  of  the  Virgin"  and  oth- 
er fine  works.  The  church  of  Madonna  della 
Steccata  is  built  after  the  model  of  St.  Peter's, 
and  contains  "Moses"  and  other  paintings  by 
Parmigiano,  and  tombs  of  the  Farnese  family. 
San  Giovanni  Evangelista  has  also  good  works 
of  art.  The  baptistery,  built  between  1196  and 
1281,  is  one  of  the  most  splendid  in  Italy;  it  is 
built  entirely  of  red  and  gray  Veronese  marble, 
is  encircled  with  four  tiers  of  open  galleries 
outside,  and  has  a  painted  dome.  The  university 
contains  an  observatory  and  cabinet  of  natural 
history.  It  was  attended  in  1875  by  upward  of 
300  students.  A  superior  school  of  engraving 
was  established  in  1860.  In  the  S.  E.  part  of 
the  city  are  the  citadel  and  the  botanic  gar- 
dens. Parma  is  a  city  of  palaces  and  beautiful 
gardens,  but  singularly  lifeless  except  during 
the  annual  fair  in  June  for  the  sale  of  silk, 
the  principal  article  of  trade. — The  construc- 
tion of  the  Via  iEmilia  gave  to  Parma  some 
importance  under  the  Romans,  but  it  was  de- 
vastated by  Mark  Antony  in  43  B.  C.  A  set- 
tlement of  Goths  was  formed  here  by  Gratian 
in  A.  D.  377.  During  the  middle  ages  it  rose 
to  importance  among  the  capitals  of  Italy,  and 
it  was  exceedingly  brilliant  under  some  of  the 
princes  of  the  house  of  Farnese.  Petrarch  re- 
sided here  in  1341-2,  and  Amadio  Ronchini 
published  on  occasion  of  the  celebration  of  the 
poet's  anniversary  in  1874  La  dimora  del  Pe- 
trarca  in  Parma  (Modena,  1874). 

PARMA,  Alessandro  Farnese,  duke  of.  See 
Faenese. 

PARMEGIAXO.    See  Paemigiano. 

PARMENIDES,  a  Grecian  philosopher,  born 
in  Elea  in  Italy  about  513  B.  C.  He  was  the 
instructor  of  Empedocles  and  Zeno.  He  went 
to  Athens  at  the  age  of  65,  and  Plato  called 
him  "the  great,"  and  Aristotle  deemed  him 
the  chief  of  the  Eleatics.  His  philosophical 
opinions  (see  Eleatio  School)  are  embodied 
in  a  hexameter  poem  "  On  Nature,"  fragments 
of  which  have  been  published  by  Fiilleborn 
(Zurich,  1795),  by  Peyron  (Leipsic,  1810),  and 
by  Karsten  in  PMlosophorum  Grcecorum  Vete- 
rum  Reliquiae  (Brussels,  1835). 

PARMENIO,  a  Macedonian  general,  born  about 
400  B.  C,  killed  in  330.  He  was  the  favorite 
of  Philip  of  Macedon.  He  defeated  the  Illy- 
rians  in  356,  upheld  the  Macedonian  influence 
in  Eubcea  in  342,  and  in  336  was  sent  with 
an  army  into  Asia.  When  Alexander  invaded 
Asia,  he  was  made  second  in  command,  and 
led  the  left  wing  in  the  battles  of  the  Granicus, 
Issus,  and  Arbela.  While  the  king  was  pur- 
suing Darius  in  Parthia  and  Hyrcania,  he  com- 
pleted the  subjugation*  of  Media ;  but  in  the 
mean  time  his  son  Philotas  was  accused  of  con- 


122 


PARMIGIANO 


PAROPAMISAN  MOUNTAINS 


spiring  against  Alexander's  life,  and  when  put 
to  the  torture  implicated  his  father.  Alexan- 
der caused  the  veteran  to  be  assassinated. 

PARMIGIANO,  or  Parmigianino,  an  Italian  paint- 
er, whose  real  name  was  Francesco  Mazzuola, 
or  Mazzola,  born  in  Parma  in  1503  or  1504, 
died  in  Oasal  Maggiore,  Aug.  24, 1540.  In  his 
16th  year  he  produced  a  picture  of  the  "  Bap- 
tism of  Christ."  His  first  works  were  in  the 
style  of  Oorreggio.  In  his  20th  year  he  went 
to  Rome,  where  Clement  VII.,  Cardinal  Ip- 
polito  de'  Medici,  and  others  employed  him, 
and  in  1527  he  painted  his  "Vision  of  St. 
Jerome,"  now  in  the  British  national  gallery. 
In  the  same  year,  after  the  sack  of  Rome  by 
the  constable  de  Bourbon,  he  took  refuge  in 
Bologna,  where  his  best  works  were  produced. 
Among  these  were  the  Madonna  della  rosa, 
in  the  Dresden  gallery;  the  Madonna  del  collo 
lungo,  in  the  Pitti  palace ;  and  the  famous  al- 
tarpiece,  now  in  the  gallery  at  Bologna,  called 
the  Santa  Margherita.  In  1531  Parmigiano 
returned  to  his  native  city,  and  was  commis- 
sioned to  execute  a  series  of  frescoes  in  the 
church  of  Santa  Maria  della  Steccata,  which 
after  a  delay  of  several  years  he  began  but 
never  finished.  Among  the  figures  completed 
is  a  celebrated  one  of  Moses  breaking  the  tables 
of  the  law.  For  his  failure  to  execute  these 
frescoes,  for  which  he  had  received  a  sum  in 
advance,  he  was  thrown  into  prison,  but  he 
escaped  into  the  neighboring  territory  of  Cre- 
mona, where  he  died. 

PARNASSUS,  in  ancient  geography,  a  moun- 
tain range  of  central  Greece,  which  com- 
menced near  (Eta  and  Corax,  and,  traversing 
Doris  and  Phocis  in  a  S.  E.  direction,  termi- 
nated at  the  Corinthian  gulf.  In  a  more  re- 
stricted sense  the  name  is  applied  only  to  the 
highest  part  of  the  range,  which  lies  a  few 
miles  N.  of  Delphi  in  Phocis,  and  culminates 
in  Mt.  Lycorea  (now  Liakura,  8,068  ft.  high). 
Its  sides  are  well  wooded  and  abound  in  cav- 
erns and  picturesque  ravines.  Snow  lies  on 
the  summit  the  greater  part  of  the  year. 
Apollo  and  the  Muses  were  said  to  make  this 
mountain  their  favorite  haunt,  and  the  latter 
held  here  their  assemblies.  The  Castalian 
spring,  in  which  the  Pythia  used  to  bathe, 
sprang  from  a  cleft  in  the  rocks  between  two 
of  the  summits.  The  Corycian  cave,  sacred  to 
Pan  and  the  Muses,  was  on  Mt.  Lycorea.  Par- 
nassus was  also  sacred  to  Bacchus,  and  the  thea- 
tre of  the  Bacchanalian  revels  of  the  Thyades. 

PARNELL,  Sir  Henry  Brooke.    See  Congleton. 

PARNELL,  Thomas,  an  Irish  poet,  born  in 
Dublin  in  1679,  died  in  Chester  in  July,  1717. 
He  was  educated  in  the  college  of  Dublin, 
took  holy  orders  in  1700,  and  was  created 
archdeacon  of  Clogher  in  1705.  He  spent  most 
of  his  time  in  England.  With  Pope,  Swift, 
Arbuthnot,  and  Gay  he  was  united  in  the  clo- 
sest friendship,  and  was  a  member  of  the  fa- 
mous Scriblerus  club.  He  assisted  Pope  in  his 
translation  of  Homer,  .and  wrote  the  life  of 
Homer  prefixed  to  the  Iliad.    His  only  other 


considerable  prose  composition  was  a  satire  on 
Dennis  and  Theobald,  under  the  title  of  "  A 
Life  of  Zoilus."  Archbishop  King  gave  him  a 
prebend  in  1713,  and  in  May,  1716,  presented 
him  to  the  vicarage  of  Finglass,  in  the  diocese 
of  Dublin.  A  selection  from  his  poems  was 
published  by  Pope  in  1722,  and  a  supplemen- 
tary volume,  the  authenticity  of  which  is  ques- 
tioned, appeared  in  1758.  The  "Allegory  on 
Man,"  "The  Hermit,"  "  A  Fairy  Tale,  in  the 
ancient  English  Style,"  "Hesiod,  or  the  Rise 
of  Women,"  and  a  translation  of  Homer's 
"Battle  of  the  Frogs  and  Mice,"  are  among 
his  happiest  productions.  His  life  was  writ- 
ten by  Goldsmith. 

PARM,  Evariste  Desire  Desforges,  chevalier  de, 
a  French  poet,  born  in  St.  Paul,  island  of 
Bourbon,  Feb.  6,  1753,  died  near  Paris,  Dec. 
5,  1814.  He  went  to  France  to  study  for  the 
church,  but  became  a  soldier.  In  1773,  return- 
ing to  his  native  island,  he  fell  in  love  with 
Esther  de  Baif ,  whom  he  celebrated  under  the 
name  of  Eleonore.  His  father  opposing  the 
marriage,  he  went  to  Paris  and  devoted  him- 
self to  literature.  In  1777  he  published  his 
Voyage ^en  Bourgogne,  and  a  semi-satirical  ■ 
poem,  Epitre  aux  insurgents  de  Boston.  This 
was  followed  in  1778  by  his  first  collection 
of  erotic  poems.  In  1785  he  went  to  India 
as  aide-de-camp  to  M.  de  Souillac,  governor 
general  of  the  French  possessions.  Return- 
ing with  despatches,  he  retired  to  Feuillan- 
court,  near  Paris,  where  he  wrote  Les  fleurs, 
Lajournee  champetre,  Les  douze  tableaux,  and 
other  poems.  In  1795  he  was  appointed  to 
a  subordinate  office  in  the  department  of  pub- 
lic instruction,  and  for  one  year  held  the  post 
of  administrator  of  the  theatre  des  arts.  His 
later  poems  were  remarkable  for  their  wit  and 
obscenity.  He  was  admitted  to  the  French 
academy  in  1803.  Francais  de  Nantes  gave 
him  an  office  in  the  administration  of  the 
droits  reunis,  and  Napoleon  bestowed  upon 
him  a  pension  of  3,000  francs.  His  complete 
works  were  published  in  Paris  (5  vols.  18mo, 
1808)  and  Brussels  (2  vols.  8vo,  1826) ;  selec- 
tions, with  notice  of  his  life  and  writings  by 
Tissot  (Paris,  1826)  ;  and  Elegies  et  poesies  di- 
verses,  with  preface  by  Sainte-Beuve  (1862). 

PAROL  (Norman  Fr.,  a  spoken  word),  as  an 
adjective,  in  law,  by  word  of  mouth,  not  writ- 
ten. (See  Conteact,  Evidence,  and  .Feauds, 
Statute  of.) 

PAROPAMISAN  MOUNTAINS,  or  Paropamisns,  a 
name  formerly  generally  applied  to  a  western 
portion  of  the  Hindoo  Koosh  range  in  central 
Asia.  (See  Hindoo  Koosh.)  It  is  of  very  an- 
cient origin,  having  been  used  before  the  time 
of  Alexander;  but  its  application  in  ancient 
works  is  very  indefinite,  and  there  is  a  consid- 
erable difference  of  opinion  among  modern 
geographers  as  to  what  part  of  the  western 
Hindoo  Koosh  it  properly  designated.  On  the 
best  maps  it  appears  as  the  name  of  the  range 
along  the  N.  boundary  of  Cabool,  the  N.  E. 
district  of  Afghanistan,  and  extending  from 


PAROQUET 


123 


the  pass  of  Khawak  on  the  east  to  the  peak 
of  Koh-i-baba  on  the  west ;  and  it  is  also  ap- 
plied to  the  more  northerly  of  the  two  branch- 
es into  which  the  main  range  divides  still  fur- 
ther westward.  Many  of  the  best  classicists 
believe  the  name  to  have  been  used  for  the 
whole  chain  now  known  as  the  Hindoo  Koosh, 
and  some  receive  it  as  the  designation  of  all 
the  mountain  group  between  the  Caucasus 
and  the  Himalaya. 

PAROQUET,  or  Parrakeet,  the  common  name 
of  many  old-world  parrots  of  the  subfamily 
pezopori?ice.    They  all  have  a  moderate  bill, 


Crested  Paroquet  (Nymphicus  Novae  Hollandiae). 
a.  Head,  with  crest  erect,    b.  Tail  spread. 

the  tail  long,  broad,  and  more  or  less  gradua- 
ted, with  the  ends  of  the  feathers  narrowed, 
the  tarsi  generally  high  and  slender,  and  the 
claws  nearly  straight,  enabling  them  to  walk 
upon  the  ground  more  easily  than  the  other 
subfamilies.  In  the  Australian  genus  nym- 
phicus  (Wagl.)  the  bill  is  strongly  dentated, 
the  wings  and  tail  very  long,  the  two  middle 
feathers  of  the  latter  prolonged  and  pointed, 
and  the  tarsi  stout.  The  crested  paroquet  (JV. 
JSTovcb  JHollandice,  Wagl.)  is  of  an  elegant  form 
and  grayish  color,  with  the  sides  and  top  of 
the  head  bright  yellow,  a  reddish  orange  spot 
below  the  eye,  and  a  handsome  yellow  crest 
like  that  of  the  lapwing ;  they  are  migratory,  at 
times  collecting  in  large  flocks,  and  much  upon 
the  ground  picking  up  seeds  an<J  grains ;  they 
breed  in  holes  in  gum  trees  (eucalypti)  in  the 
neighborhood  of  water,  depositing  five  or  six 
eggs. — The  broad-tailed  paroquets  (platycer- 
cus,  Vig.)  of  Australia,  New  Zealand,  and  New 
Guinea,  are  very  elegant,  graceful,  and  lively, 
with  diminished  powers  of  flight  and  climbing 
and  more  activity  upon  the  ground;  the  bill 
is  short  and  curved,  with  obtuse  tip  and  sides 
very  slightly  if  at  all  dentated ;  the  wings  mod- 
erate, and  the  tail  broad  and  long.  They  are 
usually  seen  in  flocks  upon  the  ground,  and 
sometimes  do  much  damage  both  to  the  newly 


sown  and  ripening  maize  and  wheat.  The 
nonpareil  paroquet  (P.  eximius,  Shaw)  is  one 
of  the  handsomest  of  the  family,  having  the 
head,  neck,  and  breast  scarlet,  wings  mazarine 
blue,  throat  and  abdomen  yellowish  white,  back 
undulated  with  blackish  and  yellowish  green, 
and  tail  blue.  More  than  30  other  species  of 
this  genus  are  described. — The  ground  paroquet 
(pezoporus,  Illig.)  is  the  most  terrestrial  of  the 
family,  as  evinced  by  the  greater  elongation  of 
the  tarsi  and  toes,  the  straighter  claws,  and 
the  less  depressed  and  more  pointed  tail.  The 
P.  formosus  (Illig.)  inhabits  the  bushy  districts 
of  Australia ;  it  is  about  a  foot  long,  of  a  live- 
ly green  color,  varied  and  barred  with  black 
and  yellow ;  it  lives  entirely  upon  the  .ground, 
where  it  runs  with  great  speed. — Among  the 
handsomest  of  the  subfamily  are  the  ringed 
paroquets  (palaornis,  Vig.),  which  have  a  short 
rounded  bill,  sharp-pointed,  and  the  tail  long 
and  graduated,  the  two  middle  feathers  long- 
est ;  they  are  remarkable  for  the  elegance  of 
their  form,  their  docility,  and  powers  of  imita- 
tion ;  most  of  the  species  are  found  in  India 
and  its  archipelago,  and  may  be  known  by  the 
collar-like  ring  around  the  neck.  The  Alex- 
andrine paroquet  (P.  Alexandria  Vig.)  was  so 
named  from  the  supposition  that  it  was  the 
one  brought  to  Europe. by  Alexander  the  Great; 
it  is  about  15  in.  long,  green  above,  paler  or 


Alexandrine  Paroquet  (Palseornis  Alexandri). 

yellower  below  ;  across  each  shoulder  is  a  pur- 
plish red  patch ;  a  black  band  from  the  low- 
er mandible  descends  and  passes  backward  so 
as  almost  to  encircle  the  neck,  growing  nar- 
rowest behind,  where  there  is  a  red  collar  be- 
coming narrowest  in  front;  the  bill  reddish. 
This  bird  was  well  known  to  the  Greeks  and 
Eomans,  who  kept  it  in  highly  ornamented 
cages ;  it  is  mentioned  by  Aristotle  and  Pliny, 
and  Ovid  has  described  it  in  one  of  his  most 
beautiful  elegies  (on  the  death  of  Corinna's 
parrot).  There  are  about  a  dozen  other  spe- 
cies in  India,  associating  in  flocks,  and  often 


124 


PAEOS 


PARR 


doing  mischief  to  the  crops;  they  are  all  do- 
cile, imitative,  and  handsome. — The  grass  paro- 
quets (melopsittacus,  Gould)  of  Australia  are 
remarkable  not  only  for  the  beauty  of  their 
plumage  but  for  their  pleasing  song ;  the  bill  is 
very,  short  and  high,  the  tail  graduated  and  cu- 
neiform, the  tarsi  long,  and  the  toes  slender. 
They  pass  most  of  their  time  on  the  ground, 
migrating  with  rapid  flight  from  place  to  place 
in  large  flocks  in  search  of  grass  and  other 
seeds  ;  during  the  heat  of  the  day  they  remain 
concealed  in  lofty  trees ;  they  are  often  kept 
in  cages,  where  their  beauty,  song,  and  gentle 
and  loving  habits  make  them  pleasing  pets. 
In  the  allied  genus  nanodes  (Vig.  and  Horsf.) 
or  euphema  (Wagl.),  also  Australian,  are  about 
half  a  dozen  elegant  little  grass  paroquets, 
with  habits  like  those  of  the  preceding  genus. 
— The  genus  trichoglossus  (Vig.  and  Horsf.), 
which  seems  to  connect  this  subfamily  with 
the  lories,  hence  called  "lorikeets,"  takes  the 
place  in  Australia  of  the  Indian  lories,  and  con- 
tains some  of  the  most  beautiful  of  the  parrot 
family;  the  prevailing  color  of  the  plumage 
is  green,  varied  with  scarlet,  blue,  and  yel- 
low ;  the  tail  is  elongated  and  graduated,  and 
the  wings  are  narrow  and  pointed ;  the  bill  is 
slender  and  weak,  but  arched  and  hooked ;  the 
tarsi  short  and  robust,  and  the  strong  and  broad 
toes  armed  with  sharp  claws ;  the  generic  name 
is  derived  from  the  structure  of  the  tongue, 
which  has  near  the  tip  a  pencil  or  brush  of 
hair-like  bristles,  especially  adapted  for  pro- 
curing the  nectar  of  flowers,  which  forms  their 
principal  food;  they  also  suck  the  juices  of 
soft  fruits,  but  do  not  attempt  the  hard  seeds 
of  which  most  parrots  are  fond.  The  blue- 
bellied  paroquet  {T.  multicolor,  Vig.  and  Horsf.) 
is  about  13  in.  long,  of  which  the  tail  is  6 ;  the 
head  and  throat  are  bluish  purple,  with  a  nuchal 
collar  of  bright  green;  breast  vermilion  red, 
passing  on  the  sides  into  rich  yellow ;  abdomen 
deep  purple  in  the  middle,  vermilion  tipped 
with  green  on  the  sides;  under  tail  coverts 
red,  yellow,  and  green,  and  under  wing  coverts 
red ;  upper  parts  grass-green,  varied  with  ver- 
milion and  yellow  on  the  back  of  the  neck ; 
tail  green  in  the  middle,  with  more  or  less  yel- 
low on  the  sides.  They  live  in  large  flocks, 
moving  from  place  to  place  in  search  of  the 
newly  expanded  flowers  of  the  gum  trees ;  they 
are  sometimes  caged,  but  do  not  live  long  in 
confinement  from  the  difficulty  of  supplying 
them  with  proper  food. 

PAROS,  or  Paro,  an  island  of  Greece,  in  the 
Archipelago,  one  of  the  Oyclades,  separated 
from  Naxos  or  Naxia  on  the  east  by  a  strait  5 
m.  wide ;  length  N".  E.  and  S.  W.  14  m.,  greatest 
breadth  11  m. ;  area,  80  sq.  m. ;  pop.  about 
6,000.  Its  highest  point,  Mount  St.  Elias,  is 
2,530  ft.  above  the  sea.  There  are  several  har- 
bors, Parikia  on  the  west,  St.  Maria,  Marmora, 
and  Trio  on  the  east,  and  Naussa  on  the  north, 
the  best  in  the  Archipelago.  There  are  also  sev- 
eral villages,  of  which  the  principal  is  Parikia, 
on  the  site  of  the  ancient  Paros.     The  country, 


though  hilly,  is  fertile,  and  produces  principally 
olives  and  cotton,  and  also  corn,  wine,  fruit, 
and  legumes.  In  former  times  it  was  cele- 
brated for  its  marble,  which  was  remarkably 
white  and  durable,  and  was  considered  second 
only  to  that  of  Pentelicus.  The  principal  quar- 
ries were  in  Mount  Marpessa. — Paros,  accord- 
ing to  tradition,  was  first  inhabited  by  Cretans 
and  Arcadians,  and  obtained  its  name  from 
Parus,  a  son  of  the  Arcadian  Parrhasius.  It 
was  early  colonized  by  the  Ionians,  and  by 
means  of  its  maritime  trade  became  so  pros- 
perous that  it  colonized  Thasos,  Parium  on  the 
Propontis,  and  Pharus  on  the  Illyrian  coast. 
Having  submitted  to  the  Persians  after  the 
battle  of  Marathon  (490  B.  C),  it  was  enabled 
to  defy  Miltiades,  and  after  the  sea  fight  off  Sa- 
lamis  (480)  secured  its  safety  by  paying  a  fine 
to  Themistocles.  Subsequently  it  fell  into  the 
power  of  Athens,  along  with  the  other  islands 
of  the  iEgean.  In  the  13th  century  it  became 
subject  to  Venice,  constituting  for  a  time  a 
portion  of  the  dukedom  of  Naxos ;  but  subse- 
quently it  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Vene- 
tian family  of  Venier,  and  in  the  16th  century 
was  taken  by  the  pirate  Barbarossa.  Toward 
the  close  of  the  18th  it  became  a  naval  station 
for  the  Russian  fleet,  and  it  now  belongs  to 
the  Greek  nomarchy  of  the  Oyclades. 

PAROTID  GLAND.    See  Salivaey  Glands. 

PARR,  Catharine.    See  Catharine  Parr. 

PARR,  Samuel,  an  English  author,  born  at 
Harrow-on-the-Hill,  Jan.  15,  1747,  died  March 
6,  1825.  He  entered  the  university  of  Cam- 
bridge in  1765,  but  the  death  of  his  father 
obliged  him  to  accept  in  1767  the  post  of  first 
assistant  master  of  Harrow  school,  and  he  re- 
mained there  five  years,  when  he  opened  a 
private  school  at  Stanmore.  In  1777  he  be- 
came master  of  the  school  at  Colchester,  and 
was  ordained  priest,  receiving  the  curacies  of 
Hythe  and  Trinity  church.  In  the  following 
year  he  was  appointed  master  of  Norwich 
school.  His  first  noteworthy  publication  was 
his  "Discourse  on  Education,  and  on  the  Plans 
pursued  in  Charity  Schools"  (1785).  In  1786 
he  removed  to  Hatton  in  Warwickshire,  where 
he  held  a  perpetual  curacy,  and  here  he  passed 
the  remainder  of  his  life,  engaged  in  literary 
pursuits,  the  care  of  his  parish,  and  the  instruc- 
tion of  children.  He  was  arrogant  and  quar- 
relsome, and  an  ardent  whig  at  a  time  when 
whiggism  was  very  unpopular  with  the  ruling 
classes.  He  is  said  to  have  surpassed  in  con- 
versational powers  all  his  contemporaries  ex- 
cept Dr.  Johnson.  In  1787  he  published  an 
edition  of  Bellendenus  de  Statu,  with  a  cele- 
brated political  preface  in  Ciceronian  Latin. 
His  other  writings  comprise  a  controversy  with 
Dr.  White,  whom  he  accused  of  plagiarism  in 
his  "Bampton  Lectures"  (1790);  papers  con- 
nected with  the  Birmingham  riots  of  1791 ;  a 
controversy  with  Dr.  Charles  Combe  in  1795 ; 
one  with  Godwin  and  others  occasioned  by 
Parr's  Spital  sermon  in  1800;  and  "Charac- 
ters of  the  late  Charles  James  Fox"  (1809). 


PARR 


PARROT 


125 


An  edition  of  his  works,  with  a  memoir  and 
selections  from  his  correspondence,  was  pub- 
lished by  John  Johnstone,  D.  D.  (8  vols.,  Lon- 
don, 1828). 

PARR,  Thomas,  commonly  known  as  Old  Parr, 
an  English  centenarian,  born  at  Winnington, 
Shropshire,  in  1483,  died  in  London,  Nov.  15, 
1635.  He  was  the  son  of  poor  parents,  and 
after  his  father's  decease  continued  his  occupa- 
tion of  husbandry.  It  is  related  in  his  biog- 
raphy that  he  was  first  married  at  the  age  of 
80,  and  begot  two  children ;  and  after  the  death 
of  his  wife,  he  married  again  when  about  120 
years  old.  According  to  a  current  story,  he 
was  engaged  in  a  love  intrigue  when  about  105 
years  old,  and  was  compelled  to  do  penance 
for  the  crime  by  standing  in  a  sheet  in  Alder- 
bury  church.  When  a  little  over  152  years 
old,  he  was  taken  to  London  by  Thomas  earl 
of  Arundel,  but  soon  died,  and  was  buried  in 
"Westminster  abbey.  The  common  traditions 
with  regard  to  him,  which  have  been  called  in 
question  by  recent  writers,  are  derived  from  a 
pamphlet  published  in  1635  by  John  Taylor, 
under  the  title  of  "  The  Olde,  Olde,  Very  Olde 
Man ;  or,  the  Age  and  Long  Life  of  Thomas 
Parr,  the  Sonne  of  John  Parr,  of  Winning- 
ton,  in  the  Parish  of  Alderbury,  in  the  Coun- 
ty of  Salopp,  who  was  born  in  the  reign  of 
King  Edward  the  IVth,  and  is  now  living  in 
the  Strand,  being  aged  152  years  and  odd 
monthes.  His  manner  of  life  and  conversa- 
tion in  so  long  a  pilgrimage;  his  marriages, 
and  his  bringing  up  to  London  about  the  end 
of  September  last,  1635." 

PARRHASIUS,  a  Greek  painter,  born  in  Ephe- 
sus,  flourished  about  400  B.  0.  He  was  the 
son  and  pupil  of  Evenor,  and,  although  be- 
longing to  the  Ionian  school  of  art,  passed  the 
greater  part  of  his  life  in  Athens.  ■  He  estab- 
lished certain  canons  of  proportion  for  the 
human  figure  which  were  adopted  by  succeed- 
ing artists ;  and  Pliny  says  :  "  He  first  gave  to 
painting  true  proportion,  the  minute  details  of 
the  countenance,  the  elegance  of  the  hair,  the 
beauty  of  the  face,  and  by  the  confession  of 
the  artists  themselves  obtained  the  palm  in 
his  drawing  of  the  extremities."  In  epigrams 
inscribed  on  his  own  productions  he  called 
himself  'APpodiairog,  the  elegant,  claiming  a  di- 
vine descent,  and  announcing  that  in  his  works 
the  art  of  painting  had  reached  its  highest 
excellence.  His  most  celebrated  work  was 
an  allegorical  representation  of  the  Athenian 
people,  in  which  every  quality,  good  or  bad, 
ascribed  to  the  Athenians,  found  its  expression. 
Among  other  famous  works  by  him  were  a 
Theseus,  "Ulysses  feigning  Insanity,"  a  Mele- 
ager,  Hercules,  &c.  He  also  painted  pictures 
of  a  gross  and  licentious  character,  two  of 
which,  the  "  Archigallus  "  and  the  "  Meleager 
and  Atalanta,"  were  so  highly  prized  by  the 
emperor  Tiberius  that  he  caused  them  to  be 
hung  in  his  own  chamber.  The  story  told 
by  Seneca,  that  Parrhasius,  when  painting  a 
"  Prometheus  Chained,"  put  an  Olynthian  cap- 


tive to  the  torture  to  obtain  the  proper  ex- 
pression of  bodily  suffering,  is  unfounded. 

PARROT,  the  general  name  of  the  psittacidce, 
a  family  of  scansorial  birds,  remarkable  for 
the  elegance  of  their  form,  the  brilliancy  of 
their  plumage,  and  their  docility  and  power  of 
imitating  the  human  voice.  They  have  a  large 
strong  bill,  much  arched,  with  acute  tip,  and 
the  lower  mandible  notched  at  the  end;  the 
upper  mandible  is  movably  articulated  to  the 
frontal  bones,  enabling  them  to  seize  larger 
objects  than  other  birds  of  their  size;  the 
tongue  is  thick  and  fleshy,  the  wings  and  tail 
generally  long,  tarsi  short  and  robust,  and  the 
strong  toes  directed  two  before  and  two  behind, 
the  former  united  at  the  base  by  a  narrow  mem- 
brane. These  are  the  typical  climbers,  but  are 
slow  and  generally  awkward  on  the  ground ; 
they  use  both  bill  and  claws  in  climbing,  and 
while  feeding  use  one  foot  to  hold  their  food ; 
though  rather  sedentary,  most  of  them  are 
good  fliers ;  the  neck  is  short,  and  has  usually 
12  vertebrae  ;  the  sternum  is  long  and  narrow, 
with  generally  an  oval  aperture  on  its  infe- 
rior margin  on  each  side ;  the  structure  of  the 
tongue  and  the  complicated  lower  larynx  en- 
able them  to  articulate  with  great  distinctness. 
They  are  confined  to  the  warm  parts  of  Amer- 
ica, Asia,  Africa,  and  Australia,  and  generally 
to  the  southern  hemisphere ;  their  food  consists 
of  soft  pulpy  fruits,  especially  such  as  have 
hard  kernels  or  seeds ;  they  are  usually  seen  in 
large  flocks,  active  in  the  morning  and  evening, 
noisy  and  quarrelsome,  destructive,  to  vegeta- 
tion in  their  wild  state,  and  very  mischievous 
in  captivity ;  they  are  monogamous,  and  build 
their  nests  generally  in  hollow  trees.  This  is 
a  very  extensive  family,  numbering  about  300 
species,  and  divided  by  Gray  into  the  subfam- 
ilies of  pezoporince,  araince,  lorince,  cacatuinm, 
and  psittacince  ;  the  first  four  are  described  re- 
spectively under  the  titles  Pakoquet,  Macaw, 
Loey,  and  Cockatoo,  leaving  for  this  article 
only  the  psittacince,  and  the  genus  conurus  of 
the  macaws.  Some  of  the  parrots  present  rap- 
torial characters  in  the  form  of  the  bill,  and 
especially  in  its  soft  skin  or  cere.  Bonaparte 
makes  of  them  a  distinct  order,  placing  them 
at  the  head  of  his  system,  separated  from  the 
typical  scansores  by  the  rapacious  birds ;  for  the 
connecting  links  between  the  families  see  Owl 
and  Owl  Parrot. — The  only  well  ascertained 
species  within  the  United  States  is  the  Caroli- 
na parrot  (conurus  Carolinensis,  Kuhl)  ;  in  this 
the  length  is  about  14  in.,  and  the  alar  extent 
22 ;  the  bill  is  short,  bulging,  and  very  strong ; 
the  head  is  large,  the  neck  robust,  and  the 
body  and  tail  elongated,  the  latter  wedge- 
shaped  ;  the  bill  is  white  and  the  iris  hazel ; 
general  color  green  with  bluish  reflections, 
lightest  below ;  fore  part  of  head  and  cheeks 
bright  red,  extending  over  and  behind  the 
eye,  the  rest  of  the  head  and  neck  gamboge 
yellow;  edge  of  wing  yellow  tinged  with  red; 
wings  and  their  coverts  varied  with  bluish 
green,  greenish  yellow,  and  brownish  red ;  two 


126 


PAKROT 


middle  tail  feathers  deep  green,  the  others  with 
the  inner  webs  brownish  red ;  thighs  yellow. 
This  species  has  been  seen  as  far  north  as  Lake 
Ontario,  though  now  it  is  chiefly  confined  to 
the  southern  and  southwestern  states,  and  as 
far  as  the  Missouri  to  the  west.  They  are  very 
fond  of  the  seeds  of  the  cockle  burr,  and  eat 
almost  any  kind  of  fruit  and  grain,  from  their 
immense  flocks  committing  great  havoc  in  the 
garden,  field,  and  orchard,  destroying  in  search 
of  seeds  far  more  than  they  consume ;  they  are 
killed  in  large  numbers  by  the  farmers,  who 
consider  their  flesh  a  delicacy.  The  flight  is 
rapid  and  direct,  with  great  inclinations  of  the 
body  and  incessant  noisy  cries ;  they  generally 
alight  close  together  on  the  trees  bearing  the 
desired  fruit ;  they  are  savage  when  wounded, 
but  are  easily  tamed  by  immersion  in  water ; 
they  are  destructive  in  captivity,  and  incapable 
of  articulating  words.  They  are  fond  of  sand 
and  saline  earths.  Many  deposit  their  eggs  in 
the  same  hollow  of  a  tree,  each  laying  two  or 
three.    Several  other  parrots  are  found  in  Mex- 


Carolina  Parrot  (Conurus  Carolinensis). 

ico  and  Central  America. — To  the  subfamily 
of  psittacince  belong  the  parrots  best  known 
in  the  domesticated  condition,  especially  the 
gray  and  green  parrots  so  common  as  pets ;  in 
this  group  the  head  is  without  crest,  the  mar- 
gins of  the  bill  are  dentated  or  festooned,  the 
wings  pointed,  and  the  tail  short  and  square. 
In  the  old  genus  psittacus  (Linn.)  the  bill  is 
large,  rather  compressed,  with  biangular  cul- 
men  much  arched  to  the  tip,  near  which  the 
lateral  margin  is  deeply  notched,  the  under 
mandible  much  sinuated  and  the  anterior  edge 
sharp ;  wings  generally  reaching  to  the  end  of 
the  tail,  with  second  and  third  quills  equal  and 
longest.  More  than  40  species  are  found  in 
the  humid  forests  of  Africa  and  South  Amer- 
ica ;  collecting  at  night  in  immense  flocks,  they 
leave  their  roosting  places  early  in  search  of 
food,  which  consists  chiefly  of  pulpy  fruits 
and  seeds,  after  which  they  bathe  and  retire 
to  thick-leaved  trees  during  the  heat  of  the 


day,  going  in  search  of  food  again  at  night; 
they  migrate  in  large  flocks  to  warmer  regions 
on  the  approach  of  the  rainy  season,  rising  to 
a  great  height  and  uttering  the  most  discor- 


Gray  Parrot  (Psittacus  erytbacus). 

dant  screams ;  the  young  are  fed  with  the  dis- 
gorged half  masticated  food  of  the  parents. 
The  gray  parrot  (P.  erythacus,  Linn.)  is  the 
most  remarkable  for  its  docility  and  power  of 
articulation;  it  is  about  12  in.  long,  of  an  ash- 
gray  color,  with  a  bright  scarlet  tail,  yellowish 
white  irides,  and  grayish  feet  and  toes.  It  is 
a  native  of  W.  Africa,  whence  it  has  been  im- 
ported from  a  very  early  period  ;  in  captivity 
it  feeds  on  bread  and  milk,  nuts,  and  even 
meat,  holding  its  food  with  one  foot,  and  redu- 
cing it  to  small  pieces  by  the  bill  and  cutters  on 
the  palate ;  it  may  reach  the  age  of  TO  and  even 
90  years.  It  breeds  readily  in  captivity. — In 
the  genus  cJirysotis  (Swains.),  of  tropical  South 
America,  the  bill  is  smaller  but  strongly  denta- 
ted ;  the  wings  reach  to  the  middle  of  the  tail, 
which  is  broad  and  rounded.  The  green  par- 
rot {G.  Amazonicus,  Gmel.)  is  very  often  taken 
to  the  United  States  and  Europe  on  account  of 
its  great  colloquial  powers ;  it  is  12  in.  long, 
the  bill  orange  yellow,  as  well  as  the  cheeks 
and  chin ;  the  general  color  is,  shining  green, 
with  a  bluish  purple  band  over  the  forehead, 
and  the  feathers  of  the  hind  neck  edged  with 
black ;  it  inhabits  the  country  watered  by  the 
Amazon,  where  it  often  does  great  mischief  to 
the  plantations.  The  festive  parrot  (C.  festi- 
vus,  Swains.),  a  native  of  the  same  forests, 
is  15  to  16  in.  long,  of  a  general  green  color, 
with  a  narrow  red  frontal  band  and  eye  streak, 
blue  above  and  behind  the  eyes,  lower  back 
and  rump  vermilion,  and  the  greater  quills 
with  blue  outer  webs  and  the  inner  greenish 
black;  it  is  docile,  easily  tamed,  and  learns 
readily  to  pronounce  words  and  sentences. 
The  last  two  species  are  those  most  commonly 
brought  from  South  America;  several  others 
are  described.  In  the  genus  psittacula  (Briss.) 
the  size  is  generally  small;  the  bill  is  rather 
large  with  the  lateral  margins  festooned ;  the 
pointed  wings  extend  to  the  end  of  the  tail, 


PARROT 


PARROTT 


127 


which  is  short  and  even ;  about  30  species  are 
described  in  South  America,  Africa,  and  Asia 
and  its  archipelago ;  they  are  rapid  fliers  and 
expert  climbers,  often  hanging  head  downward 
in  their  search  for  fruits ;  while  feeding  they 
utter  a  shrill  chirp,  like  that  of  a  large  grass- 
hopper ;  when  sleeping  they  generally  suspend 
themselves  by  one  or  both  feet,  head  down- 
ward. Here  belong  the  beautiful  little  "love 
birds,"  the  genus  agapornis  of  Selby.  Swin- 
dern's  love  bird  (P.  Swindereniana,  Kuhl)  is 
a  native  of  S.  Africa ;  it  is  about  6  in.  long, 
with  a  black  strong  bill  whose  upper  mandi- 
ble is  notched;  the  head  and  nape  are  bright 
green,  bounded  by  a  black  nuchal  collar ;  neck 
and  breast  yellowish  green,  mantle  and  wings 
green,  lower  back  and  upper  tail  coverts  azure 
blue ;  the  short  and  nearly  even  tail  has  a  me- 
dian bar  of  vermilion  edged  with  black  and 
the  tip  green.  These  parrots*  are  remarkable 
for  their  attachment  to  each  other. 

PARROT,  Johann  Jakob  Friedrich  Wilhelm,  a 
German  physician,  born  in  Oarlsruhe,  Oct.  14, 
1792,  died  in  Dorpat,  Jan.  15,  1841.  In  1811 
and  1812  he  travelled  in  company  with  Engel- 
hardt  over  southern  Russia  and  the  Caucasus, 
and  on  his  return  published  Reise  in  die  Krim 
und  Kaukasien  (2  vols.,  Berlin,  1815-'18).  In 
1821  he  was  appointed  professor  of  physiolo- 
gy, pathology,  and  semeiology  in  the  university 
of  Dorpat,  travelled  in  1824  in  the  Pyrenees, 
and  in  1829  was  the  first  to  make  a  successful 
ascent  of  Mt.  Ararat.  He  wrote  Reise  zvm 
Ararat  (2  vols.,  Berlin,  1834;  translated  by 
Oooley,  London,  1845) ;  a  treatise  on  **  Gasom- 
etry  "  (Dorpat,  1814)  ;  and  Ansichten  uber  die 
allgemeine  KrankheitsleTire  (Riga,  1821). 

PARROT  FISH,  the  common  name  of  the  nu- 
merous cyclolabroid  fishes  of  the  genus  scarus 
(Forsk.) ;  the  name  is  derived  from  the  beak- 
like form  of  their  jaws  ;  they  also  present  the 
same  brilliancy  and  variety  of  colors  as  do  the 
parrots  among  birds.  The  form  is  oblong  and 
stout,  with  the  lateral  line  branching  and  in- 
terrupted under  the  end  of  the  dorsal  fin.  The 
jaws  are  prominent,  convex,  each  divided  by 
a  median  suture;  the  teeth  are  incorporated 
with  the  bone,  arranged  in  an  imbricated  man- 
ner in  crowded  quincunxes,  the  oldest  forming 


1.  Head  of  Parrot  Fish.    2.  Jaws,  natural  size. 

the  cutting  border,  and  succeeded  by  the  low- 
er ranks  as  the  former  are  worn  away ;  their 
surface  is  generally  smooth  and  polished ;  the 
pharyngeal  teeth  consist  of  trenchant  trans- 
VOL.  xiii. — 9 


verse  vertical  plates,  two  above  and  one  be- 
low, presenting  when  worn  narrow  ellipses  of 
dentine  surrounded  by  enamel ;  the  lips  are 
simple  and  fleshy,  in  some  species  leaving  the 
teeth  exposed.  The  body  is  covered  with  large 
scales,  as  far  as  the  gill  covers  and  cheeks, 
there  being  from  21  to  25  in  a  longitudinal 
line  and  8  in  a  vertical  one  at  the  region  of  the 
pectorals ;  those  at  the  base  of  the  caudal  fin 
are  large  and  embrace  a  considerable  portion 
of  its  rays;  there  is  a  single  conical  dorsal, 
with  9  spiny  and  10  articulated  rays ;  the  anal 
has  2  spiny  and  8  articulated  rays.  The  muz- 
zle is  obtuse,  and  the  profile  sometimes  rather 
high ;  there  are  no  stomachal  nor  pancreatic 
caeca.  About  100  species  are  described,  living 
principally  on  the  coral  reefs  of  the  West  and 
East  Indian  archipelagoes,  about  one  quarter 
dwelling  around  the  Molucca  and  Sunda  isl- 
ands. The  best  known  is  the  parrot  fish  of 
the  Mediterranean  (S.  Cretensis,  Rond.),  red 
or  blue  according  to  season,  highly  esteemed 
by  the  ancients ;  it  is  about  15  in.  long,  of  a 
general  purplish  color,  roseous  below,  and  vio- 
let brown  on  the  back ;  the  pectorals  orange, 
ventrals  with  transverse  lines  of  violet,  and 
dorsal  violet  gray  with  golden  spots  and  bands. 
There  is  more  said  of  this  fish  in  the  ancient 
writers  than  of  any  other;  in  Pliny's  time  it 
was  ranked  as  the  first  of  fishes,  and  large 
sums  were  expended  to  stock  the  Italian  waters 
with  it  from  the  sea  between  Crete  and  Asia 
Minor.  By  the  ancients  it  was  believed  to 
have  a  voice,  to  sleep  at  night  (alone  of  fishes), 
to  release  its  companions  and  other  fishes  from 
nets,  and  to  have  the  power  of  ruminating ;  the 
last  belief  naturally  arose  from  the  backward 
and  forward  movement  of  the  jaws  rendered 
possible  by  the  mode  of  articulation,  and  ne- 
cessary for  the  complete  mastication  of  the  sea- 
weeds upon  which  it  principally  feeds.  Its 
flesh  is  tender  and  easy  of  digestion,  and  the 
intestines  and  their  contents  were  highly  rel- 
ished; the  modern  Greeks  call  it  scare-,  and 
consider  it  a  fish  of  exquisite  flavor,  eating  it 
with  a  sauce  made  of  its  liver  and  intestines, 
as  the  moderns  eat  plover  and  woodcock ;  its 
liver  entered  into  the  composition  of  the  fa- 
mous dish  called  "the  shield  of  Minerva,"  with 
the  brains  of  the  peacock  and  pheasant,  fla- 
mingoes' tongues,  and  the  milt  of  the  murgena 
eel.  The  red  parrot  fish  of  the  West  Indies 
(S.  Abilgaardii,  Val.),  about  16  in.  long,  is  a 
handsome  species.  The  great  parrot  fish  (S. 
guacamaia,  Val.),  from  the  same  locality,  at- 
tains a  length  of  2£  or  3  ft.,  and  a  weight  of 
30  lbs. ;  the  colors  are  red,  blue,  and  green. 
Many  other  beautiful  species  are  described 
from  North  America  in  Dr.  Storer's  "  Synop- 
sis," and  the  whole  genus  is  treated  at  length 
in  vol.  xiv.  of  the  Histoire  naturelle  des  pois- 
sons  by  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes. 

PARROTT,  Robert  Parker,  an  American  in- 
ventor, born  in  Lee,  N".  H.,  Oct.  5,  1804.  He 
graduated  at  the  United  States  military  acad- 
emy in  1824,  became  second  lieutenant  of  ar- 


128 


PARKY 


tillery,  and  served  at  the  academy  from  1824 
to  1829  as  assistant  professor  of  mathematics, 
and  as  principal  assistant  professor  of  natural 
and  experimental  philosophy.  He  afterward 
served  with  his  regiment  at  Fort  Constitution 
and  Fort  Independence.  He  was  detailed  for 
ordnance  duty  in  1834,  took  part  as  a  staff 
officer  in  the  war  against  the  Creeks,  and  was 
appointed  captain  in  the  ordnance  corps  in 
1836,  from  which  he  resigned  shortly  after- 
ward to  become  superintendent  of  the  West 
Point  iron  and  cannon  foundery,  situated  at 
Cold  Spring,  Putnam  county,  N.  Y.  He  served 
as  first  judge  of  the  court  of  common  pleas 
for  that  county  from  1844  to  1847.  While  in 
charge  of  the  West  Point  foundery  he  invented 
and  perfected  the  Parrott  system  of  rifled  guns 
and  projectiles,  which  were  first  introduced 
into  actual  use  at  the  battle  of  Bull  Run,  July 
21,  1861 ;  they  were  extensively  used  by  the 
national  army  and  navy  till  the  end  of  the 
civil  war.  (See  Artillery,  vol.  i.,  p.  796.) 
One  30-pdr.  gun  of  this  system,  mounted  at 
Cumming's  point,  was  used  against  Charleston, 
and  withstood  the  extraordinary  test  of  being 
fired  4,606  times  before  bursting. 

PARRY,  Sir  William  Edward,  an  English  navi- 
gator, born  in  Bath,  Dec.  19,  1790,  died  in 
Ems,  Germany,  July  8,  1855.  He  entered  the 
navy  in  1803,  and  became  a  midshipman  in 
1806,  serving  in  the  Baltic  fleet.  In  1810  he 
was  commissioned  lieutenant,  and  sailed  to  the 
polar  seas  about  the  North  cape,  where  he  cor- 
rected the  admiralty  charts  of  those  waters. 
On  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  between  Great 
Britain  and  the  United  States  he  was  sent  to 
the  North  American  station,  where  he  remained 
till  1817,  when  he  joined  the  arctic  expedi- 
tion of  Capt.  John  Ross  as  commander  of  the 
Alexander,  consort  of  the  Isabella,  Ross's  ship. 
They  left  England  in  April,  1818,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  Lancaster  sound,  which  they  navi- 
gated for  about  60  m.,  when  Ross,  imagining 
that  he  saw  the  way  closed  before  them  by 
a  range  of  mountains,  gave  orders  to  return. 
Parry  freely  expressed  his  conviction  that  the 
range  of  mountains  was  an  optical  illusion; 
and  as  the  public  generally  coincided  in  this 
opinion,  it  was  determined  in  the  spring  of 
1819  to  equip  a  new  expedition  under  his  com- 
mand. With  the  Hecla,  375  tons,  and  the 
Griper  gun  brig,  180  tons,  under  Lieut.  Iid- 
don,  he  reached  Lancaster  sound  July  30,  and 
sailed  through  it.  He  explored  and  named 
Barrow  strait,  Prince  Regent  inlet,  and  Well- 
ington channel,  and,  entering  the  water  which 
has  since  been  called  Parry  or  Melville  sound, 
reached  on  Sept.  4  Ion.  110°  W.,  thereby  earn- 
ing a  reward  of  £5,000  offered  by  parliament 
to  the  first  ship's  company  which  should  attain 
that  meridian.  He  wintered  at  Melville  island, 
and  his  expedients  to  preserve  the  health  and 
spirits  of  his  crews  during  the  long  arctic  night 
were  scarcely  less  deserving  of  mention  than 
his  achievements  as  a  discoverer.  Exercise 
was  rigorously  enforced,  all  possible  precau- 


tions were  taken  against  scurvy,  and  a  newspa- 
per and  theatre  were  provided  as  amusements. 
On  Aug.  2,  1820,  after  being  frozen  in  for  10 
months,  the  ships  were  released ;  but  the  ice 
precluded  the  hope  of  further  progress  west- 
ward, and  Parry  returned  to  England.  He  was 
promoted  to  the  rank  of  commander  and  elect- 
ed a  member  of  the  royal  society,  and  the 
narrative  of  his  adventures  was  published  by 
order  of  the  admiralty.  In  May,  1821,  Parry 
sailed  again  with  the  Fury,  accompanied  by 
Capt.  Lyon  in  the  Hecla.  They  were  twice 
frozen  in  for  several  months,  but  made  many 
explorations  and  discoveries  by  sea  and  land. 
(See  Arctic  Discovery.)  Returning,  he  ar- 
rived at  Brassa  sound,  Shetland,  Oct.  10,  1823. 
During  his  absence  he  had  been  made  post 
captain  (Nov.  8,  1821)  ;  and  in  December, 
1823,  he  was  appointed  acting  hydrographer 
to  the  admiralty.  His  "Journal  of  a  Second 
Voyage  for  the  Discovery  of  a  Northwest  Pas- 
sage "  was  published  by  the  admiralty  in  1824. 
The  results  of  these  voyages  encouraged  fur- 
ther search,  and  the  Hecla  and  Fury  were  con- 
sequently refitted  as  speedily  as  possible.  In 
May,  1824,  Capt.  Parry  sailed  again  in  the 
Hecla,  with  Capt.  Hoppner  in  the  Fury  under 
his  orders.  His  plan  was  to  pass  through 
Prince  Regent  inlet,  but  winter  overtook  him 
almost  at  the  entrance  of  that  channel;  and 
soon  after  the  ice  broke  up,  July  20,  1825,  his 
vessels  were  caught  in  the  drift  and  carried 
down  the  inlet.  On  Aug.  21  the  Fury  was  driv- 
en ashore,  and  so  badly  damaged  that  she  had 
to  be  abandoned.  Her  crew  and  stores  were 
transferred  to  the  Hecla,  and  Capt.  Parry  re- 
turned to  England,  having  accomplished  little 
or  nothing.  His  "Journal  of  a  Third  Voyage 
for  the  Discovery  of  the  Northwest  Passage  " 
appeared  in  1826.  He  now  turned  his  attention 
to  a  plan  originally  proposed  by  Scoresby  for 
reaching  the  pole  in  boats  that  could  be  fitted 
to  sledges,  and  set  sail  in  the  Hecla,  March  27, 
1827,  for  Spitzbergen.  Here  the  vessel  was 
left  in  harbor  with  a  part  of  the  crew,  while 
the  remainder,  led  by  Capt.  Parry  and  Lieut. 
James  C.  Ross,  set  out  for  the  pole  in  two 
boats,  June  20.  These  boats  were  framed  of 
ash  and  hickory,  covered  with  water-proof 
canvas,  over  which  were  successive  planks  of 
fir  and  oak,  with  a  sheet  of  stout  felt  inter- 
posed. They  were  flat-bottomed  inside,  and 
had  runners  so  that  they  could  be  used  as 
sledges.  The  adventurers  sailed  through  an 
open  sea  for  about  80  m.,  qnd  then  found,  in- 
stead of  a  solid  plain  of  ice,  a  surface  half  cov- 
ered with  water,  on  which  walking  and  sailing 
were  almost  equally  difficult.  With  immense 
labor  they  reached  lat.  82°  45'  N.,  the  nearest 
point  to  the  pole  as  yet  attained  by  any  ex- 
pedition. At  the  end  of  September  they  ar- 
rived in  England,  where  Capt.  Parry  published 
his  "Narrative  of  an  Attempt  to  reach  the 
North  Pole  in  Boats  fitted  for  the  Purpose" 
(1827),  and  resumed  his  duties  as  hydrographer 
to  the  admiralty.     On  April  29,  1829,  he  was 


PARRY  SOUND 


PARSLEY 


129 


knighted  at  the  same  time  with  Sir  John  Frank- 
lin. Both  also  received  from  the  university  of 
Oxford  the  degree  of  D.  0.  L.  Parry  was  ap- 
pointed commissioner  of  the  Australian  agri- 
cultural company,  and  passed  five  years  at  Port 
Stephens,  about  90  m.  from  Sydney.  Return- 
ing to  England  in  1834,  he  was  appointed  as- 
sistant poor-law  commissioner  for  the  county 
of  Norfolk;  was  employed  by  the  admiralty 
in  1837  to  organize  the  packet  service  between 
Liverpool,  Holyhead,  and  Dublin ;  and  in  April 
of  the  same  year  received  the  newly  created 
office  of  comptroller  of  steam  machinery  for 
the  royal  navy.  He  retired  from  active  ser- 
vice in  December,  1846,  with  the  appointment 
of  captain-superintendent  of  the  royal  Clar- 
ence yard  and  of  the  naval  hospital  at  Has- 
lar  near  Portsmouth.  In  1852  he  was  obliged 
to  vacate  this  office  on  attaining  the  rank  of 
rear  admiral  of  the  white,  and  in  1853  he  was 
made  lieutenant  governor  of  Greenwich  hospi- 
tal. He  wrote  a  treatise  on  "  Nautical  Astron- 
omy by  Night,"  "  The  Parental  Character  of 
God,"  and  a  "  Lecture  on  Seamen."  His  life 
has  been  written  by  his  son,  the  Rev.  E.  Parry 
(London,  1857). 

PARRY  SOUND.    See  Melville  Sound. 

PARRY  SOUND,  a  judicial  district  of  Ontario, 
Canada,  on  the  E.  shore  of  Georgian  bay ; 
area,  3,420  sq.  m. ;  pop.  in  1871,  1,519.  It  is 
watered  by  the  outlet  of  Lake  Nipissing  and 
several  other  streams.     Capital,  Parry  Sound. 

PARSEES  0'.  <?.,  inhabitants  of  Fars  or  Per- 
sia), the  modern  followers  of  Zoroaster,  mostly 
dwelling  in  Yezd  and  neighboring  towns  in 
Persia,  and  in  Bombay  and  a  few  other  places 
in  India.  While  in  Persia  their  number  has 
decreased  to  about  7,000,  they  are  steadily  in- 
creasing in  India,  where  they  are  variously 
estimated  at  from  150,000  to  ^00,000.  The 
Mohammedans  apply  to  them  in  contempt  the 
name  of  Guebres  or  Ghaurs,  meaning  "infi- 
dels." (See  Guebres.)  When  the  empire  of 
the  Sassanides  was  destroyed  by  the  Saracens 
(about  650),  the  Zoroastrians  were  persecuted, 
and  most  of  them  embraced  Islamism.  Only  a 
small  number  clung  to  the  old  faith,  and  were 
finally  allowed  to  settle  in  one  of  the  most 
barren  parts  of  Persia.  Some  of  the  Zoroas- 
trians fled  or  emigrated  to  Hindostan,  where 
the  rajah  of  Guzerat  was  their  principal  pro- 
tector ;  but  on  the  spread  of  Mohammedan- 
ism they  became  again  subject  to  persecution. 
Since  the  occupation  of  the  country  by  the 
British  they  have  fared  better,  and  form  now 
quite  an  influential  portion  of  the  population. 
They  keep  up  an  intercourse  with  their  breth- 
ren in  Persia.  Their  worship  in  the  course  of 
time  became  corrupted  by  many  Hindoo  prac- 
tices, and  the  reverence  for  fire  and  the  sun,  as 
emblems  of  the  glory  of  Ormuzd,  degenera- 
ted into  idolatrous  practices.  The  sacred  fire 
which  Zoroaster  was  said  to  have  brought 
from  heaven  is  kept  burning  in  consecrated 
spots,  and  temples  are  built  over  subterranean 
fires.      Priests  tend  the  fires  on  the  altars, 


chanting  hymns  and  burning  incense.  After 
an  ineffectual  attempt  by  the  Par  see  punchayet 
or  council  to  purify  the  worship,  a  society 
called  the  Rahnumai  Mazdiasna,  or  "  Religious 
Reform  Association,"  was  organized  in  1852 
for  the  regeneration  of  the  social  condition  of 
the  Parsees  and  the  restoration  of  the  creed  of 
Zoroaster  to  its  original  purity.  The  meetings 
and  publications  of  this  society  are  said  to  have 
had  a  considerable  effect.  There  is  now  a 
marked  desire  on  the  part  of  the  Parsees  to 
adapt  themselves  to  the  manners  and  customs 
of  Europeans.  The  public  and  private  schools 
of  Bombay  are  largely  attended  by  their  chil- 
dren, and  every  effort  is  made  to  procure  the 
translation  of  standard  English  works.  Many 
follow  commercial  pursuits,  and  several  of  the 
wealthiest  merchants  of  India  belong  to  the 
sect. — For  their  religious  tenets  and  history, 
see  Zend-Avesta,  and  Zoroaster. 

PARSLEY,  a  common  umbelliferous  garden 
plant  which  has  been  in  cultivation  for  centu- 
ries. The  old  English  authors  wrote  the  word 
percely,  evidently  from  the  Fr.  persil,  that  be- 
ing derived  from  the  Lat.  petroselinum,  which 
is  from  the  Gr.  Trirpog,  a  rock,  and  akXivov,  some 
umbelliferous  plant.  In  most  works  the  bo- 
tanical name  of  parsley  is  given  as  petroseli- 
num sativum,  but  Bentham  and  Hooker,  in 
revising  this  most  difficult  family  for  their  Ge- 
nera Plantarum,  found  that  petroselinum  was 
not  sufficiently  distinct  to  rank  as  a  genus, 
and  united  it  with  carum,  the  caraway ;  their 
views  are  likely  to  be  adopted,  and  parsley 
will  hereafter  be  carum  petroselinum.  The 
family  umbelliferoj  is  often  called  the  parsley 
family,  and  its  members  for  the  most  part- 
have  a  strong  family  resemblance ;  the  genera 


Single  or  Wild  Parsley  (Carum  petroselinum). 

are  founded  upon  minute  differences  in  the 
fruit,  puzzling  to  the  botanist,  and  altogether 
too  obscure  for  popular  description.  Parsley, 
like  many  others  of  the  family,  has  hollow 


130 


PARSLEY 


PARSNIP 


stems,  much  divided  leaves  with  sheathing 
petioles,  and  small  five-petalled  flowers  in  com- 
pound umbels,  followed  by  a  fruit  which  splits 
into  one-seeded  halves;  the  coating  of  these 
half  fruits  contains  an  aromatic  oil  in  long 
narrow  receptacles  or  oil  tubes,  which  are 
often  placed  between  elevated  ribs.  Parsley 
is  a  biennial,  sometimes  lasting  longer,  with  a 
thick  white  root,  which  with  the  leaves  and 
all  other  parts  has  a  peculiar  aromatic  odor 
and  taste.  The  leaves  .are  triangular  in  general 
outline,  twice  pinnate  and  in  the  garden  varie- 
ties much  subdivided  and  cut.  The  first  year 
it  forms  a  tuft  of  radical  leaves ;  the  next  year 
the  flower  stem  appears  and  grows  about  3  ft. 
high  with  umbels  of  small  yellowish  or  green- 
ish flowers,  followed  by  the  fruits  or  seeds. 
Parsley  is  a  native  of  the  eastern  Mediterranean 
region,  and  being  much  cultivated  throughout 
Europe  has  established  itself  in  various  locali- 
ties ;  in  England  it  is  quite  naturalized  on  some 
of  the  rocky  coasts.  It  is  cultivated  in  most 
gardens  for  its  aromatic  leaves,  which  are  used 
in  seasoning  soups  and  various  dishes,  and  also 
for  garnishing,  the  rich  green  color  of  the  leaves 
and  their  elegantly  divided  and  crisped  foli- 
age making  it  superior  to  all  other  plants  for 
this  use.  The  original  form  of  the  plant,  with 
plain  leaves,  is  seldom  seen,  several  varieties 
with  finely  cut  foliage,  called  curled  and  double 
parsley,  being  preferred  on  account  of  their 
greater  beauty;  in  some  of  the  recent  kinds, 
called  fimbriated  or  mossy,  the  leaves  are  re- 
markably subdivided.  Hamburg  parsley  is  a 
large-rooted  variety,  cultivated  in  the  same 
manner  as  carrots ;  its  roots  are  used  to  flavor 
soups  and  stews,  or  are  cooked  separately  like 
parsnips.  The  seeds  of  parsley  are  very  slow 
in  germinating,  often  remaining  a  month  or 
six  weeks  before  the  plants  appear.  When 
the  plants  are  large  enough  they  are  thinned 
to  10  in.  apart,  or  transplanted  and  set  at  the 
same  distance ;  it  is  said  that  repeated  trans- 
plantings  tend  to  make  the  leaves  more  double. 
Parsley  is  sometimes  used  as  an  edging  to  beds 
in  kitchen  gardens  with  pleasing  effect.  Mar- 
ket gardeners  supply  it  fresh  all  winter ;  in 
September  the  foliage  is  cut  away  from  the 
roots,  and  before  cold  weather  a  short  dense 
tuft  of  leaves  is  formed;  the  plants  are  dug 
before  the  ground  freezes,  and  stored  in  trenches 
covered  with  straw.  If  kept  in  the  open  ground 
over  winter,  it  should  be  protected  by  litter ; 
in  spring  it  soon  throws  up  its  flower  stalks. 
The  leaves  are  the  favorite  food  of  the  parsley 
worm,  a  green  caterpillar  marked  with  black 
and  yellow  spots;  when  disturbed  it  throws 
out,  just  behind  its  head,  a  pair  of  soft  orange- 
colored  horns,  which  emit  a  powerful  and  most 
repulsive  odor;  this  is  the  larva  of  a  large, 
handsome  black  butterfly  with  yellow  mark- 
ings, papilio  asterias.  Parsley  has  long  been 
used  medicinally,  and  at  one  time  remarkable 
powers  were  attributed  to  it ;  the  root  is  now 
occasionally  employed  as  a  diuretic.  Its  odor 
has  a  remarkable  power  in  neutralizing  or 


masking  other  odors ;  it  is  often  chewed  after 
eating  onions,  and  it  is  said  to  render  even  the 
odor  of  garlic  imperceptible.  In  some  parts  of 
England  the  superstition  prevails  among  the 
rural  people  that  to  transplant  parsley  will 
entail  bad  luck. — Fool's  parsley,  cethusa  cyna- 
pium,  is  a  highly  poisonous  plant  of  the  same 
family,  introduced  from  Europe  and  more  or 
less  naturalized  in  some  of  the  older  states ;  as 
it  resembles  the  plain  form  of  parsley,  serious 
accidents  and  even  death  have  resulted  in  Eng- 
land from  mistaking  it  for  parsley.  In  flower 
the  two  are  easily  distinguished,  as  in  the  fool's 
parsley  each  partial  umbel  has  an  involucel  of 
three  long,  narrow,  pendent  leaves  beneath  it, 
which  the  true  parsley  has  not ;  mistakes  may 
be  avoided  by  using  only  the  curled  parsley. 

PARSNIP  (pastinaca  sativa),  an  umbellifer- 
ous plant,  cultivated  for  its  edible  root.  The 
name  was  written  pastnip  by  the  old  herbalists, 
from  pastinaca,  the  ancient  Latin  name.  The 
parsnip  is  found  wild  in  southern  and  central 
Europe  and  temperate  Russian  Asia  and  parts 
of  Great  Britain,  and  is  introduced  into  this 
country ;  it  is  usually  a  biennial,  sometimes  in 
the  wild  state  flowering  the  first  year.  It  has  a 
hard  tap  root  with  strong  branches ;  an  erect 
stem  about  2  ft.  high  and  branching;  lower 
leaves  pinnate,  and  more  or  less  downy  on  the 
under  side,  the  divisions  sharply  toothed  and 
more  or  less  lobed ;  the  umbels  of  yellow  flow- 
ers of  eight  to  twelve  rays,  flat  on  top,  without 
involucres ;  fruit  about  three  lines  long,  oval ; 
the  conspicuous  oil  tubes  run  their  whole  length. 
In  cultivation  the  root  is  much  increased  in 
size,  almost  without  branches,  and  is  soft  and 
fleshy ;  the  stem  is  much  taller  and  the  leaves 
longer  and  smoother  than  when  wild.  Prof. 
Buckman  of  the  royal  agricultural  college,  Eng- 
land, experimented  on 
the  improvement  of 
the  parsnip  from  the 
wild  state.  He  found 
that  the  plants  from 
seeds  sown  as  soon  as 
ripe,  and.  those  from 
the  same  lot  of  seeds 
kept  until  spring  and 
then  sown,  showed 
marked  differences  ; 
and  he  regards  the 
keeping  of  the  seeds 
out  of  the  ground, 
from  the  time  they  are 
ripe  until  they  can  be 
sown  in  spring,  as  an 
important  step  in  cul- 
tivation, as  it  places 
the  seeds  in  a  condi- 
tion quite  different 
from  their  wild  state. 
The  roots  in  two 
generations  from  the  wild  seed  showed  dif- 
ferences in  form,  including  specimens  with 
tendencies  in  their  shape  toward  that  of  the 
established  cultivated  varieties.     Selecting  a 


Parsnip  (Pastinaca  sativa). 


PARSONS 


131 


root  of  promising  appearance,  he  continued  to 
breed  from  this,  and  by  careful  selection  es- 
tablished a  variety  which  in  ten  years  was  put 
in  the  seed  market  as  the  student  parsnip, 
which  still  maintains  a  high  reputation.  Pars- 
nips were  held  in  much  esteem  by  the  Ro- 
mans,  who  boiled  and  ate  them  with  honey; 
the  leaves  were  eaten  to  promote  digestion, 
and  it  was  believed  that  if  a  portion  of  the 
plant  were  carried  about  the  person  the  wear- 
er would  never  be  stung  by  serpents. — In  cul- 
tivation parsnips  do  best  in  a  light  rich  soil, 
which  is  better  if  manured  the  previous  au- 
tumn ;  the  seeds  are  not  to  be  depended  upon 
if  more  than  a  year  old ;  they  are  sown  in  drills 
15  in.  apart,  as  early  as  the  soil  can  be  worked, 
thinned  to  6  in.  apart,  and  kept  free  from  weeds 
until  the  leaves  are  so  large  as  to  prevent  work- 
ing between  the  rows.  As  the  root  is  perfect- 
ly hardy,  it  is  harvested  after  more  tender 
kinds  have  been  cared  for ;  the  roots  are  stored 
in  trenches  covered  with  litter,  or  placed  in 
barrels  or  bins  with  sand  or  sandy  earth  among 
them  to  prevent  drying.  It  is  customary  to 
leave  a  portion  of  the  crop  in  the  ground  over 
winter,  as  many  think  the  freezing  it  is  sub- 
jected to  renders  the  root  more  sweet  and  ten- 
der ;  but  such  roots  should  be  dug  as  soon  as 
the  frost  is  out,  as  growth  starts  early,  and  if 
they  begin  to  grow  their  quality  is  impaired. 
The  varieties  are  few.  The  common  or  Dutch 
parsnip  has  a  root  20  to  30  in.  long  and  3  to 
4  in.  in  diameter  at  the  shoulder,  occasionally 
with .  a  few  strong  fangs  or  branches.  The 
Guernsey  has  very  long  tapering  roots;  on  the 
island  of  Guernsey,  where  they  are  an  impor- 
tant crop,  it  is  not  unusual  for  them  to  be  4  ft. 
long.  The  hollow-crowned  has  a  depressed 
ring  around  the  insertion  of  the  leaf  stalks,  for 
which  reason  it  is  also  called  the  cup  parsnip ; 
it  is  about  18  in.  long  and  4  in.  in  diameter  at 
the  shoulder,  ending  somewhat  abruptly  in  a 
small  tap  root ;  this  is  the  variety  most  culti- 
vated. The  round  or  turnip-rooted  is  very 
broad  in  proportion  to  its  length.  The  student 
has  a  superior  flavor.  The  yield  is  from  500 
to  800  bushels  to  the  acre,  according  to  the 
soil.  The  root  contains  water  85-05,  albumi- 
noids 7*30,  sugar  2*88,  other  carbohydrates 
6'77,  besides  a  small  amount  of  oil  and  inor- 
ganic matter.  An  infusion  of  the  roots  con- 
tains sufficient  sugar  to  form  when  fermented 
with  hops  a  kind  of  beer,  and  a  marmalade 
and»parsnip  wine  are  made  from  them. 

PARSONS,  a  city  of  Labette  co.,  Kansas,  at 
the  junction  of  the  Sedalia  branch  of  the  Mis- 
souri, Kansas,  and  Texas  railroad  with  the 
main  line  extending  from  Junction  City  to 
Denison,  Texas,  120  m.  S.  by  E.  of  Topeka ; 
pop.  in  1875,  3,500.  It  is  built  on  a  high  roll- 
ing prairie  between  and  near  the  junction  of 
the  Big  and  Little  Labette  rivers.  The  chief 
manufactories  are  the  shops  of  the  railroad 
company,  a  large  grist  mill,  a  steam  furniture 
factory,  a  plough  factory,  three  wagon  and 
carriage  factories,  a  brewery,  a  cotton  gin,  and 


a  chair  factory.  There  are  a  national  bank 
with  a  capital  of  $300,000,  a  savings  bank  with 
$100,000  capital,  masonic  and  odd  fellows' 
halls,  two  public  school  buildings  costing  $40,- 
000,  graded  public  schools  with  500  pupils, 
three  weekly  newspapers,  and  five  churches : 
Congregational,  Episcopal,  Methodist,  Presby- 
terian, and  Koman  Catholic.  Parsons  was  laid 
out  and  the  first  lot  sold,  March  8,  1871. 

PARSONS.  I.  Theophilns,  an  American  jurist, 
born  in  Byfield,  Essex  co.,  Mass.,  Feb.  24, 1750,, 
died  in  Boston,  Oct.  30,  1813.  He  graduated 
at  Harvard  college  in  1769,  and  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  at  Falmouth  (now  Portland),  Me., 
in  1774.  The  almost  total  destruction  of  Fal- 
mouth by  a  British  fleet  in  October,  1775, 
having  interrupted  his  career  in  that  place,  he 
returned  to  Byfield,  and  for  several  years  re- 
ceived the  instruction  and  assistance  of  Judge 
Trowbridge,  called  by  Chancellor  Kent  "the 
oracle  of  the  common  law  in  New  England.1' 
In  the  library  of  this  jurist,  one  of  the  best  in 
America,  he  laid  the  foundation  of  a  vast  ac- 
cumulation of  legal  learning.  Settling  in  New- 
buryport,  he  entered  upon  a  lucrative  practice, 
which  gradually  embraced  all  the  New  Eng- 
land states.  In  1778  he  formed  one  of  the 
so-called  "  Essex  Junto,"  a  body  of  citizens  of 
Essex  county  who  opposed  the  adoption  of  the 
state  constitution  recently  framed  by  the  Mas- 
sachusetts legislature ;  and  he  was  probably 
the  author  of  the  pamphlet  known  as  "  The 
Essex  Result,"  which  contributed  largely  to 
the  rejection  of  the  constitution.  In  1779  he 
was  a  delegate  to  the  convention  which  framed 
the  state  constitution  finally  adopted ;  and  in 
1788  of  the  convention  to  ratify  the  federal 
constitution,  which  he  actively  supported,  be- 
ing the  author  of  the  "Proposition"  offered 
by  John  Hancock  ratifying  the  instrument, 
and  recommending  certain  amendments  known 
as  the  "  conciliatory  resolutions."  He  occa- 
sionally served  in  the  legislature  after  this, 
but  took  no  prominent  part  in  public  affairs, 
although  to  the  close  of  his  life  he  remained  a 
consistent  federalist.  In  1800  he  removed  to 
Boston,  and  in  1806  was  appointed  chief  jus- 
tice of  the  supreme  judicial  court,  which  post 
he  held  at  the  time  of  his  death.  A  collection 
of  his  judicial  opinions  was  published  in  New 
York  under  the  title  of  "  Commentaries  on 
the  Law  of  the  United  States."  His  decisions 
threw  much  light  upon  the  laws  of  pleading, 
marine  insurance,  and  real  property,  and  he 
rendered  a  substantial  service  to  the  commu- 
nity by  discountenancing  delays  and  expediting 
the  trial  of  causes.  He  was  distinguished  as 
a  classical  scholar,  and  as  a  mathematician  of 
considerable  ability.  An  elaborate  memoir  of 
him  has  been  published  by  his  son  (Boston, 
1859).  II.  Theophilns,  an  American  jurist,  son 
of  the  preceding,  born  in  Newburyport,  Mass., 
May  17,  1797.  He  graduated  at  Harvard  col- 
lege in  1815,  studied  law,  and  after  a  brief  visit 
to  Europe  entered  upon  the  practice  of  his 
profession,  first  in  Taunton,  and  afterward  in 


132 


PARSONS 


PARTHENOGENESIS 


Boston.  For  several  years  he  was  a  constant 
contributor  to  the  "  North  American  Review," 
writing  also  for  other  periodicals,  and  founded 
and  edited  the  "United  States  Literary  Ga- 
zette." He  was  an  early  convert  to  the  doc- 
trines of  the  New  Jerusalem  church,  and  has 
written  much  in  exposition  and  defence  of 
them.  Three  volumes  of  "Essays"  (1845  et 
seq.),  "Deus  Homo"  (1867),  and  "The  Infinite 
and  the  Finite  "  (1872),  are  his  chief  Swedenbor- 
gian  works.  In  1847  he  was  appointed  Dane 
professor  of  law  in  the  Harvard  law  school, 
and  he  has  since  resided  at  Cambridge,  occu- 
pying his  leisure  in  the  preparation  of  legal 
treatises.  He  has  published  "  The  Law  of  Con- 
tracts" (2  vols.,  1853;  5th  ed.,  3  vols.,  1864); 
"  Elements  of  Mercantile  Law  "  (1856)  ;  "  Laws 
of  Business  for  Business  Men"  (1857);  an 
elaborate  and  comprehensive  treatise  on  mari- 
time law,  including  the  law  of  shipping,  the 
law  of  marine  insurance,  and  the  law  and  prac- 
tice of  admiralty  (2  vols.,  1859) ;  "  Notes  and 
Bills  of  Exchange"  (2  vols.,  1862);  "Law  of 
Partnership  "  (1867)  ;  "  Marine  Insurance  and 
General  Average"  (2  vols.,  1868);  "Shipping 
and  Admiralty"  (2  vols.,  1869);  and  "The 
Political,  Personal,  and  Property  Rights  of  a 
Citizen  of  the  United  States  "  (1875). 

PARSONS,  Thomas  William,  an  American  poet, 
born  in  Boston,  Aug.  18,  1819.  He  was  edu- 
cated at  the  Boston  Latin  school,  and  in  1836 
visited  Italy,  where  he  studied  Italian  litera- 
ture and  translated  the  first  10  cantos  of  Dante's 
Inferno  (Boston,  1843).  He  took  the  degree 
of  M.  D.  at  Harvard  university  in  1853,  and 
for  some  years  practised  as  a  dentist.  In  1854 
he  published  "  Ghetto  di  Roma,"  a  volume  of 
poems.  His  translation  of  the  Inferno  was 
completed  and  published,  with  illustrations,  in 
1867  (4to,  Boston).  He  resided  for  some  years 
in  England,  but  returned  to  Boston  in  1872. 
His  later  volumes  of  original  poems  are  "  The 
Magnolia"  (printed  privately,  1867),  "  The  Old 
House  at  Sudbury"  (1870),  and  "The  Shadow 
of  the  Obelisk"  (London,  1872). 

PARSONSTOWN,  or  Birr,  a  town  of  King's  co., 
Ireland,  69  m.  W.  S.  W.  of  Dublin ;  pop.  in 
1871,  4,939.  It  contains  two  national  schools 
(one  for  girls  and  one  for  boys),  a  hospital,  a 
reading  room,  and  a  mechanics'  institute.  Near 
it  is  Birr  castle,  the  residence  of  the  earl  of 
Rosse,  with  his  celebrated  observatory. 

PARTHENOGENESIS  (Gr.  irapdhog,  virgin,  and 
■yiveaig,  birth),  a  name  given  to  the  phenome- 
non in  the  organic  world,  believed  by  many  to 
occur,  though  still  questioned  by  others,  of  a 
production  of  successive  generations  of  pro- 
creating individuals,  originating  from  a  sin- 
gle fertilized  ovum,  but  without  any  renewal, 
through  such  series,  of  fertilization.  Ordinari- 
ly careful  observations  seem  at  first  to  result 
in  the  rule  that,  certainly  in  the  animal  realm, 
andprobably  in  the  vegetable,  offspring  can 
only*arise  by  means  of  a  union  of  sexual  ele- 
ments, though  this  union  may  be  either  obvious 
or  concealed.     Yet  there  were  those  among 


the  earlier  writers  who  held  to  be  possible 
what  they  called  a  lucina  sine  concubitu.  M. 
Bonnet,  about  the  middle  of  the  18th  century, 
first  gave  a  scientific  standing  to  this  opin- 
ion, by  discovering  that  the  aphis  (plant  louse) 
may  produce  a  numerous  offspring,  and  these 
be  followed  by  several  generations,  without 
the  intervention  in  any  known  or  conceivable 
way  of  the  masculine  fertilizing  principle.  M. 
de  Quatrefages  proposed  to  name  this  result 
agamogenesis,  or  production  without  union. 
The  name  at  the  head  of  this  article  was  ap- 
plied to  certain  cases  of  this  kind  by  Prof. 
Owen.  Of  Siebold's  work  on  this  subject  a 
translation  appeared  in  L  ond  on  in  1 85  7.  Strict- 
ly, the  name  parthenogenesis  is  hardly  ap- 
propriate, since  either  the  producers  in  these 
cases  are  not  perfect  ordinary  females,  or  the 
production  is  not  that  of  perfect  ordinary  off- 
spring; or  both  these  circumstances  may  be 
true.  Siebold  investigated  this  unisexual,  or  at 
least  unusual  generation  in  certain  sac-bearing 
lepidoptera,  in  the  silkworm  moth,  and  in  the 
honey  bee.  In  the  first,  females  only  result ; 
in  the  second,  both  sexes.  Along  with  Dzier- 
zon,  he  obtained  in  relation  to  the  honey  bee 
the  most  complete  set  of  observations.  The 
queen  bee,  impregnated  once  for  all  for  her 
five  or  six  years  of  life,  deposits  thereafter,  at 
proper  periods,  the  germs  of  successive  swarms 
or  colonies ;  and  the  microscope  reveals  the 
fact  that  the  eggs  destined  to  become  work- 
ers (imperfect  females)  and  queens  (perfect  fe- 
males) are  fertilized,  as  ordinarily,  by  contact 
or  penetration  of  spermatozooids,  while  those 
to  become  drones  (males)  undergo  no  such  in- 
fluence ;  so  that  the  production  of  these  last  is 
agamogenetic.  In  further  proof,  if  the  queen 
have  her  wings  crippled  from  the  first,  so  that 
she  takes  no  flight,  she  produces  only  males, 
thus  ruining  the  hive ;  and  a  like  result  may 
follow  the  pinching  or  freezing  of  one  side  of 
her  body,  and  also,  because  the  spermatozooids 
have  become  exhausted,  in  her  old  age.  So, 
rarely,  the  workers  may  without  fertilization 
produce  eggs,  but  those  of  males  only.  But 
any  of  these  males,  though  all  directly  agamic 
or  fatherless,  can  become  efficient  in  a  return 
to  the  ordinary  or  bisexual  mode  of  reproduc- 
tion. In  his  more  recent  work  (Leipsic,  1871), 
Siebold  has  continued  his  observations  to  the 
wasps  (polistes  and  vespa)  and  several  other 
insects,  showing  that  the  males  in  many  are 
developed  from  unfertilized  eggs.  According 
to  Von  Grimm  ("Academy,"  1870)  parthenoge- 
nesis occurs  in  the  pupa  state  in  the  dipterous 
genus  chironomus,  as  Wagner  had  previously 
announced  in  miastor;  this  kind  of  reproduc- 
tion is  called  by  Von  Baer  pedogenesis.  In 
this  insect  the  formation  of  two  egg-like  re- 
productive bodies  begins  in  the  larva,  but  the 
eggs  are  not  extruded  till  the  pupa  state  is 
reached ;  and  he  thinks  these  cases  may  be  due  to 
self-fecundation. — Bonnet's  experiments  with 
the  aphis  yield,  as  intimated  above,  more  curi- 
ous results.     He   carefully  isolated  a  newly 


PARTHENOGEKESIS 


133 


hatched  aphis  by  conveying  it  upon  a  twig  be- 
neath a  glass  shade  dipping  into  water.  Of 
fourscore  offspring  produced  alive  by  this  in- 
sect, one  was  isolated  in  like  manner,  and  with 
similar  result ;  and  this  was  repeated  as  long 
as  the  observations  continued,  or  for  nine 
successive  broods.  As  the  young  aphides  are 
ready  for  propagation  in  about  two  weeks,  it 
follows  that  in  the  course  of  a  summer  a  single 
parent  may  have  a  progeny  of  millions,  and  all 
without  renewed  intervention  of  the  male  ele- 
ment. Kyber  found  that  when  warmth  and 
food  were  abundantly  supplied,  this  agamic 
production  would  go  on  for  two  or  three  years; 
but  these  broods,  winged  or  wingless,  consist 
almost  wholly  of  imperfect  females,  seldom 
any  males.  The  true  females,  always  wingless, 
produce  only  after  sexual  union,  and  then  eggs, 
not  living  offspring.  And  ordinarily,  as  the 
cold  of  autumn  increases  and  the  supply  of 
food  fails,  the  agamic  young  give  place  to  true 
males  and  females,  the  latter  laying  eggs  which 
the  next  spring  hatch  out  again  viviparous  or 
imperfect  females.  Thus  there  is  a  cycle  of 
changes ;  a  large  but  varying  number  of  links 
of  non-paternal,  being  interposed  between  any 
two  of  paternal  generation.  The  imperfect 
females  have,  in  place  of  ovaries,  certain  tubu- 
lar organs,  the  germs  lying  in  which  develop 
into  living  insects.  Thus  the  case  is  only  ap- 
parently, not  really,  anomalous ;  the  real  indi- 
vidual of  the  aphides  is  the  perfect  male  or  fe- 
male only,  and  union  of  these  must  occur  for 
the  perpetuation  of  the  race ;  but  under  favor- 
ing conditions,  by  a  sort  of  exuberance  of  vital 
activity,  an  intercurrent  production  by  gem- 
mation or  budding  sets  in,  terminating  finally 
in  a  return  to  the  normal  individual.  Accord- 
ing to  this  view,  the  drone  bees  are  another 
instance  of  production  by  budding ;  and  still 
others  are  said  to  be  found  in  the  dapfinice 
(water  fleas),  and  in  some  species  of  butterfly. — 
In  plants,  the  occurrence  of  parthenogenesis, 
the  development  of  an  embryo  in  the  ovule, 
and  the  production  of  perfect  seed  without 
the  agency  of  the  pollen  or  male  element,  was 
maintained  in  the  last  century  by  Spallanzani, 
who  cited  hemp  and  spinach  as  plants,  among 
others,  in  which  this  took  place.  Since  then 
the  subject  has  been  discussed  by  botanists,  in- 
cluding some  of  the  most  eminent  of  the  pres- 
ent day,  without  very  decisive  results ;  as  ex- 
periments by  different  observers  upon  plants 
of  the  same  kind  have  led  to  decidedly  opposite 
conclusions,  the  question  of  the  occurrence  of 
parthenogenesis  cannot  be  regarded  as  settled. 
The  great  difficulty  attending  experiments  on 
hermaphrodite  or  bisexual  plants  has  led  ob- 
servers to  use  those  with  separate  sexes,  and 
monoecious,  or  more  generally  dioecious  plants, 
have  been  selected.  A  euphorbiaceous  shrub 
from  Australia,  cceleoogyne  (now  alchornea)  ili- 
cifolia,  produced  in  Europe  female  flowers  and 
perfected  seed,  while  no  male  plant  was  known 
to  be  in  the  country ;  the  plant  was  supposed  to 
be  perfectly  dioecious,  neither  male  flowers  nor 


stamens  being  detected,  and  the  production  of 
fertile  seeds  in  this  case  was  regarded  as  proof 
that,  in  this'  plant  at  least,  the  presence  of  pol- 
len was  not  necessary  to  their  formation  and 
development.  In  1857  Baillon  asserted  that  he 
had  found  a  stamen  in  one  of  the  female  flow- 
ers of  ccelebogyne,  but  this  was  denied  by  De- 
caisne,  who  asserted  that  Baillon  had  mistaken 
a  glanduliferous  bract  for  a  stamen ;  in  1860 
Karsten  announced  that  he  had  discovered  two 
hermaphrodite  flowers  upon  the  plant,  in  the 
Berlin  botanic  garden,  between  May  and  Au- 
gust, which  was  regarded  as  sufficient  to  account 
for  the  fruiting.  It  is  said  that  figs  developed 
in  summer  contain  no  male  flowers,  yet  the 
pistils  of  these  produce  seed  containing  an  em- 
bryo ;  but  both  kinds  of  flowers  in  the  fig  are 
exceedingly  small,  and  being  enclosed  within 
the  hollow  receptacle,  accurate  observation  is 
surrounded  with  difficulties.  The  experiments 
of  Kaudin  and  Decaisne  (Paris)  with  hemp 
were  conducted  with  female  plants,  some  in 
the  open  air  surrounded  by  a  high  fence,  and 
others  in  pots  placed  in  a  room  in  the  second 
story  of  the  house ;  no  male  flowers  could  be 
discovered  on  these  plants,  yet  all  bore  fruit, 
and  the  female  plants  from  these  seeds,  simi- 
larly isolated,  ripened  seeds  also.  On  the  oth- 
er hand,  Begel  of  St.  Petersburg,  in  experi- 
menting upon  spinach  and  mercurialis,  which 
Naudin  and  Decaisne  had  cited  as  giving 
seeds  upon  the  female  plant  when  isolated,  cut 
back  his  specimens  of  these  in  order  to  re- 
duce the  number  of  flower  clusters,  and  found 
that  in  every  instance  the  female  plants  thus 
treated  produced  more  or  less  male  flowers, 
very  much  reduced  and  stunted,  but  with 
stamens  which  produced  pollen,  though  the 
flowers  containing  them  were  so  insignificant 
that  they  might  have  been  unnoticed  had  not 
great  care  been  taken  in  the  search.  Another 
instance  cited  by  Naudin  and  Decaisne  is  bryo- 
ny, a  dioecious  plant  of  the  gourd  family ;  the 
pistillate  plants  of  this,  from  which  access  of 
pollen  was  carefully  shut  out,  produced  fruit 
in  the  greatest  abundance;  in  100  of  these 
fruits  12  had  no  seeds,  45  had  one  seed,  29  two 
seeds,  11  three  seeds,  two  had  four,  and  one 
had  five  seeds.  These  illustrations  are  sufficient 
to  show  the  difficulties  in  determining  whether 
perfect  seeds  are  formed  without  the  influence 
of  pollen  upon  the  ovule.  Besides  the  fact  that 
male  flowers  may  sometimes  be  developed  upon 
female  plants,  and  thus  clandestinely  supply 
pollen,  there  is  another  which  must  be  taken 
into  account:  in  flowers  of  separated  sexes 
rudiments  of  the  organs  of  the  other  sex  are 
often  distinctly  seen ;  in  the  staminate  flower, 
a  knob  or  protuberance  stands  in  the  place  of 
the  pistil,  and  in  pistillate  flowers  we  have  the 
places  of  the  stamens  occupied  by  glands,  or 
abortive  filaments,  as  if  one  or  the  other  series 
of  organs  had  been  suppressed  to  make  the 
flower  male  or  female.  The  many  well  known 
instances  in  which  a  plant  produces  all  three 
kinds  of  flowers,  staminate,  pistillate,  and  per- 


134 


PARTHENON 


PARTIIIA 


feet,  show  that  these  suppressed  organs  may- 
be developed  into  activity ;  and  this  happening 
in  a  single  flower,  or  with  a  single  stamen, 
might,  unobserved,  produce  sufficient  pollen  to 
fertilize  every  ovary  on  the  plant.  Though 
the  evidence  cited  to  prove  that  parthenogene- 
sis exists  in  plants  may  be  of  doubtful  value, 
there  is  no  good  reason  why  it  may  not  occur ; 
indeed,  analogy  with  animals,  and  the  methods 
by  which  some  plants  reproduce  themselves, 
indicate  that  its  occurrence  is  not  improbable. 
In  many  plants,  especially  some  in  high  lati- 
tudes, small  bulbs  are  produced  in  place  of 
seeds,  and  in  some  abnormal  flowers  buds  have 
been  found  occupying  the  place  of  the  ovules, 
or  prospective  seeds ;  a  small  bulb,  or  bulblet, 
consists  of  several  rudimentary  leaves  crowded 
upon  a  very  short  stem,  and  a  bud  has  almost 
the  same  structure;  the  embryo  within  the 
seed  is  more  simple  than  the  bulblet  and  the 
bud,  as  it  consists  of  a  minute  stem  and  only 
two  leaves,  or  sometimes  only  one;  that  this 
embryo  always  requires  the  presence  of  pollen 
for  its  formation,  while  the  more  highly  devel- 
oped bulblet  or  bud  is  produced  without  it,  is 
assuming  more  than  some  of  our  most  eminent 
physiologists  will  admit.  Until  within  a  com- 
paratively short  time  ferns  and  other  cryp- 
togamous  plants  were  considered  perfectly 
asexual,  but  it  is  now  known  that  some  if  not 
all  have  organs  corresponding  in  function  to 
stamens  and  pistils ;  in  ferns,  for  example,  the 
spore  produces  a  cellular  plate,  a  sort  of  in- 
termediate plant  called  prothallus,  upon  the 
surfaces  of  which  are  produced  organs  called 
archegonia,  which  when  fertilized  by  the  con- 
tact of  antherozoids,  produced  by  other  organs 
upon  the  prothallus  called  antheridia,  give  birth 
to  a  new  fern,  and  the  prothallus,  having  served 
its  purpose,  disappears ;  here  then  is  a  regular 
sexual  contaot,  and  it  has  been  supposed  to  be 
essential  to  the  production  of  a  now  plant 
among  ferns.  Not  long  ago  Prof.  W.  G.  Far- 
low,  now  of  Harvard  university,  discovered 
minute  fern  plantlets  issuing  from  a  prothallus 
upon  which  no  antheridia  or  archegonia  were 
present;  and  continuing  his  observations,  he 
found  in  the  same  collection  of  seedlings  about 
50  which  had  been  developed  from  prothalli 
destitute  of  both  sexual  organs,  and  showing 
very  conclusively  that  in  one  fern  at  least 
asexual  production  of  plants  may  take  place. 

PARTHENON.    See  Athens. 

PARTHENOPE,  in  mythology,  a  siren,  after 
whom  the  city  of  Neapolis  in  Campania  (Na- 
ples) was  believed  to  have  originally  borne 
the  same  name.  The  short-lived  republic  into 
which  the  French  in  1799  transformed  the 
Neapolitan  kingdom  was  hence  named  the  Par- 
thenopean. 

PARTIIIA,  an  ancient  country  of  Asia,  which 
for  several  hundred  years  was  the  seat  of  an 
extensive  and  powerful  empire.  Parthia  prop- 
er was  a  territory  S.  E.  of  the  Caspian  sea, 
now  embraced  in  >the  northern  portion  of  the 
Persian  province  of  Khurasan,  with  an  area  of 


about  33,000  sq.  m.  It  was  bounded  N.  W.  by 
Hyrcania,  N.  by  the  territory  of  the  Choras- 
mii  (Kharesm  or  Khiva),  N.  E.  by  Margiana, 
E.  by  Aria,  S.  E.  by  Drangiana  or  Sarangia, 
and  S.  and  W.  by  the  territory  of  the  Sagartii. 
The  soil  of  the  valleys  is  fertile,  producing 
large  crops  of  wheat,  barley,  rice,  and  cotton ; 
the  climate  is  severe  in  winter  and  hot  in  sum- 
mer. The  mountains  are  extensive,  but  of  no 
great  height,  none  of  them  exceeding  6,000  ft. ; 
and  besides  many  smaller  streams  there  are 
three  rivers  of  considerable  size,  including  the 
upper  course  of  the  Tedjend.  Parthia  had  no 
large  cities.  The  chief  was  Hecatompylos,  one 
of  the  cities  founded  by  Alexander  the  Great, 
which  when  the  Parthian  kingdom  bad  ex- 
panded into  an  empire  was  abandoned  by  the 
sovereigns,  though  it  always  retained  to  some 
extent  the  distinction  of  being  the  national 
capital,  and  a  royal  palace  was  maintained  there 
for  the  occasional  reception  of  the  court.  The 
site  of  Hecatompylos  has  not  been  ascertained, 
but  it  is  supposed  to  have  been  near  lat.  37° 
and  Ion.  56°  80'.— The  early  history  of  the 
Parthians  is  very  obscure.  They  are  not  men- 
tioned at  all  in  the  Old  Testament,  nor  in 
the  Zend-Avesta,  nor  in  the  Assyrian  inscrip- 
tions. In  the  inscriptions  of  Darius  Hystas- 
pis  (521-48()  B.  C.)  Parthia  is  enumerated 
among  the  provinces  of  the  Persian  empire. 
The  inhabitants  were  a  brave  and  hardy  peo- 
ple, of  Soythian  origin,  speaking  a  language 
half  Soythian,  half  Aryan,  were  armed  in  the 
Scythian  fashion,  and  displayed  extraordinary 
skill  in  horsemanship  and  in  archery.  Their 
armies  consisted  chiefly  of  cavalry,  and  their 
favorite  weapon  was  the  bow,  with  which  they 
fought  while  in  motion,  using  it  as  formida- 
bly in  retreating  as  in  advancing.  Herodotus 
speaks  of  them  as  a  people  subject  to  the  Per- 
sians in  the  reign  of  Darius,  and  as  taking  part 
in  the  expedition  of  Xerxes  against  Greece 
(480  B.  C),  armed  with  bows  and  with  spears. 
They  fought  on  the  Persian  side  at  Arbela 
against  Alexander,  and  submitted  to  that  con- 
queror without  resistance  after  the  death  of 
Darius  III.  .  On  the  division  of  Alexander's 
empire  among  his  chief  generals,  Parthia  came 
for  a  time  under  the  rulo  of  Antigonus,  and 
subsequently  under  that  of  Seleucus,  king  of 
Syria,  whose  dominion  extended  from  the  Med- 
iterranean to  the  Indus.  His  successors  Anti- 
ochus  I.  and  II.  were  almost  constantly  engaged 
in  wars  with  their  neighbors  in  Asia  Minor  and 
in  Egypt,  and  paid  little  attention  to  the  re- 
mote eastern  provinces,  whieh  they  (governed 
by  satraps  in  the  Persian  manner.  About  255 
B.C.  the  satrap  of  Baetria,  a  Greek  named  Dio- 
dotus,  revolted  ami  proclaimed  himself  king. 
Antiochus  II.  made  no  effort  to  subduo  him, 
and  the  independence  of  the  new  kingdom  was 
established  without  bloodshed.  A  few  Years 
later  (in  848,  according  to  an  inscription  dis- 
covered by  Qeorge  Smith  in  1874)  Parthia 
followed  the  example  of  Baetria,  and  became 
independent  under  a  ohief  named  Arsaees,  of 


PARTHIA 


135 


whom  contradictory  accounts  are  given  by  the 
ancient  historians.  According  to  one  account, 
he  was  a  Bactrian  who  would  not  submit  to 
Diodotus,  and  going  into  Parthia  induced  the 
natives  to  revolt  and  make  him  their  king.  An- 
other account  says  he  was  a  Parthian  of  high 
rank,  who,  having  been  grossly  insulted  by  the 
Greek  satrap,  killed  him  and  headed  a  success- 
ful revolt.  A  third  version  says  that  Arsaces 
was  a  Scythian  chief,  who  with  a  predatory 
band  entered  Parthia,  drove  out  the  Greeks, 
and  made  himself  king  with  the  consent  of 
the  natives,  who  hailed  him  as  a  deliverer. 
This  version  is  accepted  as  most  probable  by 
George  Rawlinson,  the  latest  historian  of  Par- 
thia. "Whatever  his  origin  or  however  he  ac- 
quired his  power,  Arsaces  met  with  no  oppo- 
sition from  Antiochus,  and  would  have  quickly 
established  his  rule  but  for  malcontents,  prob- 
ably of  Greek  descent,  in  his  new  kingdom. 
He  struggled  with  them  for  two  years,  and  fell 
in  battle  in  247  or  246.  He  was  succeeded  by 
his  brother,  who  in  addition  to  his  own  name, 
Tiridates,  took  that  of  Arsaces,  as  did  all  the 
Parthian  kings  down  to  the  fall  of  the  empire 
under  Arsaces  XXXIV.  (or  XXX.).  Arsaces 
II.  reigned  upward  of  30  years,  consolidated 
the  monarchy,  enlarged  its  boundaries  by  the 
conquest  of  Jlyrcania,  and  made  it  a  united 
and  powerful  nation.  He  repelled  a  formidable 
army  which  the  Syrian  king  Seleucus  Callinicus 
led  to  Parthia  in  237,  the  victory  over  which 
was  long  celebrated  by  the  Parthians  as  the 
second  beginning  of  their  independence.  Ar- 
saces III.,  whose  proper  name  was  Artabanus, 
and  whose  reign  began  about  214,  conquered 
Media,  an  aggression  which  led  to  immediate 
reprisals  by  the  Syrian  king  Antiochus  III., 
who  with  a  vast  army  retook  Media,  advanced 
into  Parthia,  and  occupied  Hecatompylos  with- 
out opposition.  He  then  invaded  Hyrcania  and 
captured  several  towns.  The  record  of  what 
followed  has  perished  with  the  lost  books  of 
Polybius.  It  is  only  known  that  after  a  strug- 
gle of  several  years  Antiochus  retired  about 
206,  having  made  a  treaty  acknowledging  the 
independence  of  Parthia.  For  a  considera- 
ble period  after  this  Parthian  history  is  almost 
a  blank.  Phraates  I.  (Arsaces  V.),  an  active 
and  warlike  king,  conquered  several  provinces 
from  the  Syrian  monarchy.  After  a  reign  of 
seven  years  he  was  succeeded  by  his  brother 
Mithridates  I.  (Arsaces  VI.),  the  most  distin- 
guished of  the  Parthian  kings.  During  his  long 
reign  (174-136)  the  kingdom  expanded  by  his 
conquests  into  a  great  empire,  extending  from; 
the  Euphrates  to  the  Indus,  and  including,  be- 
h<1<  s  Parthia  proper,  Bactria,  Aria,  Margiana,' 
1 1  j  rcania,  Media,  Persia,  and  Babylonia.  Mith- 
ridates mot  with  little  opposition  from  the 
Syrian  kin^s  whose  eastern  provinces  he  ap- 
propriated, because  those  rnonarchs  were  top 
much  absorbed  by  civil  war  in  Syria  to  attend 
to  anything  else,  But  at  length  Demetrius 
If.  so  I'm-  mpprmod  bii  domestic  enemies  as 
to  deem  it  prudent  to  undertake  a  campaign 


against  the  Parthians,  who  had  now  passed 
the  Euphrates  and  were  threatening  Syria  it- 
self. He  was  received  as  a  deliverer  by  the 
Greeks  who  occupied  the  cities,  and  who  hated 
the  Parthian  conquerors;  ana  with  their  aid 
and  that  of  disaffected  Persians  and  Bactriann, 
ho  won  many  battles  at  first,  but  was  finally 
defeated  in  a  great  battle  in  which  his  army 
was  destroyed  and  himself  taken  prisoner. 
Soon  after  this  victory  Mithridates  died,  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  Phraates  II.  (Arsa-  * 
ces  VII.).  Antiochus  Sidetes,  the  brother  of 
Demetrius,  had  become  king  of  Syria  on  the 
captivity  of  the  latter,  and  in  120  undertook 
to  rescue  the  captive  king  and  to  chastise  tin- 
Parthians.  He  accordingly  crossed  the  Eu- 
phrates with  a  vast  army,  which  at  first  met 
with  some  success,  but  was  at  last  totally  de- 
feated and  destroyed,  Antiochus  himself  be- 
ing killed.  The  Parthian  king  Phraates  did 
not  long  survive  his  victory;  ho  became  in- 
volved in  a  war  with  the  Scythian  nomads  on 
his  northern  frontier,  and  was  defeated  and 
slain  by  them  in  127.  His  successor  Artaba- 
nus II.  (Arsaces  VIII.)  met  with  the  same 
fate  about  three  years  later.  Mithridates  II.,  • 
called  the  Great  by  ancient  writers,  repelled 
the  Scythian  hordes  and  added  to  the  em- 
pire many  provinces  on  its  northern  side.  Ho 
also  invaded  Armenia,  which  brought  him 
into  contact  with  the  Romans.  Ho  probably 
died  about  89,  after  a  reign  of  85  years.  A 
period  of  civil  war  seems  to  have  followed, 
during  which  negotiations  with  the  Romans 
were  carried  on  with  regard  to  Armenia,  and 
a  sort  of  alliance  was  formed  between  the 
Roman  general  Pornpey  and  a  Parthian  king 
named  Phraates  III.,  who  was  assassinated  \>y 
his  sons  Mithridates  and  Orodes  about  60. 
Mithridates  became  king,  but  was  deposed  and 
put  to  death  by  Orodes  about  55.  In  that  year 
Orassus  became  consul  at  Rome,  and  being 
appointed  to  the  command  of  the  East  an- 
nounced his  intention  of  conquering  Parthia. 
After  a  reconnoissance  in  force  beyond  the  Eu- 
phrates in  54,  he  entered  on  his  great  campaign 
in  53  with  a  powerful  army,  which  was  totally 
defeated  by  the  turena  or  general  of  Orodes 
near  Carrhas  in  Mesopotamia.  Crassus  escaped 
from  the  battle,  but  was  soon  after  entrapped 
into  a  conference  and  put  to  death.  Of  his 
army  three  fourths  were  killed  or  captured. 
The  victorious  Parthians  now  invaded  Syria, 
which  had  become  a  Roman  province ;  but  as 
their  force  was  chiefly  cavalry,  they  could  not 
capture  any  of  the  cities,  and  were  easily  ex- 
pelled from  the  country  by  Caseins  the  pro- 
consul. Subsequently  Orodes  took  part  in  the 
civil  war  that  followed  the  death  of  Cajsar, 
by  sending  a  body  of  cavalry  to  the  aid  of 
Brutus  and  Cassius;  and  in  40,  having  the  aid 
of  a  Roman  soldier  of  much  experience,  Labi- 
enus,  one  of  the  defeated  party,  he  sent  a  great 
force  to  Invade  Syria  under  the  joint  com- 
mand of  Labienus  and  his  own  son  Pacorus. 
The  Parthians  under  Pacorus  overran  Syria, 


136 


PAETHIA 


Phoenicia,  and  Palestine,  in  the  last  named 
country  setting  up  Antigonus,  an  Asmonean 
prince,  as  priest-king,  who  governed  Jerusalem 
for  three  years  (40-37)  as  a  Parthian  satrap. 
Meanwhile  Labienus  with  a  portion  of  the  Par- 
thian army  invaded  Asia  Minor,  defeated  and 
slew  the  Roman  general  who  opposed  him,  and 
conquered  Oilicia,  Pamphylia,  Lycia,  and  Oaria, 
and  it  is  said  pillaged  even  Lydia  and  Ionia. 
For  about  a  year  the  Parthians  were  undis- 
puted masters  of  Asia,  and  Roman  authority 
had  disappeared.  But  in  39  Antony  sent  his 
lieutenant  Yentidius  with  an  army  to  the 
East.  He  landed  on  the  coast  of  Asia  Minor, 
and  presently  defeated  and  dispersed  the  in- 
vaders, capturing  Labienus  and  putting  him 
to  death.  He  then  turned  his  arms  against 
Pacorus,  defeated  a  Parthian  force  at  the  Sy- 
rian G-ates,  reconquered  Syria,  and  drove  Pa- 
corus across  the  Euphrates  in  39  or  38.  The 
next  year  Pacorus  recrossed  the  Euphrates 
with  a  powerful  army,  but  was  met  by  Venti- 
dius  and  defeated  and  slain.  His  father  Orodes, 
overwhelmed  with  grief,  resigned  the  throne 
to  his  second  son  Phraates  IV.,  who  soon  put 
him  to  death,  killed  his  30  brothers,  and  per- 
secuted the  Parthian  nobles  so  severely  that 
most  of  them  fled  into  the  neighboring  coun- 
tries. A  body  of  them  took  refuge  in  Syria, 
where  Antony  was  now  in  command,  and  per- 
suaded him  to  invade  Parthia.  He  began  his 
invasion  in  37  with  a  force  of  more  than  100,000 
men,  whom  he  led  through  Armenia  into  Media. 
His  expedition  failed,  and  he  was  compelled 
to  retreat  with  the  loss  of  a  third  of  his  army. 
In  20  the  emperor  Augustus  visited  the  East, 
and  persuaded  Phraates  to  restore  to  him  the 
standards  taken  from  Orassus,  which  were  re- 
ceived in  Rome  with  extravagant  delight.  Af- 
ter the  death  of  Phraates,  who  was  poisoned 
by  his  wife  and  son  about  the  beginning  of  the 
Christian  era,  the  history  of  Parthia  for  more 
than  a  century  seems  to  have  been  chiefly  a 
succession  of  revolutions  and  civil  wars,  end- 
ing in  a  disintegration  of  the  empire,  so  that 
three  or  four  monarchs,  each  claiming  to  be 
the  true  Arsaces,  were  ruling  at  the  same  time 
in  different  portions  of  the  Parthian  dominions. 
The  Romans  knew  little  of  these  divisions, 
their  dealings  being  only  with  the  Arsaces 
who  reigned  at  Ctesiphon  over  Mesopotamia 
and  Adiabene.  About  A.  D.  108  the  Arsaces 
at  Ctesiphon  bore  the  name  Chosroes,  and  his 
nephew  a  few  years  before  had  been  made 
king  of  Armenia  by  the  Parthians  without 
consulting  the  Romans,  who  had  long  claimed 
the  right  to  nominate  the  occupant  of  the 
Armenian  throne.  Trajan,  who  was  then  em- 
peror, having  the  Dacian  war  on  his  hands, 
had  borne  this  insult  without  seeking  redress 
until  the  subjugation  of  Dacia  left  him  free  to 
act.  He  then  resolved  on  the  conquest  of 
Parthia,  and  in  114,  after  long  preparation,  be- 
gan his  expedition.  Envoys  of  Chosroes  met 
him  at  Athens  with  conciliatory  proposals, 
which  he  rejected.     He.  continued  his  march 


to  Armenia,  which  submitted  with  little  re- 
sistance and  was  declared  a  Roman  province. 
The  conquest  of  Mesopotamia  speedily  fol- 
lowed, together  with  that  of  some  adjacent 
territories ;  but  the  natives  were  so  turbulent 
and  harassed  the  Romans  so  much  that  Trajan, 
who  had  occupied  Ctesiphon,  found  it  prudent 
to  retreat  into  Syria  at  the  end  of  116.  In  the 
following  year  he  was  taken  ill,  and  leaving 
Hadrian  in  command  in  Syria  he  set  out  for 
Rome,  but  died  on  his  way  in  Cilicia.  Ha- 
drian, who  succeeded  him  as  emperor,  relin- 
quished the  conquests  of  Trajan  and  withdrew 
the  Roman  forces  to  the  west  side  of  the  Eu- 
phrates. Peace  between  Rome  and  Parthia 
lasted  till  161,  when  the  Parthian  king  Volo- 
geses  III.  on  the  death  of  Antoninus  Pius 
suddenly  invaded  the  Roman  territories,  con- 
quered Armenia,  and  carried  fire  and  sword 
through  Syria  into  Palestine.  Lucius  Verus 
went  to  the  East,  and  the  Roman  army,  com- 
manded by  Avidius  Cassius,  defeated  Volo- 
geses  in  a  great  battle  near  the  Euphrates  and 
drove  the  Parthians  across  that  river.  Cassius 
then  carried  the  war  into  Parthia.  He  cap- 
tured and  burnt  the  great  city  of  Seleucia, 
plundered  Ctesiphon,  and  recovered  all  the 
conquests  of  Trajan.  The  war  with  Rome 
terminated  in  165,  and  peace  between  the  two 
empires  was  maintained  till  the  commotions 
which  followed  the  murder  of  Commodus  in 
192  excited  the  Parthians  of  the  provinces  an- 
nexed by  Cassius  to  rise  in  insurrection  and 
massacre  the  Roman  garrisons,  and  to  besiege 
Nisibis,  the  Roman  capital  of  Mesopotamia. 
The  emperor  Septimius  Severus  marched  in 
195  to  the  relief  of  Nisibis,  reduced  Mesopo- 
tamia to  subjection,  and  added  Adiabene  to 
the  empire.  In  the  following  year  he  returned 
to  Rome  to  suppress  the  insurrection  of  Clo- 
dius  Albinus,  who  had  been  proclaimed  empe- 
ror. On  his  departure  the  Parthians  renewed 
hostilities,  recovered  Adiabene,  swept  the  Ro- 
mans from  Mesopotamia  or  shut  them  up  in 
Nisibis,  to  which  they  laid  siege,  and  even  in- 
vaded Syria.  Severus,  having  suppressed  and 
slain  his  rival,  returned  to  the  East  in  197, 
drove  the  Parthians  across  the  Euphrates, 
which  he  himself  passed  with  a  powerful  army, 
captured  Babylon  and  Seleucia,  and,  after  de- 
feating the  Parthian  king  in  a  great  battle  be- 
fore the  walls  of  Ctesiphon,  took  that  capital 
by  assault,  gave  it  up  to  plunder,  and  before 
returning  to  Italy  established  a  new  Roman 
province  in  the  region  beyond  the  Tigris.  His 
son  Cacacalla  renewed  the  war,  and  after  a 
campaign  beyond  the  Tigris  went  into  winter 
quarters  at  Edessa,  but  was  assassinated  in 
April,  217,  by  one  of  his  officers.  Macrinus, 
who  succeeded  to  the  command  of  the  army 
and  was  proclaimed  emperor,  began  to  retreat 
toward  Syria,  but  was  attacked  by  Artabanus 
IV.  (Arsaces  XXXIV.),  the  last  and  one  of  the 
ablest  of  the  Parthian  kings.  "The  Romans 
stood  at  bay  at  Nisibis,  and  the  battle  which 
ensued  was  the  last  and  fiercest  ever  fought  be- 


PAETITION 


PAETNEESHIP 


137 


tween  the  forces  of  the  two  great  empires.  It 
lasted  three  days,  and  resulted  in  the  defeat 
of  the  Eomans,  who  were  compelled  to  pur- 
chase permission  to  retire  unmolested  at  a  price 
equivalent  to  about  $7,000,000.  Three  or  four 
years  after  this  great  battle  Artaxerxes,  the 
tributary  king  or  satrap  of  Persia,  who  claimed 
descent  from  Cyrus  and  Darius  Hystaspis,  re- 
volted against  Artabanus,  called  the  Persians 
and  the  followers  of  Zoroaster  to  arms,  and, 
after  a  hard  struggle  which  lasted  five  or  six 
years,  defeated  and  killed  Artabanus  in  a 
great  battle  on  the  plain  of  Hormuz  in  226. 
The  Parthian  empire  thus  perished  after  an  ex- 
istence of  nearly  five  centuries,  and  the  Per- 
sian empire  of  the  Sassanians  took  its  place. 
—See  "  The  Sixth  Great  Oriental  Monarchy," 
by  George  Eawlinson  (London,  1873). 

PARTITION,  in  law,  the  severance  of  common 
or  undivided  interests.  It  is  particularly  ap- 
plied to  interests  in  realty.  At  common  law 
lands  held  by  two  or  more  persons  were  held 
by  them  either  in  joint  tenancy,  in  common, 
or  in  coparcenery.  The  first  two  of  these  es- 
tates were  created  by  the  act  of  the  parties. 
The  last  was  created  by  operation  of  the  law, 
when  in  casting  a  descent  it  devolved  a  single 
estate  upon  two  or  more  heirs ;  as,  for  ex- 
ample, when  an  estate  in  fee  of  one  who  left 
no  male  succession  passed  to  his  daughters  or 
other  female  representatives.  These  persons 
were  called  coparceners.  Theirs  was  the  only 
joint  estate  of  which  the  common  law  would 
compel  a  dissolution  at  the  request  of  a  single 
party.  Joint  tenants  and  tenants  in  common 
became  so,  said  the  law,  by  their  own  mutual 
agreement  and  act,  and  the  tenancy  could  be 
justly  severed  only  by  their  mutual  consent. 
But  coparceners  are  rendered  so  by  operation 
of  law,  and  lest  any  one  of  them  be  prejudiced 
by  the  perverseness  of  his  fellows,  the  law  will 
lend  its  aid,  if  he  ask  it,  and  help  him,  by  par- 
tition, to  the  enjoyment  of  his  separate  inter- 
est. In  the  reigns  of  Henry  VIII.  and  of  Wil- 
liam IV.  special  statutes  extended  this  com- 
mon law  benefit,  which  hitherto  coparceners 
alone  had  enjoyed,  to  joint  tenants  and  tenants 
in  common  ;  so  that  partition  then  became  in- 
cident to  all  estates  held  in  common.  In  the 
United  States  the  technical  joint  tenancy  is  for 
the  most  part  abolished ;  joint  ownerships  be- 
ing, if  not  under  express  statutes,  yet  in  effect, 
only  tenancies  in  common.  Therefore  what 
in  England  would  be  estates  in  coparcenery 
are  here  estates  in  common,  so  that  much  of 
the  English  law  of  partition  is  inapplicable 
here.  Yet  as  among  us  real  property  general- 
ly passes,  on  the  death  of  an  ancestor,  to  more 
persons  than  one,  partition  still  retains  an  im- 
portance in  respect  to  the  tenancies  in  com- 
mon of  heirs  and  devisees.  In  some  parts  of 
the  country,  the  operation  of  this  remedy  is 
extended  by  statutes  beyond  the  limits  fixed 
for  it  by  the  common  law  or  the  statutes  of 
Henry  VIII. — In  England  partition  was  made 
either  by  mutual  consent  or  upon  compulsion. 


In  the  latter  case,  the  relief  was  sought  either 
by  a  writ  of  partition,  sued  out  by  one  party, 
at  common  law,  or  by  his  petition  to  the  court 
of  chancery.  The  latter  is  now  the  usual 
mode,  and  there  is  good  reason  for  the  prefer- 
ence of  the  chancery  courts,  as  the  procedure 
at  law  in  a  case  of  partition  is  far  less  effec- 
tive than  that  in  equity.  The  courts  of  law 
are  limited  to  a  mere  allotment  according  to 
the  proportional  shares  of  the  parties  in  inter- 
est ;  and  this  often  causes  a  purely  mechanical, 
and  so  prejudicial,  division  of  an  estate.  But 
chancery,  not  restricted  to  the  exact  balancing 
of  equivalent  shares,  but  capable  of  all  equita- 
ble adjustments  of  the  matter,  may  distribute 
among  the  claimants  the  separate,  though  un- 
equal, parcels  of  the  estate,  assigning  to  the 
several  parties  the  portions  which  will  best  suit 
their  respective  condition,  equalizing  such  a 
partition  by  decreeing  pecuniary  compensation 
to  be  made,  or  in  other  cases  ordering  equita- 
ble payments  by  some  for  improvements  made 
in  the  common  property  by  others.  This  ju- 
risdiction is  exercised  with  peculiar  fitness  in 
all  cases  where  purely  equitable  rights,  con- 
flicting claims  of  parties,  or  modes  of  enjoy- 
ment are  to  be  adjusted.  Courts  of  equity 
will  interpose  only  when  the  title  of  their  pe- 
titioner is  clear.  If  it  be  contested,  he  must 
try  it  at  law.  Wherever,  in  our  states,  dis- 
tinct equity  courts  exist,  they  probably  have 
concurrent  jurisdiction  with  courts  of  law  in 
respect  to  partitions,  and,  in  general,  such  a 
jurisdiction  as  has  just  been  described.  But 
in  almost  all  the  states  the  cognizance  of  par- 
titions is  regulated  by  very  minute  statute  pro- 
visions, and  to  these  in  each  state  reference 
must  be  made  for  the  particular  methods  of 
procedure,  and  the  powers  of  the  courts.  In 
some  states  the  equity  process  is  left  undis- 
turbed; in  some  the  writ  of  partition,  with 
certain  modifications,  still  remains.  General- 
ly, however,  the  mode  of  obtaining  partition 
is  by  petition  to  the  higher  courts  of  law.  The 
courts  of  probate,  too,  are  usually  invested 
with  the  power  to  divide  estates. 

PARTNERSHIP,  in  law,  exists  when  two  or 
more  persons  combine  their  property,  labor, 
or  skill,  or  one  or  more  of  these,  for  the  trans- 
action of  business  for  their  common  profit.  It 
may  be  confined  to  a  specific  purpose  or  a  sin- 
gle transaction ;  but  when  not  so  limited  by 
the  words  of  the  partners,  or  by  acts  which 
imply  limitation,  it  is  general.  All  persons 
competent  to  do  business  on  their  own  account 
may  enter  into  partnership.  Generally,  the 
partners  own  the  property  and  the  profits  joint- 
ly ;  but  one  or  more  of  them  may  own  exclu- 
sively the  property  or  capital,  leaving  only  the 
profits  to  be  owned  jointly.  So  all  kinds  of 
property  may  be  owned  by  a  partnership.  But 
when  real  estate  is  so  owned,  the  laws  of  rec- 
ord title,  of  transfer  by  deed,  of  inheritance, 
and  of  dower,  have  still  an  important  operation. 
Generally  the  rule  is  this  :  Eeal  estate  is  part- 
nership property  when  it  is  bought  with  part- 


138 


PAKTNEKSHIP 


nership  funds,  for  partnership  purposes,  and 
is  used  for  these  purposes.  Then  it  will  be 
treated  as  part  of  the  capital  of  the  firm,  and 
just  as  personal  property  is  treated,  so  far  as 
liability  for  the  partnership  debts  is  concerned, 
and  until  the  remaining  balance  is  ascertained 
and  divided  among  the  partners ;  but  then  its 
character  as  real  estate  is  restored  with  all  the 
incidents  of  dower  and  the  like.  The  legal 
title  must  always  be  traced  through  the  rec- 
ords. But  if  the  property  be,  for  example,  in 
the  name  of  one  partner,  he  will  be  regarded 
as  holding  it  in  trust  for  the  partnership ;  and 
if  he  die,  his  heir  will  be  held  as  trustee,  and 
only  so  much  as  is  not  wanted  to  pay  the  debts 
of  the  firm,  or  satisfy  the  claims  of  the  other 
partners,  will  he  permitted  to  remain  in  his 
hands,  as  his  own  and  free  from  the  obliga- 
tions of  the  trust.  So,  the  widow  has  her 
dower  in  the  real  estate  after  debts  and  claims 
are  satisfied,  and  not  before. — The  good  will 
of  a  partnership  is,  for  many  purposes,  a  part 
of  its  property,  and  may  be  transferred  by  sale 
or  assigned  for  the  benefit  of  creditors ;  and 
it  would  undoubtedly  pass  to  the  assignees 
under  insolvency,  by  operation  of  law. — No 
partner,  and  no  majority,  can  introduce  a  new 
partner  without  the  consent  of  the  others.  A 
partner  may  sell  out  all  his  interest  in  a  part- 
nership, or  may  assign  it  as  security  for  a  debt ; 
but  the  purchaser  or  assignee  only  acquires  a 
right  to  have  the  balance  due  paid  to  him,  and 
cannot  acquire  merely  by  the  transfer  a  right 
to  become  a  partner. — A  partnership  may  be 
formed  by  an  instrument  under  seal,  which  is 
perhaps  the  most  common,  or  by  a  written 
instrument  without  seal,  or  by  oral  agreement, 
without  any  writing.  In  general,  a  partnership 
is  formed  by  an  agreement  that  the  parties  shall 
enter  together  into  a  certain  business,  and 
share  the  profits  and  losses.  In  the  absence 
of  special  stipulations,  the  partners  share  equal- 
ly, but  may  stipulate  about  this  as  they  will. 
So  the  agreement  may  provide  for  its  duration, 
but  if  the  period  appointed  for  its  termination 
arrives,  and  it  continues  in  fact,  and  without 
a  new  bargain,  it  will  be  held  to  continue  upon 
the  former  terms. — Persons  may  be  partners 
as  to  third  persons  who  deal  with  the  firm, 
while  they  are  not  partners  as  between  them- 
selves. Thus,  A  may  agree  with  B  and  0  that 
A  shall  render  certain  assistance  to  the  firm  of 
B  and  0,  either  of  capital,  credit,  or  skill,  and 
not  be  held  out  as  a  partner,  nor  be  a  partner, 
and  own  a  Certain  proportion  of  the  profits, 
and  not  be  liable  for  any  share  of  the  losses. 
Then,  if  the  firm  be  not  insolvent,  A  may 
claim  of  B  and  0  his  share  of  the  profits,  and, 
if  obliged  to  pay  any  debt  or  loss  of  the  firm, 
may  claim  compensation  from  B  and  0.  But 
nevertheless,  he  will  be  just  as  liable  to  the  cred- 
itors of  the  firm  as  B  or  0  ;  and  all  his  prop- 
erty will  be  as  liable  as  their  property.  There 
have  been  many  cases  turning  on  this  point, 
but  the  principle  of  law  is  clear  and  certain, 
however  difficult  it  may  sometimes  be  to  apply 


it.  This  principle  is,  that  whether  a  person  is 
a  partner  in  the  firm  in  regard  to  the  rights 
and  obligations  among  the  partners,  depends 
upon  the  agreements  they  have  made;  but, 
whatever  these  agreements  are,  he  is  a  part- 
ner as  to  third  persons,  that  is,  he  incurs  as  to 
them  all  the  responsibilities  of  a  partner,  in 
two  ways,  and  on  two  grounds.  One  is,  that 
he  was,  by  his  own  consent,  or  by  his  own 
fault,  held  out  to  the  world  as  a  partner,  so 
as  to  justify  the  creditors  of  the  firm  in  deal- 
ing with  it  as  if  he  were  a  partner ;  and  the 
second  is,  that,  without  being  so  known  or 
held  out,  he  participates  in  fact  in  the  profits 
of  the  concern.  For  it  is  a  nearly  universal 
rule,  that  one  who  participates  in  the  profits 
as  such  is  liable  for  the  losses.  The  principal 
and  most  difficult  question  which  has  arisen 
on  this  subject,  relates  to  clerks  or  salesmen 
who  are  paid  by  a  share  in  the  profits.  For- 
merly it  was  held,  that  if  such  a  person  was 
paid,  for  example,  "  one  twentieth  part  of  the 
profits,"  this  made  him  a  partner,  and  liable 
as  such ;  but  if  he  was  paid  "  a  sum  equal  to 
one  twentieth  part  of  the  profits,"  this  was 
only  a  payment  of  wages,  which  was  indeed 
measured  by  the  profits,  but  did  not  make  him 
a  partner.  But  this  technical  and  irrational 
distinction  has  passed  away;  and  now  the 
question  in  every  such  case  would  be :  Does 
his  bargain  with  the  partners  merely  provide 
that  his  compensation  shall  be  measured  by 
the  profits  ?  for  then  he  is  only  a  person  em- 
ployed by  the  firm  and  not  a  partner ;  or  does 
the  bargain  give  him  a  property  in  the  capital 
or  in  the  profits?  for  this  would  make  him 
liable  as  a  partner.  In  other  words,  if  the 
alleged  partner  has  a  right  and  property  in  one 
twentieth  (or  any  other  proportion)  of  the 
profits,  while  they  remain  undivided,  he  is  a 
partner  and  liable  as  such ;  but  if  he  has  no 
such  right  or  property,  but  only  a  claim  against 
the  firm  for  so  such  money  as,  upon  a  settle- 
ment of  the  firm's  profits,  one  twentieth  of 
them  shall  amount  to,  he  is  not  a  partner,  and 
has  none  of  the  liabilities  of  that  relation. — It 
is  a  general  rule,  both  in  England  and  in  the 
United  States,  that  no  partner  can  sue  another 
at  law  on  any  matter  growing  out  of  and  con- 
nected with  the  transactions  of  the  partner- 
ship business,  and  dependent  for  its  determina- 
tion upon  the  partnership  accounts.  The  prin- 
cipal reason  for  this  is,  that  whether  one  part- 
ner owes  another  or  has  a  claim  against  him 
must  depend  upon  a  settlement  of  all  the  busi- 
ness and  an  adjustment  of  all  the  accounts. 
This  a  court  of  equity  can  direct  and  super- 
vise by  its  machinery  of  masters,  receivers, 
and  the  like,  although  a  court  of  law  cannot ; 
and  therefore  it  is  now  settled,  as  a  general 
rule,  that  questions  between  partners  about 
partnership  affairs  must  go  before  a  court  of 
equity  and  not  a  court  of  law.  But  a  partner 
may  sue  a  partner  at  law  in  any  matter  not 
involving  the  partnership  accounts ;  and  so  if 
a  distinct  part  thereof  is  severed  from  the  rest, 


PARTNERSHIP 


139 


and  especially  if  a  separate  promise  is  made 
about  this,  a  common  action  at  law  is  main- 
tainable for  the  balance.  If,  as  is  not  unfre- 
quently  the  case,  a  man  is  a  member  of  two 
firms,  one  of  those  firms  cannot  sue  the  oth- 
er at  law,  because  the  same  person  cannot  be 
plaintiff  and  defendant.  But  if  one  of  the 
firms  holds  the  negotiable  paper  of  the  other,  it 
may  indorse  it  to  a  third  person,  who  may  sue 
the  other  firm. — Partners  are  of  various  kinds. 
They  may  be  open  or  secret,  active  or  dormant, 
retiring  or  new-coming.  A  secret  partner  is  just 
as  liable  for  the  debts  of  the  firm,  when  he  is  dis- 
covered, as  an  open  and  declared  partner ;  so  a 
dormant  partner  who  only  lends  his  capital  or 
his  name,  and  takes  his  profits,  is  just  as  liable 
as  an  active  partner ;  for  the  one  rule,  which 
lies  at  the  foundation  of  the  whole  law  of  part- 
nership, is,  that  each  partner,  and  the  whole  of 
his  property,  is  liable  for  the  whole  of  the 
partnership  debts.  This  rule  was  until  recent- 
ly universal,  and  would  be  so  now  but  for  the 
special  partnership  recently  introduced  into 
this  country  from  Europe.  (See  Paetneeship, 
Limited.)  A  retiring  partner  who  continues 
to  receive  a  share  of  the  profits  continues  to 
be  liable  for  the  debts  of  the  firm,  but  is  not 
made  liable  by  receiving  a  certain  definite  sum, 
annually  or  otherwise,  independently  of  the 
profits.  He  should  give  notice  of  his  retire- 
ment ;  for  those  who  deal  with  the  firm  in  ig- 
norance of  his  retirement,  without  their  fault, 
may  deal  with  it  on  his  credit,  and  are  author- 
ized to  hold  him  responsible.  But  a  new  cus- 
tomer, who  had  no  dealings  with  the  firm  be- 
fore the  retirement  of  this  partner,  cannot  hold 
the  partner  after  retirement  without  notice, 
unless  it  can  be  shown  that  he  came  to  the 
firm  on  the  credit  of  this  partner,  and  that  he 
was  justified  in  trusting  to  this  credit.  So  if  a 
creditor  of  a  firm,  knowing  of  such  retirement,, 
receives  for  bis  debt  the  negotiable  paper  of 
the  firm,  the  presumption  of  law  is  that  he  in- 
tended to  discharge  the  retiring  partner ;  which 
presumption  can  be  refuted  only  by  evidence 
of  an  honest  and  actual  intention  to  the  con- 
trary. A  nominal  partner,  who  lends  his  name 
to  a  firm  without  any  interest  whatever,  is,  in 
general,  just  as  liable  as  if  he  were  actually  in- 
terested. If  one  purchases  goods  separately,  and 
owes  for  them,  those  who  become  subsequently 
interested  in  the  goods  jointly  with  the  first 
purchaser  are  not  thereby  made  liable  for  the 
debt,  unless  the  purchase  was  made  originally 
by  their  joint  authority,  and  for  the  purpose 
of  bringing  it  into  the  partnership ;  for  then 
the  partnership  existed  at  the  beginning. — 
Throughout  the  commercial  world,  it  is  a  uni- 
•  versal  rule,  that  each  partner  has  full  power 
and  authority  to  act  for  the  others  and  repre- 
sent the  whole  firm  in  all  matters  appertaining 
to  the  partnership.  There  is  perhaps  no  ex- 
ception or  limitation  to  this  rule,  other  than 
by  the  principle  that  either  partner's  powers 
may  be  restrained  by  agreement,  and  all  per- 
sons to  whom  this  agreement  is  communicated 


are  bound  by  it.  Hence,  on  the  continent  of 
Europe,  it  is  very  common  for  the  circulars 
or  cards  announcing  a  firm  to  specify  which  of 
the  members  is  authorized  to  make  purchases 
in  one  place  or  in  another,  or  to  draw  or  accept 
bills,  and  the  like.  "Where  there  is  not  this 
agreed  and  declared  limitation,  each  partner 
may  make  purchases,  sales,  loans,  assignments, 
pledges,  or  mortgages  of  the  partnership  prop- 
erty, and  give  or  receive  notes  or  bills  or 
money  therefor;  and  any  such  transaction, 
done  in  reference  to  and  within  the  scope  of 
the  partnership  business,  and  with  honest  in- 
tent on  the  part  of  the  person  dealing  with  the 
firm,  binds  the  firm  and  all  the  partners  in 
regard  to  that  person,  however  fraudulent  the 
transaction  may  be  in  reference  to  the  other 
partners.  But  if  a  partner,  who  has  borrowed 
money  in  his  own  name,  brings  that  money 
into  the  partnership,  the  partners  are  not  there- 
by made  liable  for  the  debt ;  the  firm  owes  the 
borrowing  partner,  and  he  alone  owes  the  lend- 
er ;  and  one  who  lends  money  to  a  partner,  for 
the  very  purpose  of  enabling  him  to  contribute 
the  same  to  their  capital,  cannot  hold  the  oth- 
er partners  without  their  assent. — Some  part- 
nerships are  carried  on  in  the  name  of  an  indi- 
vidual, who  may  also  use  his  own  name  in  his 
own  business.  In  that  case,  paper  bearing  his 
name  will  be  supposed  to  relate  to  his  private 
and  individual  business,  unless  direct  evidence 
or  circumstances  show  it  to  have  been  on  the 
firm's  account.  A  release  by  or  to  one  partner 
is  a  release  by  or  to  the  firm,  if  there  be  no 
fraud ;  so  a  notice  by  or  to  one  is  notice  by  or 
to  all. — The  question  sometimes  arises,  how  far 
a  new-coming  member  is  responsible  for  a  for- 
mer and  existing  debt.  The  general  answer  is, 
that  he  is  not  so  liable  without  his  adoption  of 
the  debt ;  but  this  adoption  may  be  shown  by 
his  express  agreement,  either  with  the  firm  or 
with  the  creditor,  or  it  may  be  inferred  from 
circumstances  which  distinctly  indicate  it ;  and 
it  has  been  held  that  a  payment  by  the  firm, 
after  he  enters  it,  of  the  interest  on  an  old  debt 
with  his  knowledge  and  without  objection  by 
him,  implies  his  adoption  of  the  debt  as  due 
from  his  firm.  But  the  liability  of  a  new-com- 
ing partner  for  the  existing  debts  of  the  firm 
cannot  be  presumed  from  the  mere  fact  of  his 
entering  into  the  firm. — Whether  a  majority  of 
the  partners  can  bind  a  minority,  and  conduct 
the  business  of  the  firm  at  their  pleasure,  may 
not  be  quite  settled ;  but  the  later  authorities 
seem  to  confine  this-  power  of  a  majority  to 
what  may  be  called  the  domestic  affairs  of  the 
firm,  as  the  hiring  a  room  or  store,  keeping 
clerks  or  books,  and  the  like.  At  the  same 
time  it  seems  to  be  now  well  established  that 
a  partner  who  dissents  from  an  inchoate  and 
incomplete  transaction,  and  distinctly  expresses 
his  dissent  to  the  outside  parties  concerned  in 
the  transaction,  giving  them  notice  that  he 
shall  not  be  bound  by  the  action  of  the  firm, 
may  in  this  way  protect  himself  from  liability. 
It  should  be  added,  however,  that  the  recu- 


140 


PAKTNEKSHIP 


sant  partner,  after  such  denial  and  notice,  may 
waive  it,  and  will  be  considered  as  doing  so  if 
he  permits  the  proceeds  or  avails  of  the  trans- 
action to  be  brought  into  the  common  account 
and  the  common  fund  for  the  common  benefit. 
— The  dissolution  of  a  partnership,  however 
caused,  has  no  effect  upon  its  existing  debts,  or 
upon  the  liability  of  the  partners  for  them; 
but  it  entirely  prevents  the  contracting  of  any 
new  debt  by  the  firm,  because  that  has  ceased 
to  exist.  Hence  the  former  partners  can  in  no 
way  bind  one  another  by  any  new  contracts. 
Thus,  no  partner  can  indorse  a  note  of  the 
firm,  either  with  the  firm's  name  or  his  own, 
even  if  it  be  to  pay  a  debt  of  the  firm ;  and 
even  authority  given  by  the  firm  to  one  part- 
ner to  settle  the  affairs  of  the  firm  would  not, 
generally,  carry  with  it  the  power  to  make 
such  indorsement.  Dissolution  may  take  place 
in  many  ways.  1.  By  the  expiration  of  the 
time  when  it  is  to  terminate  by  the  articles; 
but  if  it  goes  on  as  before,  although  nothing 
be  said,  the  law  will  presume  an  agreement  to 
continue  it  on  the  former  terms.  2.  It  may 
certainly  be  dissolved  at  the  pleasure  of  any 
partner,  if  there  be  no  limited  term  in  the 
articles ;  and  if  there  be,  and  even  if  there  be 
a  mutual  covenant  not  to  dissolve,  we  should 
say  that  any  partner  might  dissolve  the  copart- 
nership at  his  pleasure,  always  being  liable  to 
respond  in  damages  for  any  injury  he  may  in- 
flict by  his  breach  of  contract.  But  a  court  of 
equity  would  probably  interfere  to  prevent  a 
causeless  or  fraudulent  dissolution,  especially 
if  it  were  obvious  that  injury  would  be  done 
which  could  not  be  adequately  compensated  by 
damages.  So  a  court  of  equity  would  always 
decree  a  dissolution  at  the  prayer  of  any  part- 
ner, if  he  could  show  good  cause,  of  sufficient 
magnitude;  and  in  any  such  case  the  court 
would  appoint  a  receiver  if  that  were  necessary, 
and  do  or  order  all  other  things  which  the  in- 
terests and  equities  of  the  parties  required.  3. 
An  assignment  by  a  partner  of  his  whole  share 
and  interest  in  the  copartnership  property  and 
business  would  of  itself  work  a  dissolution; 
and  it  would  be  so  even  if  one  partner  assigned 
his  whole  share  to  another  partner,  because 
this  would  be  equivalent  to  this  partner's  going 
out  of  the  firm.  4.  Any  departure  from  a  firm 
or  copartnership  by  any  partner  dissolves  that 
firm,  however  it  be  caused.  The  firm  may  go 
on  as  before,  taking  in  or  not  new  partners, 
but  it  is  in  law  a  new  firm,  for  the  simple  rea- 
son that  a  partnership  is  in  no  sense  or  measure 
a  corporation.  Hence,  the  death  of  any  mem- 
ber of  a  firm  dissolves  that  firm.  Even  if  the 
articles  provide  for  that  casualty,  and  it  is 
agreed  that  the  firm  shall  go  on  with  unchanged 
name,  and  that  no  account  shall  be  taken,  but 
the  share  of  the  deceased  be  paid  to  his  repre- 
sentatives by  cash  or  notes  to  a  certain  amount, 
still  in  law  the  old  firm  ceased  when  the  part- 
ner died,  and  a  new  one  began.  5.  Bank- 
ruptcy of  the  firm,  or  perhaps  of  any  part- 
ner, dissolves  the  firm  at  once.     Whether  the 


insanity  of  a  partner  has  that  effect  may  not 
be  certain,  but  we  should  say  that  insanity 
which  would  probably  be  permanent  would 
unquestionably  be  a  good  ground  for  disso- 
lution by  the  court  or  by  the  parties,  but 
that  it  would  not  of  itself,  and  by  its  own 
force,  effect  a  dissolution. — If  a  partnership 
is  dissolved  by  the  death  of  a  partner,  the 
whole  property  and  business  pass  to  the  survi- 
vor or  survivors,  but  only  for  the  purpose  of 
settling  up  the  business  and  closing  the  con- 
cerns of  the  partnership  as  soon  as  this  can  be 
done  in  a  proper  way.  The  surviving  partners 
and  the  representatives  of  the  deceased  may 
come  to  some  agreement  about  this,  or  the 
articles  may  provide  for  such  an  event.  But 
in  the  absence  of  any  such  agreement  or  pro- 
vision, the  survivors  take  everything,  with  the 
powers  necessary  for  the  speediest  and  best 
settlement,  and  no  more;  nor  can  they,  even 
for  the  purpose  of  settlement,  make  new  con- 
tracts binding  the  estate  or  representatives  of 
the  deceased.  When  the  settlement  is  finally 
and  fully  made,  the  survivors  must  pay  over  to 
the  representatives  of  the  deceased  the  share 
due  to  the  estate ;  but  until  then  the  represen- 
tatives cannot  interfere  with  the  management 
of  the  property,  although  a  court  of  equity  will 
interfere,  on  their  petition,  to  prevent  waste, 
delay,  or  other  injurious  conduct  by  the  survi- 
vors.— The  rules  of  law  in  regard  to  the  rights 
of  creditors  over  the  funds  of  the  partnership, 
and  the  property  of  the  partners,  are  very  im- 
portant, but  in  some  particulars  they  are  not 
quite  settled.  It  is  certain  that  the  joint  funds 
of  the  partnership  are,  in  the  first  place,  to  be 
applied  and  appropriated  to  pay  the  joint  debts, 
that  is,  to  pay  the  partnership  creditors ;  and 
the  private  creditors  of  the  individual  partners 
cannot  touch  the  partnership  funds  in  any 
way  until  these  have  paid  in  full  all  the  part- 
nership debts.  It  is  also  certain  that  the  pri- 
vate creditors  of  an  individual  partner  may 
reach  by  any  proper  process  of  law  the  private 
and  separate  property  of  the  partner  who  is 
their  debtor.  So,  too,  it  is  certain  that  the 
creditors  of  the  firm  may,  at  some  time,  re- 
sort to  the  private  property  of  the  partners. 
The  uncertainty  is  involved  in  this  question : 
While  the  creditors  of  the  firm  have  an  ex- 
clusive right  to  the  property  of  the  firm,  have 
the  private  creditors  of  the  partners  an  equally 
exclusive  right  to  the  private  property  of  the 
indebted  partners  ?  Upon  this  it  can  only  be 
said  that  the  rulings  of  courts  are  greatly  at 
variance. — What  right  a  creditor  of  a  partner 
in  a  solvent  firm  has,  and  how  he  may  effectu- 
ate his  right,  is  a  matter  of  much  uncertainty. 
The  prevailing  principle  may  be  stated  in  this 
way.  The  creditor  can  take  only  what  his 
debtor  has.  This  is  not  a  several  and  distinct 
right  to  or  property  in  any  part  of  the  part- 
nership funds ;  for  it  is  only  an  ownership  of 
the  whole  in  common  with  the  other  partners, 
and  thence  a  right  to  have  the  accounts  set- 
tled, and  the  debts  of  the  firm  paid,  and  then 


PARTNERSHIP  (Limited) 


PARTRIDGE 


141 


his  share  of  the  balance  set  off  or  paid  to  him 
in  severalty.  This  right  or  interest  his  credi- 
tor may  acquire  by  attachment  or  levy;  and 
if  it  be  done  by  attachment,  a  frequent,  and 
generally  speaking  the  better  way,  is  to  sum- 
mon all  the  partners  as  trustees  or  garnishees 
under  the  process  of  foreign  attachment. 

PARTNERSHIP,  Limited  (or,  as  it  is  some- 
times called,  special  partnership),  a  partnership 
whereof  one  or  more  of  the  members  con- 
tribute a  certain  amount  to  the  capital,  which 
may  be  lost  by  its  being  demanded  for  payment 
of  the  debts  of  the  firm,  but  beyond  which 
they  have  no  further  liability.  This  is  utterly 
unknown  to  the  common  law,  or  to  the  law 
merchant  as  existing  in  England  and  the  Uni- 
ted States;  but  it  has  been  common  on  the 
continent  of  Europe  for  a  long  time.  Recently 
it  has  been  adopted  in  this  country,  and  is  now 
common.  After  much  opposition,  it  has  also 
to  some  extent  become  established  in  England. 
The  statutes  of  no  two  states,  perhaps,  are 
precisely  the  same ;  but  they  agree  substantial- 
ly in  the  following  provisions :  1,  there  must 
be  one  or  more  general  partners,  all  of  whom 
are  liable  in  solido  ;  2,  there  may  be  one  or 
more  special  partners,  and  the  specific  sum  con- 
tributed by  each  special  partner  must  be  actu- 
ally paid  in ;  3,  the  arrangement  or  articles  of 
partnership  must  be  in  writing,  must  generally 
be  acknowledged  before  a  magistrate,  and  must 
be  published  in  one  or  more  newspapers;  4, 
this  advertisement,  or  publication,  must  state 
accurately  the  names  and  residence  of  the  gen- 
eral partners,  the  names  and  residence  of  the 
special  partners,  the  name  of  the  firm,  the  sum 
which  each  special  partner  contributes,  the 
business  to  be  transacted,  and  the  period  for 
which  the  partnership  is  made  or  the  time 
when  it  will  terminate ;  and  during  that  time 
the  special  partner  cannot  withdraw  his  capi- 
tal. In  some  of  the  states  there  are  provisions 
limiting  special  partnerships  to  mercantile  busi- 
ness, and  excluding  insurance,  banking,  &c. 
If  any  of  the  requirements  of  law  are  disregard- 
ed, the  special  partner  becomes  a  general  part- 
ner, and  is  liable  in  solido.  The  courts  apply 
these  rules  with  much  severity.  Thus,  a  special 
partner  has  been  held  liable  in  solido  because, 
by  an  error  of  one  of  the  newspapers,  the  sum 
he  contributed  was  stated  erroneously.  (See 
Joint-Stock  Company,  and  Limited  Liability.) 

PART01Y.  I.  James,  an  American  author,  born 
in  Canterbury,  England,  Feb.  9, 1822.  At  five 
years  of  age  he  was  brought  to  New  York, 
and  at  19  he  became  a  teacher  in  an  academy 
at  White  Plains,  Westchester  co.,  and  after- 
ward in  Philadelphia  and  New  York.  His  first 
literary  employment  was  on  the  staff  of  the 
"  Home  Journal "  of  New  York,  with  which 
he  was  connected  about  three  years.  Since 
then  he  has  devoted  himself  to  literary  labor 
and  public  lecturing.  In  March,  1875,  he  pur- 
chased a  house  in  Newburyport,  Mass.,  in- 
tending to  make  it  his  future  residence.  He 
has   published  a  "Life  of  Horace  Greeley" 


(New  York,  1855 ;  new  ed.,  1868) ;  a  collec- 
tion of  "  Humorous  Poetry  of  the  English  Lan- 
guage, from  Chaucer  to  Saxe  "  (1857)  ;  "  Life 
and  Times  of  Aaron  Burr  "  (1857  ;  new  ed.,  2 
vols.,  1864) ;  "  General  Butler  in  New  Orleans" 
(1863) ;  "  Life  and  Times  of  Benjamin  Frank- 
lin "  (2  vols.,  1864) ;  "  Smoking  and  Drinking," 
and  "People's  Book  of  Biography "  (1868) ; 
"  Famous  Americans  of  Recent  Times  "  (1870) ; 
"  Triumphs  of  Enterprise,  Ingenuity,  and  Pub- 
lic Spirit"  (1871);  "Topics  of  the  Time" 
(1871);  "  Words  of  Washington  "  (1872)  ;  and 
"  Life  of  Thomas  Jefferson  "  (1874).  In  1875 
he  was  engaged  upon  a  series  of  articles  for 
"Harper's  Monthly"  on  "Caricatures  in  all 
Times  and  Lands."  For  15  years  he  has  been 
collecting  materials  for  a  life  of  Voltaire.  II. 
Sara  Parson  Willis,  wife  of  the  preceding,  born 
in  Portland,  Me.,  July  7,  1811,  died  in  New 
York,  Oct.  10,  1872.  Her  father,  Nathaniel 
Willis,  was  for  many  years  editor  of  the  "  Bos- 
ton Recorder."  She  was  married  to  Charles  H. 
Eldredge,  cashier  of  the  merchants'  bank,  Bos- 
ton, with  whom  she  lived  for  several  years  in 
affluence  and  happiness;  but  upon  the  death 
of  her  husband  she  was  suddenly  thrown  upon 
her  own  resources  to  provide  a  maintenance 
for  herself  and  two  children.  After  unsuc- 
cessful attempts  to  procure  employment  as  a 
teacher  and  in  other  vocations,  she  turned  her 
attention  in  1851  to  literature,  and  prepared  a 
short  essay  which  was  rejected  by  the  editors 
of  several  Boston  journals.  One  of  them  at 
length  purchased  it  for  half  a  dollar ;  it  proved 
successful,  and  was  rapidly  followed  by  others, 
which  soon  made  her  pseudonyme  of  "  Fanny 
Fern  "  famous.  A  collection  of  her  sketches 
was  published  in  1853  under  the  title  of  "Fern 
Leaves,"  of  which  70,000  copies  were  sold  in  a 
short  time.  This  was  followed  by  "  Little 
Ferns  "  (1853),  "  Fern  Leaves,  Second  Series  " 
(1854),  "Ruth  Hall,"  "Rose  Clark,"  "Fresh 
Leaves"  (1857),  "  The  Play  Day  Book  "  (1857), 
"Folly  as  it  Flies"  (1868),  "Ginger  Snaps" 
(1870),  and  "Caper  Sauce"  (1871).  For  the 
last  few  years  of  her  life  she  was  chiefly  em- 
ployed in  writing  for  the  "  New  York  Ledger." 
She  was  married  to  Mr.  Parton  in  January, 
1856. — See  "Fanny  Fern,  a  Memorial  Volume, 
containing  her  Select  Writings  and  a  Me- 
moir," by  James  Parton  (1873). 

PARTRIDGE,  the  popular  name  of  the  family 
of  perdicidte,  which  includes  also  the  quails. 
They  differ  from  the  grouse  in  having  the  legs 
bare  and  the  nostrils  protected  by  a  naked  hard 
scale  ;  they  are  also  smaller  and  the  species  are 
more  numerous ;  the  head  seldom  has  a  naked 
space  around  the  eyes,  and  the  sides  of  the  toes 
are  hardly  pectinated ;  they  are  widely  distrib- 
uted over  the  globe,  but  the  true  partridges,  or 
perdicinw,  have  no  representative  in  Ameri- 
ca. Great  confusion  exists  in  the  application  of 
the  term  partridge ;  the  spruce  partridge  is  the 
Canada  grouse  (tetrao  [canace]  Canadensis, 
Linn.) ;  the  partridge  of  New  England  is  the 
ruffed  grouse  (bonasa  umbellus,   Steph.)  ;    the 


142 


PARTRIDGE 


partridge  of  the  middle  and  southern  states  is 
the  quail  (ortyx  Virginianus,  Bonap.)  ;  several 
other  quails  are  called  partridges,  as  the  plumed 
and  Gambel's  of  California,  the  scaled  or  blue 
and  the  Massena  of  the  valley  of  the  Rio 
Grande  in  Texas ;  on  the  other  hand,  the  birds 
called  quails  in  Europe  belong  to  the  partridges 
and  to  the  genus  coturnix  (Mohr.)  ;  such  of  the 
so-called  partridges,  therefore,  as  are  not  de- 
scribed here  will  be  found  under  Geouse  and 
Quail,  and  the  f  rancolin  partridges  under  Fean- 
colin. — The  typical  partridges  belong  to  the 
genus  perdix  (Briss.) ;  the  bill  is  short,  broad 
at  the  base,  with  the  apex  curved  and  vaulted ; 


Common  Partridge  (Perdix  cinerea). 

the  wings  moderate  and  rounded,  with  the 
third,  fourth,  and  fifth  quills  longest ;  tail  short 
and  greatly  concealed  by  the  coverts;  tarsi 
without  spurs  or  tubercles;  toes  long,  inner 
shorter  than  outer,  hind  one  short  and  slender, 
and  claws  moderate  and  slightly  curved.  There 
are  about  a  dozen  species  in  the  temperate 
parts  of  the  old  world,  some  constant  residents 
and  others  migratory,  some  frequenting  culti- 
vated lands  and  others  forests ;  though  occa- 
sionally perching  on  trees,  they  are  generally 
seen  on  the  ground,  searching  for  grain,  seeds, 
bulbous  roots,  and  insects ;  the  nest  is  a  slight 
hollow  on  the  ground,  beneath  some  bush, 
and  the  eggs  are  from  12  to  20.  The  common 
or  gray  partridge  (P.  cinerea.  Lath.)  is  about 
12  in.  long,  with  an  alar  extent  of  20  in. ;  the 
body  is  round  and  stout,  the  head  small,  and 
the  legs  and  tail  short.  Though  the  plumage 
has  no  brilliant  colors,  it  is  very  neat,  and  its 
intricate  upper  markings  of  ash-gray,  yellow- 
ish brown,  brownish  black,  and  brownish  red 
are  pleasing  to  the  eye;  the  scapulars  and 
wing  coverts  are  darker  with  whitish  streaks ; 
the  forehead,  cheeks,  and  throat  light  red; 
neck  ash-gray,  with  minute  black  undulations ; 
sides  with  broad  bands  of  brownish  red, 
and  a  large  patch  of  the  same  on  the  breast. 
The  female  is  a  little  smaller,  with  the  up- 
per parts  browner  and  the  top  of  the  head 
streaked  with  yellowish;  both  sexes  present 


considerable  variations.  This  species  is  spread 
abundantly  over  Europe,  and  is  sometimes 
found  in  3ST.  Africa,  generally  in  the  vicinity  of 
grain  fields  and  very  rarely  in  woods ;  it  runs 
with  great  speed,  squatting  close  to  the  ground 
when  alarmed;  the  flight  is  rapid,  direct,  low, 
and  accompanied  with  a  whirring  sound ;  it  is 
wary,  and  easily  frightened ;  the  affection  for 
the  young,  or  pouts,  is  very  remarkable,  and 
various  devices  are  used  by  the  parents  to  dis- 
tract attention  from  the  brood.  During  win- 
ter they  keep  together  in  coveys,  searching  for 
food  among  the  stubble ;  they  separate  early  in 
spring,  pairing  in  March,  the  eggs  being  laid 
in  June ;  the  males  take  no  part  in  incubation, 
but  watch  the  nest.  The  genus  is  monoga- 
mous. This  is  one  of  the  best  game  birds,  as 
its  flesh  is  tender  and  well  flavored ;  shooting 
it  forms  a  favorite  and  exciting  amusement, 
especially  in  Great  Britain ;  the  bird  is  so  pro- 
lific that,  with  protection  during  the  breeding 
season,  their  numbers  do  not  materially  dimin- 
ish, and  the  markets  are  so  well  supplied  that 
the  price  brings  them  within  the  reach  of  the 
middle  classes.  The  partridge  thrives  well 
in  captivity,  and  its  inclination  to  the  neigh- 
borhood of  man  seems  to  indicate  that  with 
proper  treatment  and  food  it  might  be  domes- 
ticated. It  is  not  only  the  victim  of  man,  but 
of  carnivorous  mammals  and  birds,  to  the  last 
of  which  it  is  peculiarly  exposed  on  account 
of  its  terrestrial  habits  and  short  flight. — The 
Guernsey  or  red-legged  partridge  belongs  to  the 
genus  caccabis  (Kaup) ;  in  this  the  bill  is  more 
arched  and  the  tarsi  are  armed  with  a  blunt 
tubercle.     This  species  (G.  rufa,  Kaup)  is  14 


Guernsey  Partridge  (Caccabis  ru 


in.  long,  with  an  alar  extent  of  21  in. ;  the  bill 
and  feet  are  bright  red;  upper  parts  reddish 
brown  tinged  with  gray ;  a  black  band  from 
the  bill  to  the  eye,  and  thence  down  the  neck, 
becoming  wider  and  meeting  in  front  that  of 
the  opposite  side;  lower  parts  ash-gray  and 
light  red,  and  sides  banded  with  the  same  and 
black  and  white.  It  is  confined  chiefly  to  the 
southern  countries  of  Europe  and  to  Asia  and 


PAKTRIDGE 


PARTRIDGE  WOOD 


143 


Africa ;  it  is  found  also  in  the  islands  of 
Guernsey  and  Jersey;  its  flesh  is  highly  es- 
teemed, but  it  affords  less  sport  than  the  com- 
mon species  from  the  separation  of  the  flock 
when  pursued  by  dogs ;  it  is  also  believed  to 
drive  off  the  gray  partridge.  The  Greek  or 
rock  partridge  (C.  Grceca,  Briss.)  is  larger  than 
the  last,  and  has  the  plumage  more  ashy ;  it 
inhabits  the  mountainous  regions  of  Greece, 
Turkey,  and  Asia  Minor,  and  is  probably  the 
species  alluded  to  in  the  Hebrew  and  other 
ancient  writings ;  the  flesh  is  white  and  much 
esteemed,  though  it  is  occasionally  bitter. — The 
genus  ithaginis  (Wagl.)  has  a  short  stout  bill, 
lengthened  and  rounded  tail,  long  tarsi  armed 
with  two  or  three  blunt  spurs,  and  the  toes  and 
claws  long.  Here  belongs  the  sanguine  par- 
tridge (/.  cruentus,  Hardw.),  from  the  moun- 
tains of  N.  India;  it  is  slate-colored  above 
with  yellow  streaks,  and  greenish  yellow  be- 
low irregularly  spotted  with  red ;  edge  of 
tail  coverts  and  vent  red ;  it  is  nearly  as  large 
as  a  pheasant. 

PARTRIDGE,  Alden,  an  American  soldier,  born 
in  Norwich,  Yt.,  about  1785,  died  there,  Jan. 
17,  1854.  He  graduated  at  West  Point  in 
1806,  and  acted  as  assistant  professor  and  af- 
terward professor  of  mathematics  in  that  insti- 
tution from  that  time  till  1813.  He  was  pro- 
fessor of  engineering  from  1813  to  1816,  and 
superintendent  from  January,  1815,  to  No- 
vember, 1816,  and  from  January  to  July,  1817. 
In  1818  he  left  the  service,  with  the  rank  of 
captain.  He  was  the  principal  of  the  ex- 
ploring survey  sent  out  in  1819  to  determine 
the  N.  W.  boundary  of  the  United  States.  He 
founded  in  1820  at  Norwich,  Yt.,  a  military 
academy,  which  was  afterward  removed  for  a 
time  to  Middletown,  Conn.,  but  restored  to 
Norwich  and  incorporated  as  Norwich  uni- 
versity, with  Capt.  Partridge  as  its  president. 
He  subsequently  founded  similar  institutions 
in  New  Hampshire,  Pennsylvania,  Yirginia,  and 
Delaware,  was  chosen  surveyor  general  of  his 
native  state  in  1822,  and  was  a  member  of  the 
Yermont  legislature  from  1833  to  1839. 

PARTRIDGE  BERRY,  a  name  sometimes  ap- 
plied to  the  common  plant  Gaultheria procum- 
iens  (see  Wlnteegeeen),  but  which  properly 
belongs  and  should  be  restricted  to  Mitchella 
repens.  This  genus  was  named  by  Linnaeus  in 
honor  of  Dr.  John  Mitchell,  a  resident  of  Yir- 
ginia and  an  excellent  botanist.  It  belongs  to 
the  madder  family  (ruMacece),  and  consists  of  a 
single  Japanese  species  besides  our  own,  which 
extends  from  Canada  throughout  the  states  to. 
Mexico,  and  is  also  found  in  the  mountains 
of  South  America.  The  partridge  berry  is  a 
small  trailing  evergreen,  with  a  much  branch- 
ing stem  a  foot  or  less  long ;  it  is  common  in 
dry  woods,  forming  a  dense  mat  about  the  foot 
of  trees ;  the  opposite  short-petioled  leaves  are 
round-ovate,  dark  green,  and  often  variegated 
with  whitish  lines ;  the  flowers  are  in  pairs, 
with  their  two  inferior  ovaries  united,  the  tube 
of  the  funnel-shaped  corolla  about  half  an  inch 
VOL.  xiii. — 10 


long,  the  limb  with  four  spreading  lobes  dense- 
ly bearded  within,  pearly  white,  often  tinged 
with  rose  or  purplish  and  very  fragrant ;  the 
four  stamens  and  single  pistil  are  dimorphous, 


Partridge  Berry  (Mitchella  repens). 

i.  e.,  in  some  flowers  the  stamens  are  long  and 
protrude  beyond  the  throat  of  the  corolla, 
while  in  other  flowers  this  is  reversed,  the 
pistil  being  long  and  the  stamens  hidden  with- 
in the  tube.  The  fruit  is  about  the  size  of 
a  whortleberry,  broader  than  long,  and  being 
of  two  cohering  ovaries  shows  the  calyces  of 
the  two  flowers  ;  it  is  bright  scarlet,  and  each 
half  contains  four  bony  nutlets  in  a  white 
pulp.  The  berries  remain  on  the  plant  through 
the  winter,  and  it  is  not  rare  to  find  ripe  fruit 
at  the  same  time  with  the  flowers  in  June. 
Other  local  names  are  one-berry,  two-eyes, 
winter  clover,  and  in  some  parts  of  New  Eng- 
land checkerberry.  The  berries,  while  edible, 
are  almost  tasteless,  and  few  care  to  eat  them, 
but  they  furnish  food  for  birds. 

PARTRIDGE  WOOD,  a  wood  imported  from 
South  America  and  some  parts  of  the  West  In- 
dies for  the  use  of  cabinet  makers,  by  whom  it 
is  prized  for  fine  work.  It  is  reddish,  beau- 
tifully marked  with  parallel  lines  and  streaks 
of  a  darker  color.  Its  toughness  also  makes 
it  valuable  for  umbrella  sticks  and  similar  uses. 
Several  trees,  of  different  families,  have  been 
credited  with  furnishing  this  wood,  and  it  is 
likely  that  the  product  of  two  or  more  differ- 
ent trees  is  known  in  commerce  under  the 
same  name.  According  to  Guibourt,  the  gov- 
ernment museums  in  France  have-  specimens 
under  the  name  of  hois  de  perdrix  which  be- 
long to  different  trees,  and  the  wood  known 
in  the  Paris  market  by  that  name  appears  to  be 
different  from  the  partridge  wood  of  the  Lon- 
don dealers.  These  woods  are  apparently  from 
trees  of  the  family  of  leguminosw  ;  andira  in- 
ermis  seems  to  furnish  one  of  them,  but  the 
matter  is  involved  in  much  confusion. 


144 


PARTY  WALL 


PASCAL 


PARTY  WALL,  in  law,  a  dividing  wall  be- 
tween lands  of  different  proprietors,  used  in 
common  for  the  support  of  structures  on  both 
sides.  At  the  common  law  an  owner  who 
has  occasion  to  build  on  the  line  of  his  prem- 
ises has  no  right  to  go  beyond  the  exact  line 
of  division  between  himself  and  his  neighbor, 
unless  he  has  the  neighbor's  assent  so  to  do. 
ISTor,  though  he  should  erect  a  wall  for  his  own 
buildings  which  is  capable  of  being  used  by 
the  adjoining  proprietor,  can  he  compel  such 
proprietor,  when  he  shall  build  next  to  it,  to 
pay  any  portion  of  the  cost  of  such  wall.  But 
on  the  other  hand,  the  adjoining  proprietor  has 
no  right  to  make  any  use  whatever  of  such 
wall  without  the  consent  of  the  owner,  and  the 
consequence  may  be  the  erection  of  two  walls 
side  by  side  where  one  would  answer  all  pur- 
poses. This  inconvenience  is  often  obviated  by 
an  agreement  under  which  a  wall  for  common 
use  is  erected,  one  half  of  which  is  on  the  land 
of  each  proprietor,  and  the  expense  is  borne 
and  the  use  shared  equally ;  or  if  only  one  is 
to  build  at  the  time,  the  wall  may  be  con- 
structed by  him  at  his  own  expense,  but  on 
the  understanding  that  the  other  shall  pay 
half  the  cost  when  he  builds.  Under  such  an 
agreement  each  has  an  easement  in  the  land  of 
the  other  while  the  wall  stands,  and  this  accom- 
panies the  title  in  'sales  and  descent.  But  if 
the  wall  is  destroyed  by  decay  or  accident,  the 
easement  is  gone  unless  by  deed  such  a  con- 
tingency is  provided  for.  Eepairs  to  party 
walls  are  to  be  borne  equally,  but  if  one  has 
occasion  to  strengthen  or  improve  them  for 
more  extensive  buildings  than  were  first  com- 
templated,  he  cannot  compel  the  other  to  di- 
vide with  him  this  expense.  In  some  states 
there  are  statutes  regulating  rights  in  party 
walls,  and  one  may  undoubtedly  acquire  rights 
by  prescription  in  a  wall  built  by  another 
which  he  has  long  been  allowed  to  use  for  the 
support  of  his  own  structures. 

PASARGADiE,  or  Pasargada,  the  capital  of  an- 
cient Persia  under  Cyrus  and  Cambyses.  Its 
name  is  translated  by  Stephen  of  Byzantium, 
"the  encampment  of  all  the  Persians."  Its 
site  is  not  known.  There  are  some  who  con- 
tend that  Pasargadae  and  Persepolis  were  the 
same  place;  others  that  it  was  situated  to  the 
southeast  of  Persepolis,  at ,  the  modern  Da- 
rabgerd  or  Fasa  (which  Spiegel  prefers) ;  and 
others  again  that  it  lay  to  the  northeast  of  it, 
near  the  modern  Murgab.  (See  Persepolis.) 
All  of  these  views  are  more  or  less  sustained 
by  passages  of  ancient  writers,  but  Murgab 
has  the  advantage  of  possessing  many  ruins 
and  relics  of  the  time  of  the  ancient  Persians. 
Among  these  is  a  tomb  called  by  the  natives 
the  tomb  of  Solomon's  mother,  but  which  is 
supposed  by  Rawlinson  and  others  to  be  that 
of  Cyrus.  On  a  square  base,  composed  of  im- 
mense blocks  of  white  marble,  that  rise  in  steps, 
stands  a  quadrangular  chamber,  built  of  blocks 
of  marble  5  ft.  thick,  shaped  at  the  top  into  a 
sloping  roof.     The  chamber  seems  to  have  held 


a  sarcophagus.  Upon  pillars  near  by  repeats 
edly  occurs  the  inscription  in  Persian  and  Me- 
dian :  "I  am  Cyrus  the  Achaemenian."  As 
the  monument  is  of  the  style  in  which  the  Per- 
sians still  build  the  tombs  of  women,  Oppert 
is  of  opinion  that  it  was  probably  erected  by 
Cyrus,  but  was  the  tomb  of  a  woman,  perhaps 
of  Cassandane,  mentioned  by  Herodotus.  Pa- 
sargadae was  esteemed  by  the  people  for  its  an- 
tiquity, and  was  under  the  especial  protection 
of  the  magi.  It  contained  the  most  ancient 
royal  palace  and  the  treasures.  The  Persian 
kings  were  inaugurated  there.  The  city  was 
the  stronghold  of  a  tribe  of  the  same  name,  the 
noblest  of  the  three  principal  tribes  of  the  an- 
cient Persians.  The  Achaemenidae,  to  whom 
Cyrus,  Darius,  and  other  kings  belonged,  and 
who  were  in  fact  the  royal  family  of  ancient 
Persia,  were  a  clan  of  the  Pasargadae.  They 
were  apparently  the  direct  descendants  of  the 
original  Persian  tribe  which  emigrated  from 
further  east  about  1500  B.  C,  and  which  as  it 
rose  to  power  imposed  its  name  upon  the  peo- 
ple and  the  country. 

PASCAGOULA,  a  river  of  Mississippi,  formed 
by  the  junction  of  the  Leaf  and  Chickasahay 
in  Greene  co.  It  flows  southerly  through 
Jackson  co.  into  Mississippi  sound,  through  two 
mouths,  its  embouchure  forming  Pascagoula 
bay.  It  is  navigable  for  100  m.  or  more  by 
small  vessels,  which  export  lumber,  turpentine, 
and  other  products  of  the  pine  forests  through 
which  it  flows.  The  name  is  derived  from  that 
of  the  Pasca-ogoulas  .("  Bread-eaters  ")  or  Pas- 
cagoulas,  a  tribe  of  Indians  formerly  inhabiting 
the  vicinity.  On  the  E.  mouth  of  the  river  is 
the  village  of  Pascagoula,  or  East  Pascagoula, 
which  has  500  inhabitants  and  a  large  hotel, 
and  is  much  frequented  as  a  summer  watering 
place.  There  are  extensive  saw  mills  in  the  vi- 
cinity.— The  embouchure  of  Pascagoula  river  is 
celebrated  for  the  "mysterious  music"  which 
may  often  be  heard  there  on  still  summer  even- 
ings. The  listener  being  on  the  beach,  or,  yet 
more  favorably,  in  a  boat  floating  upon  the 
river,  a  low,  plaintive  sound  is  heard,  rising 
and  falling  like  that  of  an  vEolian  harp,  and 
seeming  to  issue  from  the  water.  The  sounds, 
which  are  described  as  sweet  and  plaintive, 
but  monotonous,  cease  as  soon  as  there  is  any 
noise  or  disturbance  of  the  water.  The  most 
plausible  conjecture  in  explanation  of  its  ori- 
gin is  that  it  is  occasioned  by  some  species  of 
shell  fish  or  other  marine  animal. 

PASCAL,  Blaise,  a  French  author,  born  in  Cler- 
mont, Auvergne,  June  19,  1623,  died  in  Paris, 
Aug.  19,  1662.  His  father  was  president  of 
the  court  of  aids  in  his  native  city,  but  sold 
his  office  in  1631  and  removed  to  Paris  to  de- 
vote himself  to  the  education  of  his  son  and 
two  daughters.  He  directed  the  studies  of  the 
son  to  languages  and  general  literature,  avoid- 
ing everything  connected  with  the  exact  sci- 
ences. But  without  assistance,  and  ignorant 
of  the  very  rudiments  of  mathematics,  the  boy 
secretly  applied  himself  to  drawing  and  reflect- 


PASCAL 


145 


ing  upon  geometrical  figures,  until  he  had  gone 
through  a  series  of  definitions,  axioms,  and  de- 
monstrations as  far  as  the  32d  proposition  of 
Euclid.  On  discovering  this,  his  father  gave 
him  mathematical  instruction.  Blaise  was  soon 
admitted  to  the  meetings  of  scientific  societies, 
where  he  astounded  the  most  learned ;  and  at 
the  age  of  16  he  composed  a  "Treatise  on 
Conic  Sections."  In  1639  he  accompanied  his 
father  to  Rouen,  where  the  latter  had  been  ap- 
pointed superintendent  of  finance  for  the  prov- 
ince of  Normandy;  and  there  he  invented'^ 
calculating  machine,  which  was  improved  by 
L'Epine  and  Boitissendeau,  but  it  never  came 
into  practical  use.  He  published  an  account  of 
it  in  1645,  and  in  1650  offered  it  to  Queen 
Christina  of  Sweden.  During  his  stay  in 
Rouen  he  also  invented  the  vinaigrette  (wheel- 
barrow chair),  the  haquet  (a  kind  of  dray), 
and,  according  to  some,  the  hydraulic  press. 
His  health  was  seriously  impaired  by  his  labors, 
and  his  subsequent  life  was  a  succession  of  suf- 
ferings. In  1648  his  brother-in-law  M.  Perier, 
in  accordance  with  instructions  given  by  Pas- 
cal in  a  letter  of  the  previous  year,  executed 
on  the  Puy-de-D6me,  near  Clermont,  and  at 
Rouen,  and  Pascal  himself  at  the  tower  of  St. 
Jacques-la-Boucherie  in  Paris,  a  series  of  bar- 
ometrical experiments,  which  went  far  to  con- 
firm the  discoveries  of  Galileo,  Torricelli,  and 
Descartes  respecting  the  weight  and  elasticity 
of  air.  -Pascal  was  led  by  these  experiments 
to  use  the  barometer  for  levelling,  and  for 
ascertaining  the  pressure  of  fluids  upon  the 
sides  of  the  vessels  containing  them,  and  estab- 
lishing the  laws  of  their  equilibrium.  His  Ex- 
periences touchant  le  vide  were  published  in 
1647,  and  were  assailed  by  Father  Noel,  a  Jes- 
uit, who  presented  himself  as  the  champion  of 
the  old  system,  and  whom  Pascal  answered  in 
two  letters.  About  this  period  he  had  a  stroke 
of  paralysis  by  which  he  lost  for  a  while  the 
use  of  his  legs ;  at  the  same  time  he  studied  in- 
tensely devotional  works.  In  1654  he  with- 
drew from  society,  and  entered  upon  a  course 
of  self-denial  and  austerity,  which  character- 
ized the  remaining  years  of  his  life.  Amid  his 
previous  gayeties,  however,  in  which  he  had 
engaged  on  the  advice  of  his  physician,  he  had 
written  some  of  his  philosophical  works,  such 
as  his  treatises  De  la  pesanteur  de  la  masse  de 
Pair,  and  De  V  equilibre  des  liqueurs,  which 
was  first  published  in  1663.  In  1654  he  com- 
pleted an  "  arithmetical  triangle,"  by  which 
he  illustrated  mathematically  certain  laws  con- 
nected with  bets  and  games  of  chance ;  it  was 
an  approach  toward  the  binominal  theorem 
of  Newton.  After  his  death  three  treatises 
of  his  were  published  (1665)  in  which  he  had 
laid  down  the  principles  of  the  calculus  of 
probabilities.  The  Port  Royalists  were  now 
the  upholders  of  the  doctrines  of  Jansenius, 
and  Pascal  frequently  visited  their  house,  and 
soon  interested  himself  in  their  quarrel  with 
the  Jesuits.  When,  at  the  end  of  1655,  An- 
toine  Arnauld  was  expelled  from  the  Sorbonne 


on  account  of  his  letter  in  defence  of  Jansen- 
ism, Pascal  published  the  first  of  the  series  of 
Lettres  de  Louis  de  Montalte  d  un  provincial 
de  ses  amis  et  aux  RR.  PP.  les  Jesuit es  sur  la 
morale  et  la  politique  de  ces  peres,  which  be- 
came so  celebrated  under  the  abbreviated  title 
of  "  The  Provincial  Letters."  The  first  of  these 
letters,  which  appeared  Jan.  23,  1656,  was 
eagerly  read  and  circulated ;  it  was  followed  at 
intervals  by  17  others  within  a  period  of  14 
months.  The  replies  of  the  Jesuits,  the  con- 
demnation of  the  letters  by  the  holy  see  in 
1657,  and  the  sentence  of  the  council  of  state 
and  the  parliament  of  Aix  that  they  should  be 
burned  by  the  hand  of  the  executioner,  could 
not  check  their  popularity  ;  and  20  years  later, 
as  appears  from  Mme.  de  Sevigne's  correspon- 
dence, the  Petites  lettres,  as  they  were  now 
styled,  had  lost  nothing  of  their  original  attrac- 
tions. They  may  be  said  to  have  been  the 
origin  of  that  hostile  feeling  which,  a  century 
later,  brought  about  the  expulsion  of  the  so- 
ciety of  Jesus  from  Prance.  They  were  trans- 
lated into  several  languages ;  and  one  of  the  Port 
Royalists,  Nicole,  produced  a  Latin  version  un- 
der the  name  of  Wendrock.  Pascal's  health  con- 
tinued to  fail,  and  his  sufferings  scarcely  left 
him  any  respite;  he  nevertheless  returned  to 
his  wonted  pursuits,  and  studied  the  properties 
of  curves,  and  especially  those  of  the  cycloid 
or  roulette.  He  completed  the  researches  of 
Galileo,  Torricelli,  Descartes,  and  Fermat  on 
this  particular  point,  and  in  1659  published  his 
Traite  general  de  la  roulette.  He  had  also  en- 
gaged in  the  composition  of  a  new  demonstra- 
tion of  Christianity,  but  was  able,  only  to  write 
occasionally  detached  thoughts,  which  were 
published  in  1670,  under  the  title  of  Penseessur 
la  religion.  Modern  critics,  especially  Victor 
Cousin  and  Sainte-Beuve,  availing  themselves 
of  previously  neglected  sources  of  information 
and  original  manuscripts,  have  succeeded  in 
giving  an  outline  of  Pascal's  design.  The  last 
four  years  of  his  life  were  an  almost  unbroken 
series  of  bodily  suffering  and  charitable  em- 
ployments; his  alms  absorbed  more  than  his 
income.  His  remains  were  buried  in  the  church 
of  St.  Etienne  du  Mont,  where  his  tomb  is  still 
to  be  seen. — There  are  two  editions  of  Pascal's 
complete  works,  including  his  scientific  trea- 
tises, namely,  that  of  Bossut  (5  vols.  8vo,  1779), 
and  that,  of  Lefevre  (5  vols.  8yo,  1819).  The 
Lettres  provinciales,  collected  for  the  first  time 
in  1657,  were  published  in  1684  at  Cologne 
under  the  supervision  of  Nicole,  with  Latin, 
Spanish,  and  Italian  translations.  The  Pensees 
were  reprinted  from  the  original  edition  of 
1670,  first  in  1672  (2  vols.  12mo),  and  with  a 
life  of  Pascal  by  his  sister,  Mme.  Perier,  in 
1684;  by  Desmolets,  with  some  additions,  in 
1729  ;  and  by  Condorcet  in  1776.  These  were 
the  foundation  of  every  subsequent  edition  un- 
til 1842,  when  Victor  Cousin,  in  a  paper  read 
before  the  French  academy,  pointed  out  the 
alterations  and  omissions  in  everyone  of  them, 
referring  at  the  same  time  to  the  autograph 


146 


PASCHAL 


PASKEVITCH 


manuscript  which  is  preserved  in  the  national 
library  at  Paris.  In  1844  Prosper  Faugere, 
following  up  Cousin's  suggestions,  issued  a 
more  correct  edition  of  the  Pensees,  lettres  et 
fragments  de  Blaise  Pascal  (2  vols.  8vo).  This 
gave  rise  to  a  controversy  respecting  the  work 
itself  and  what  has  been  styled  the  skepticism 
of  Pascal,  to  which  we  are  indebted  for  the 
following  works  among  others :  Cousin's  Blaise 
Pascal  (1849);  Sainte-Beuve's  Port  Royal 
and  Portraits  litteraires ;  and  the  abbe  Flottes 
and  A.  Vinet's  Etudes  sur  Pascal  (1846  and 
1848).  The  Pensees,  opuscules  et  lettres,  edited 
by  Plon  in  accordance  with  the  original  manu- 
script, appeared  at  Paris  in  1873,  and  Pensees 
de  Blaise  Pascal,  edition  de  1670,  with  illus- 
trations by  Gaucherel,  in  1874.  The  life  of 
Pascal  by  Mme  Perier  has  been  the  foundation 
of  numerous  later  biographies.  The  Pensees 
and  Lettres  provinciates  have  been  several 
times  translated  into  English. — The  younger 
sister  of  Pascal,  Jacqueline  (1625-61),  left 
some  miscellaneous  works,  letters,  and  verses, 
which  have  been  collected  by  Faugere  (Paris, 
1845),  and  by  Cousin  in  his  biography  of  her 
(Paris,  1849). 

PASCHAL  Ho,  pope  (Ranieei  of  Bieda),  born 
in  Tuscany,  died  Jan.  21,  1118.  He  was  a 
monk  of  the  order  of  Cluny,  and  was  made 
cardinal  by  Pope  Gregory  VII.  He  was  elect- 
ed pope  on  Aug.  13,  1099,  and  almost  imme- 
diately renewed  the  struggle  with  the  German 
emperor  on  the  subject  of  investitures.  He 
excommunicated  Henry  IV.  in  1102,  where- 
upon that  emperor's  son  revolted  and  caused 
himself  to  be  acknowledged  as  Henry  V. ;  but 
in  the  matter  of  investitures  he  proved  as 
unyielding  as  his  father.  Paschal  proposed  a 
compromise,  but  the  bishops  would  not  con- 
sent to  it,  and  when  Henry  arrived  at  Rome  to 
be  crowned  in  1110  the  negotiation  was  bro- 
ken off,  and  the  pope  refused  to  perform  the 
coronation  ceremony.  The  emperor  thereupon 
seized  the  pontiff's  person,  treated  him  with 
great  indignity,  and  after  keeping  him  prisoner 
two  months  extorted  from  him  the  permission 
to  invest  the  prelates  of  his  kingdom  with  ring 
and  crosier,  provided  their  election  was  free, 
received  the  imperial  crown,  and  went  back 
to  Germany.  Paschal,  stricken  with  remorse, 
wished  to  abdicate,  but  was  prevented  by  the 
cardinals.  In  1112  he  summoned  a  council  in 
the  Lateran  basilica,  and  submitted  his  con- 
duct to  its  judgment.  His  cession  of  the  right 
of  investiture  was  solemnly  condemned.  The 
result  was  a  rebellion  of  some  of  the  turbulent 
German  barons,  but  Henry  soon  subdued  them, 
and  marching  upon  Rome  compelled  the  pope 
to  flee  to  Benevento.  After  the  emperor's  re- 
turn, Paschal  made  vigorous  preparations  for 
war,  but  died  before  he  could  take  the  field. 
He  had  also  been  involved  in  a  dispute  with 
Henry  I.  of  England  on  the  same  subject,  but 
a  compromise  was  effected  in  1108,  whereby 
the  king  surrendered  the  most  obnoxious  part 
of  the  ceremony  of  investiture,  the  collation  of 


the  ring  and  crosier,  and  retained  the  right  of 
nominating  bishops  and  abbots  and  exacting 
from  them  fealty  and  homage. 

PAS-DE-CALAIS,  a  N.  department  of  France, 
formed  principally  from  the  old  province  of 
Artois,  bordering  on  the  strait  of  Dover  (Fr. 
Pas  de  Calais)  and  the  departments  of  Le  Nord 
and  Somme ;  area,  2,550  sq.  m. ;  pop.  in  1872, 
761,158.  It  is  intersected  from  S.  E.  to  N.  W. 
by  a  chain  of  hills  which  give  rise  to  several 
rivers,  the  most  important  of  which  are  the 
Scarpe  and  the  Lys,  branches  of  the  Scheldt, 
and  the  Aa  and  the  Canche,  flowing  respective- 
ly into  the  North  sea  and  the  English  channel. 
These  rivers  are  navigable  and  are  united  by 
canals.  The  Northern  railway  and  its  branch- 
es cross  the  department.  Coal  is  found  in 
small  quantities.  The  soil  is  marshy  in  some 
districts,  but  is  generally  fertile.  Much  land 
is  devoted  to  sugar  beets.  The  manufactures 
are  of  tulles,  cotton  and  linen  stuffs  and  yarns, 
spirits,  leather,  gunpowder,  soap,  glass,  and 
earthenware.  The  department  is  divided  into 
the  arrondissements  of  Arras,  Boulogne,  Mon- 
treuil,  St.  Omer,  Bethune,  and  St.  Pol.  Capi- 
tal, Arras. 

PASHA,  or  Bashaw,  in  Turkey,  a  title  given  to 
a  governor  of  a  province,  a  minister,  or  a 
naval  and  military  commander  of  high  rank. 
Pashas  of  the  first  rank  are  called  pashas  of 
three  tails,  that  number  of  horse  tails  having 
been  formerly  carried  before  them  as  a  stand- 
ard when  they  appeared  in  public.  Before 
those  of  inferior  rank  two  horse  tails  were, 
borne.  This  display  has  been  discontinued 
except  perhaps  in  some  of  the  Barbary  prov- 
inces. The  title  is  probably  of  Persian  origin. 
Some  derive  it  from  the  Turkish  hash,  a  head 
or  chief ;  others,  and  among  them  Vattel,  from 
the  Persian  pai,  foot,  and  shah,  king,  i.  e.,  the 
king's  subordinate.  It  is  very  ancient,  a  sim- 
ilar term,  pe'ha,  being  used  in  the  Hebrew 
Scriptures  to  designate  the  viceroys  or  gov- 
ernors of  provinces  of  the  Assyrian,  Baby- 
lonian, and  old  Persian  empires.  The  office 
corresponds  to  that  of  the  ancient  Persian 
satraps.  Until  recently  the  Turkish  pashas 
were  entirely  absolute  in  the  administration  of 
their  provinces,  but  now  their  power  is  check- 
ed by  local  councils  and  by  courts  of  appeal. 

PASHT.     See  Bubastis. 

PASIPHAE.     See  Minos. 

PASKEVITCH,  Ivan  Fedorovitch,  prince  of  War- 
saw, a  Russian  soldier,  born  in  Poltava,  May 
19,  1782,  died  in  Warsaw,  Feb.  1,  1856.  He 
was  educated  at  St.  Petersburg,  became  a  page 
of  the  emperor  Paul,  and  in  1800  entered  the 
army.  He  served  with  distinction  in  the  earlier 
campaigns  of  the  reign  of  Alexander  I.,  and 
in  those  of  1812-14  at  Smolensk,  Moscow, 
Leipsic,  and  in  France.  In  1826,  on  the  out- 
break of  the  war  against  Persia,  he  was  ap- 
pointed by  Nicholas  to  command  under  Yermo- 
loff.  Having  achieved  considerable  successes 
over  the  Persians  under  Abbas  Mirza,  he  suc- 
ceeded Yermoloff  in  the  chief  command  in  1827, 


PASQUIER 


147 


and  in  October  captured  Erivan.  He  was  re- 
warded by  Nicholas  with  a  million  rubles 
and  the  title  of  count  of  Erivan.  Paskevitch 
now  crossed  the  Aras,  and  by  a  rapid  advance 
entered  the  city  of  Tabriz.  After  the  peace 
of  Turkmantchai,  concluded  Feb.  22,  1828,  he 
commanded  in  the  east  in  the  Avar  against  Tur- 
key, while  the  principal  Russian  army  was 
engaged  on  the  line  of  the  lower  Danube  and 
the  Balkan.  Anapa,  Poti,  Kars,  and  Akhal- 
tzik  were  taken  in  the  summer  of  that  year ; 
and   advancing    through  mountain  passes  in 

1829,  Paskevitch  surprised  a  large  army  un- 
der the  seraskier.  Assisted  by  the  treachery 
of  the  janizaries,  he  took  Erzerum,  July  9, 
and  pushed  forward  toward  Trebizond,  in' the 
vicinity  of  which  he  received  the  news  of  the 
peace  of  Adrianople.  Made  field  marshal  and 
governor  of  the  province  of  Georgia,  he  check- 
ed the  rising  of  the  Lesghian  mountaineers  in 

1830,  and  in  1831  was  appointed  commander- 
in-chief  of  the  armies  in  Poland.  He  crossed 
the  Vistula  near  the  Prussian  frontier,  and  ad- 
vanced on  the  right  bank  of  that  river  toward 
Warsaw,  which  after  a  desperate  struggle  ca- 
pitulated (Sept.  8).  The  conqueror  received  the 
title  of  prince  of  Warsaw,  and  was  made  gov- 
ernor of  Poland,  which  was  now  stripped  of  its 
constitutional  semi-independence,  and  trans- 
formed into  a  Russian  province,  though  main- 
taining some  institutions  of  a  separate  adminis- 
tration. Paskevitch  not  only  discharged  his 
duty  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  his  master, 
but  by  his  moderation  also  gained  some  popu- 
larity among  the  Polish  people.  Various  at- 
tempts at  a  new  rising,  the  most  serious  of 
which  was  that  of  1846,  were  speedily  sup- 
pressed. Nicholas,  having  already  attempted 
an  invasion  of  Hungary  from  the  south  in 
January,  1849,  in  the  ensuing  spring  placed 
Paskevitch  at  the  head  of  an  army  of  more 
than  200,000  men,  which  simultaneously  cross- 
ed the  northern,  northwestern,  and  southeast- 
ern Carpathians,  acting  in  part  independent- 
ly, and  in  part  in  conjunction  with  the  Aus- 
trians.  No  brilliant  victory  was  now  achieved 
by  Paskevitch,  his  principal  merit  consisting 
in  cautiously  avoiding  dangers,  while  the  Hun- 
garians were  slowly  crushed  by  the  weight 
of  converging  masses.  Gorgey's  surrender  at 
Vilagos  (Aug.  13)  having  virtually  ended  the 
struggle,  Paskevitch  returned  to  Warsaw,  where 
he  received  new  honors.  A  grand  jubilee  soon 
after  took  place  in  that  city  on  the  50th  anni- 
versary of  his  entrance  into  the  army,  and  he 
was  made  a  field  marshal  by  both  the  emperor 
of  Austria  and  the  king  of  Prussia.  In  April, 
1854,  he  took  command  of  the  principal  Rus- 
sian army  in  the  war  against  Turkey,  after  the 
first  disastrous  campaign  on  the  Danube ;  but 
having  been  wounded  before  Silistria  (June  8), 
which  he  failed  to  conquer,  he  resigned. 

PASQIJIER,  Etienne,  a  French  author,  born  in 
Paris,  April  7,  1529,  died  Aug.  31,  1615.  He 
first  appeared  in  1549  in  the  capacity  of  attor- 
ney before  the  parliament  of  Paris.     After 


publishing  Le  Monophile  and  Les  collogues 
d'amour,  in  prose,  and  several  miscellaneous 
poems,  he  produced  in  1561  the  first  book  of 
his  Recherches  de  la  France.  In  1564  he  was 
counsel  for  the  university  in  its  lawsuit  with 
the  Jesuits.  In  1585  he  was  appointed  attor- 
ney general  to  the  court  of  accounts,  and  in 
1588  was  elected  a  deputy  to  the  states  general 
at  Blois.  He  accompanied  the  royalist  mem- 
bers of  the  parliament  who,  under  Henry  III., 
held  their  sessions  at  Tours,  and  returned  to 
Paris  with  Henry  IV.  He  now  found  himself 
involved  in  new  quarrels  with  the  Jesuits.  In 
1603  he  resigned  his  office  of  attorney  general 
to  his  eldest  son,  and  devoted  his  later  years 
to  revising  and  publishing  his  literary  works. 
Most  of  these  were  printed  in  2  vols.  fol.  (Am- 
sterdam, 1723).  Besides  his  invaluable  Re- 
cherches de  la  France  in  9  books,  they  in- 
clude 22  books  of  familiar  letters,  affording 
ample  information  upon  the  manners  of  tho 
time.  Leon  Feugere  has  edited  his  (Euvres 
choisies  (2  vols.  18mo,  Paris,  1849),  with  an 
excellent  biographical  and  critical  notice.  Pas- 
quier's  fame  as  a  jurist  has  been  fully  vindi- 
cated by  the  publication  of  his  Interpretation 
des  Institutes  de  Justinien,  edited  by  M.  Charles 
Giraud  (4to,  Paris,  1847). 

PASQUIER,  Etienne  Denis,  duke,  a  French 
statesman,  of  the  same  family  with  the  pre- 
ceding, born  in  Paris,  April  22,  1767,  died 
there,  July  5,  1862.  Before  he  became  of  age 
he  was  appointed  councillor  in  the  parliament 
of  Paris.  His  father  was  beheaded  during 
the  revolution,  and  he  himself  was  impris- 
oned. Under  the  empire  he  became  succes- 
sively master  of  requests  in  the  council  of  state, 
councillor,  procureur  general  du  sceau  et  des 
titres,  and  prefect  of  police.  Charged  by  Na- 
poleon with  neglect  of  duty  at  the  time  of  the 
conspiracy  of  Malet  in  1812,  he  was  acquitted 
on  trial,  and  kept  in  office  until  the  first  res- 
toration, when  Louis  XVIII.  appointed  him 
director  general  of  roads  and  bridges.  He  stood 
aloof  during  the  hundred  days,  and  after  the 
second  restoration  was  keeper  of  the  seals  and 
temporary  minister  of  the  interior  in  the  cabi- 
net of  Talleyrand  in  1815,  minister  of  justice 
in  that  of  Richelieu  in  1817,  and  of  foreign 
affairs  in  that  of  Decazes  in  1819.  He  adhered 
to  the  revolution  of  July,  1830,  and  Louis  Phi- 
lippe made  him  president  of  the  chamber  of 
peers,  with  the  honorary  title  of  chancellor  of 
France.  He  had  been  made  a  baron  by  Na- 
poleon, became  a  count  under  the  restoration, 
and  finally  in  1844  received  the  title  of  duke 
from  Louis  Philippe.  Although  he  published 
nothing  but  a  collection  of  discourses  delivered 
in  his  capacity  of  minister  or  peer  from  1814 
to  1836  (4  vols.  8vo,  1842),  he  was  in  1842 
elected  a  member  of  the  French  academy.  He 
left  voluminous  memoirs. — His  grandnephew 
and  adopted  son  is  the  present  duke  Gaston 
d'Audiffret-Pasquier,  brother-in-law  of  Casimir 
Perier,  an  influential  statesman,  and  in  1875 
president  of  the  national  assembly. 


148 


PASQUIN 


PASSAIC 


PASQUEV,  the  name  given  to  a  mutilated 
statue  in  Rome,  standing  at  the  end  of  the 
Braschi  palace  near  the  piazza  Navona.  In 
its  immediate  neighborhood,  in  the  latter  half 
of  the  15th  century,  was  the  shop  of  a  tailor 
named  Pasquin,  or  Pasquino,  which  was  much 
frequented  by  people  of  consequence  for  the 
purpose  of  hearing  the  current  gossip  and 
scandal,  and  the  facetious  stories  and  satirical 
remarks  of  Pasquin  and  his  workmen,  to  whom 
the  utmost  license  of  speech  seems  to  have 
been  allowed.  So  many  caustic  personalities 
emanated  from  this  place,  that  gradually  every 
bitter  saying  was  attributed  to  Pasquin  or  his 
shop.  Etiquette  forbade  the  sufferer  by  such 
libels,  or  pasquinades  as  they  were  called,  to 
exhibit  any  resentment.  After  Pasquin's  death 
the  statue  was  dug  out  and  set  up  near  his 
shop,  and  the  populace  declared  that  Pasquin 
had  come  to  life  again.  The  mutilated  torso 
was  called  by  his  name,  and  thenceforth  the 
custom  arose  of  attaching  to  it  bits  of  satiri- 
cal writing,  which  frequently  took  the  shape 
of  lampoons  upon  persons  in  high  station,  the 
pope  and  cardinals  being  favorite  objects  of 
attack.  The  statue  of  Marforio,  supposed  to 
be  that  of  a  river  god,  which  about  the  close 
of  the  16th  century  was  placed  in  the  palazzo 
de1  conservatori  on  the  Oapitoline  hill,  was 
made  the  vehicle  for  replying  to  the  attacks  of 
Pasquin  ;  and  other  statues  in  various  parts  of 
the  city  occasionally  issued  an  epigram  on  pub- 
lic affairs.  Pasquin,  however,  maintained  his 
supremacy  over  all  rivals.  The  first  true  pas- 
quinades date  from  the  pontificate  of  Leo  X., 
and  after  the  lapse  of  three  and  a  half  centuries 
Pasquin  still  pursues  his  ancient  avocation. 
Satirical  epigrams  however  were  published 
previous  to  Leo's  accession. 

PASQUOTANK,  a  N.  E.  county  of  North  Caro- 
lina, bordering- on  Virginia,  and  bounded  N.  E. 
by  the  Pasquotank  river,  and  S.  by  Albemarle 
sound ;  area,  about  300  sq.  m. ;  pop.  in  1870, 
8,131,  of  whom  3,951  were  colored.  Its  sur- 
face is  low  and  level,  including  a  portion  of 
the  Dismal  swamp,  and  in  some  places  fertile. 
The  Pasquotank  river  is  navigable  for  small 
vessels  to  Elizabeth  City,  and  a  branch  of  the 
Dismal  Swamp  canal  crosses  the  county.  The 
chief  productions  in  1870  were  22,086  bushels 
of  wheat,  434,985  of  Indian  corn,  23,937  of 
sweet  potatoes,  and  110  bales  of  cotton.  There 
were  738  horses,  1,016  milch  cows,  2,094  other 
cattle,  702  sheep,  and  7,868  swine.  Capital, 
Elizabeth  City. 

PASSAGLIA,  Carlo,  an  Italian  theologian,  born 
at  San  Paolo,  near  Lucca,  May  12,  1812.  He 
became  a  Jesuit  in  1827,  studied  philosophy 
and  theology  in  the  Roman  college,  and  taught 
successively  canon  law  and  theology  there  till 
1858,  when  he  left  the  society  of  Jesus  and 
was^  appointed  by  the  pope  professor  in  the 
Sapienza.  In  the  discussions  which  preceded 
the  proclamation  of  the  dogma  of  the  Immacu- 
late Conception,  he  and  Padre  Perrone,  anoth- 
er Jesuit,  were  chiefly  conspicuous,  Passaglia 


having  published  at  the  expense  of  the  Roman 
government  an  elaborate  work  on  the  subject, 
and  having  prepared  the  first  draught  of  the 
bull  of  definition,  Ineffabilis  Deus.  In  1859 
he  published  in  Latin  an  appeal  to  the  bishops 
of  Italy  pressing  on  their  attention  the  claims 
of  Italian  unity,  and  urging  the  pope  to  abdi- 
cate his  temporal  power.  He  also  undertook 
a  journey  to  Turin  to  induce  the  ministry  of 
Victor  Emanuel  to  compromise  with  the  pope. 
Meanwhile  his  appeal  was  placed  on  the  In- 
dex, and  his  house  was  put  under  the  surveil- 
lance of  the  police.  These  measures  compelled 
him  after  his  return  to  leave  Rome  in  disguise, 
and  he  took  up  his  residence  in  Turin.  There 
he  established  the  journal  II  Mediatore,  which 
continued  to  appear  from  1862  to  1866.  He 
was  appointed  by  the  king  professor  of  moral 
philosophy  and  subsequently  of  theology  in  the 
university  of  Turin,  and  was  elected  a  member 
of  the  Italian  parliament  in  January,  1863 ; 
but  there  his  conciliatory  views  met  with  little 
favor  from  the  majority.  He  caused  no  little 
excitement  about  the  same  time  by  the  publica- 
tion of  two  papers,  the  one  arguing  the  obliga- 
tion of  the  pope  to  reside  in  Rome  even  after 
its  eventual  conversion  into  the  capital  of  Italy, 
and  the  second  claiming  the  right  of  appeal 
against  papal  excommunications,  and  asserting 
that  they  can  only  be  lawfully  used  for  spirit- 
ual purposes.  He  strenuously  opposed  the 
declaration  of  papal  infallibility.  His  principal 
works  are  :  De  Prcerogativis  Beati  Petri,  Apos- 
tolorum  Principis  (Ratisbon,  1850) ;  Commenta- 
rius  Theologicus  de  Partitione  Divinm  Volun- 
tatis (Rome,  1851) ;  Pro  Causa  Italica  ad 
Episcopos  GatJiolicos  (Florence,  1859)  ;  and  La 
questione  delV  independenza  ed  unitd  dinanzi 
al  clero  (Florence,  1861) ;  besides  remarkable 
treatises  on  the  eternity  of  future  punishments 
and  other  theological  matters. 

PASSAIC,  a  N.  county  of  New  Jersey,  border- 
ing on  New  York,  bounded  S.  W.  by  the  Pe- 
quannock  and  intersected  by  the  Ringwood, 
Ramapo,  and  Passaic  rivers;  area,  about  220 
sq.  m. ;  pop.  in  1870,  46,416.  Its  surface  is 
diversified,  and  the  soil  is  generally  fertile.  It 
is  intersected  by  the  Morris  canal  and  the  Erie 
railroad,  the  New  Jersey  division  of  the  New 
York  and  Oswego  Midland,  and  the  Delaware, 
Lackawanna,  and  Western  railroad.  The  chief 
productions  in  1870  were  15,223  bushels  of  rye, 
68,407  of  Indian  corn,  36,467  of  oats,  13,308  of 
buckwheat,  87,950  of  potatoes,  159,418  lbs.  of 
butter,  and  11,396  tons  of  hay.  There  were 
1,539  horses,  3,299  milch  cows,  2,402  other 
cattle,  1,886  sheep,  and  1,694  swine.  There 
are  a  large  number  of  manufactories,  chiefly 
at  Paterson,  the  county  seat. 

PASSAIC,  a  river  of  New  Jersey,  which  rises 
in  Mendham,  Morris  co.,  flows  S.  for  a  few 
miles  and  then  E.  between  Somerset  and  Mor- 
ris cos.,  then  N.  N.  E.  between  the  latter  and 
Union  and  Essex  cos.,  crosses  Passaic  co.  in  an 
easterly  direction,  and  turning  S.  after  a  very 
devious  course  of  about  90  m.  enters  Newark 


PASSAMAQUODDY  BAY 


PASSENGER  PIGEON 


149 


bav.  It  is  navigable  a  short  distance  for  sloops. 
At  Paterson  it  has  a  fall  of  72  ft.  (or  50  ft.  per- 
pendicular), affording  immense  water  power, 
which  has  been  improved  by  dams  and  canals. 
It  is  much  visited  by  tourists. 

PASSAMAQUODDY  BAY,  a  body  of  water  be- 
tween the  S.  E.  extremity  of  Maine  and  the  S. 
W.  corner  of  New  Brunswick,  being  about  12 
m.  long  and  6  m.  wide  at  the  entrance.  It  re- 
ceives the  waters  of  the  St.  Croix  and  Didge- 
guash  rivers.  Oampo  Bello  island  lies  across 
the  entrance  of  the  bay,  and  Deer  island  and  a 
cluster  of  small  islets  called  Wolf  islands  lie 
within  it.  The  bay  is  well  sheltered  and  not 
liable  to  be  obstructed  by  ice ;  and  it  has  good 
harbors  and  a  sufficient  depth  for  the  largest 
vessels.     The  tide  rises  25  ft. 

PASSAROVITZ  (Serb,  Pozharevatz),  a  town  of 
Servia,  37  m.  E.  S.  E.  of  Belgrade ;  pop.  about 
7,000.  It  contains  a  court  and  several  schools, 
but  is  chiefly  noted  for  the  peace  concluded 
here  July  21,  1718,  between  Austria  and  Ven- 
ice on  one  side  and  Turkey  on  the  other,  in  | 
which  the  Porte,  humbled  by  the  victories  of 
Prince  Eugene,  consented  to  considerable  ces- 
sions of  territory  on  both  sides  of  the  lower 
Danube. 

PASSAU  (anc.  Batava  Castro),  a  town  of  Ba- 
varia, at  the  confluence  of  the  Inn  and  the 
Danube,  92  m.  E.  N.  E.  of  Munich ;  pop.  in 
1871,  13,389.  It  is  divided  by  the  rivers  into 
three  parts,  the  central  one  being  the  town 
proper,  and  the  others,  Innstadt  on  the  Inn, 
and  Ilzstadt  on  the  Danube,  being  suburbs. 
The  Ilz,  a  tributary  of  the  Danube,  flows  be- 
tween Ilzstadt  and  Anger.  Two  castles  and 
eight  smaller  works  of  defence  constitute  Pas- 
sau  one  of  the  most  important  strongholds  on 
the  Danube.  It  has  a  cathedral,  a  public  libra- 
ry, a  theatre,  an  old  abbey,  a  bronze  statue  of 
King  Maximilian  Joseph,  several  schools  and 
hospitals,  a  lunatic  asylum,  manufactories  of 
porcelain,  leather,  tobacco,  beer,  paper,  iron, 
and  copper,  and  an  active  trade  on  the  Danube. 
Its  bishops  were  formerly  independent  princes, 
but  it  was  secularized  in  1803,  and  incorpora- 
ted with  Bavaria  in  1805.  In  1552  a  treaty 
guaranteeing  religious  freedom  to  the  German 
Protestants  was  concluded  here  between  the 
emperor  Charles  Y.  and  Maurice  of  Saxony. 

PASSAVANT,  Johann  David,  a  German  art  his- 
torian, born  in  Frankfort  in  1787,  died  there, 
Aug.  12,  1861.  He  studied  art  in  Paris  and 
Rome,  and  became  inspector  of  the  Stadel 
museum  in  his  native  city,  an  office  which 
he  held  till  his  death.  He  painted  several 
works  of  merit,  and  wrote  Rafael  von  Urbino 
und  sein  Vater  Giovanni  Santo  (3  vols.,  Leip- 
sic,  1839-58) ;  Die  christliche  Kunst  in  Spa- 
nien  (1853);  Le  peintre-graveur  (in  French,  6 
vols.,  1860-'64) ;  and  several  other  works. 

PASSENGER  PIGEON,  or  Wild  Pigeon  (ectopistes 
migratoria,  Swains.),  a  well  known  columbine 
species  peculiar  to  North  America,  where  it 
exists  in  immense  numbers.  The  family  char- 
acters are  given  under  Pigeon;   the  generic 


characters  are,  a  very  small  head,  short  bill, 
long  wings,  the  first  primary  the  longest,  tarsi 
very  short,  and  tail  very  long  and  wedge-shaped. 
The  male  is  about  16|  in.  long,  with  an  alar 
extent  of  25  in. ;  the  general  color  above  is 
grayish  blue,  some  of  the  wing  coverts  being 
marked  with  black  spots;  throat,  fore  neck, 
breast,  and  sides  light  brownish  red,  and  the 
rest  of  the  under  parts  white ;  lower  hind  neck 
with  golden,  green,  and  violet  reflections ;  quills 
blackish,  bordered  with  pale  bluish,  the  larger 
coverts  whitish  at  the  tip;  two  middle  tail 
feathers  black,  the  others  pale  blue  at  the  base, 
becoming  white  toward  the  end ;  the  bill  black, 
iris  bright  red,  and  feet  carmine  purple.  The 
female  is  smaller,  and  of  duller  colors.  Their 
rapid  and  long  continued  flight  enables  them  to 
pass  over,  and  their  keen  vision  to  survey,  a 
vast  extent  of  country,  when  migrating  at  ir- 
regular periods  in  search  of  the  mast  which 
constitutes  their  principal  food;  the  flight  is 
high  or  low  according  to  the  region ;  for  an  ac- 


Passenger  Pigeon  (Ectopistes  migratoria). 

count  of  the  rapidity  of  their  flight,  see  Cae- 
eiee  Pigeon.  After  feeding  they  settle  on  the 
trees,  and  toward  sunset  depart  for  their  roost- 
ing places,  often  hundreds  of  miles  distant; 
they  build  in  forests  where  the  trees  are  high, 
without  much  reference  to  season,  and  in  places 
where  food  is  abundant  and  water  not  far  off ; 
the  flesh  is  dark-colored,  and  highly  esteemed  ; 
according  to  Audubon,  they  lay  two  eggs.  These 
birds  are  found  throughout  temperate  North 
America  to  the  high  central  plains.  Their 
numbers  are  absolutely  countless  both  in  the 
roosting  and  breeding  place.  Wilson  describes 
one  of  their  breeding  places  in  Kentucky  ex- 
tending 40  m.  through  the  woods  and  several 
miles  wide,  every  tree  bearing  nests  wherever 
they  could  be  placed;  they  appeared  about 
April  10  and  left  with  their  young  before  May 
25  ;  they  were  killed  in  immense  numbers  by 
the  people  gathered  from  a  wide  extent  of 
country.  Wilson  calculates  the  length  of  a 
column  of  these  birds  which  passed  over  him 


150 


PASSION  FLOWER 


at  240  m.,  and  estimates  the  number  of  pigeons 
in  it  at  more  than  2,000,000,000. 

PASSION  FLOWER  (passijlora),  a  genus  of 
plants  so  named  because  the  early  Spanish  mis- 
sionaries regarded  them  as  emblematic  of  the 
passion  or  crucifixion  of  Christ  and  its  attend- 
ant circumstances.  It  contains  about  120  spe- 
cies of  mostly  climbing,  herbaceous,  or  woody 
plants,  all  of  which,  save  a  few  in  Asia  and 
Australia,  belong  to  the  American  continent, 
especially  to  the  tropical  portions.  Five  species 
are  found  in  the  Atlantic  states,  one  extending 
as  far  north  as  Pennsylvania  and  Illinois.  In 
some  species  the  flowers  are  large  and  showy, 
and  among  the  most  brilliant  of  the  occupants 
of  our  plant  houses ;  in  others  they  are  small 
and  inconspicuous ;  and  in  all  the  structure  is 
striking  and  peculiar.  The  leaves  in  some  are 
remarkable  for  their  form  or  markings,  several 
species  being  cultivated  for  their  foliage  only ; 
the  leaves,  generally  alternate,  are  entire  or 
variously  lobed  or  parted,  with  petioles  which 
are  often  furnished  with  glands,  and  with  or 
without  stipules;  the  tendrils  by  which  the 
plants  climb  are  rarely  wanting,  and,  being 
mostly  axillary,  are  regarded  as  abortive  flower 
stalks,  as  it  is  not  rare  to  find  them  bearing 
flower  buds.  The  flowers  are  axillary-  and 
solitary,  or  in  racemes,  the  flower  stalk  or 
pedicel  usually  bearing  three  leafy  bracts  em- 
bracing the  base  of  the  flower.  The  structure 
of  the  flower,  which  is  much  out  of  the  ordi- 
nary way,  will  be  best  understood  by  aid  of  a 
longitudinal  section,  as  given  in  the  engraving. 
The  calyx  consists  usually  of  five  sepals,  uni- 
ted below  to  form  a  short  cup  or  tube  ;  the  free 
expanded  portion  is  colored  like  the  petals 
within,  or  on  the  upper  side,  and  often  having 
on  the  outside,  just  below  the  tip,  a  small  hook 
or  claw.  The  petals  are  usually  five,  some- 
times wanting,  attached  to  the  throat  of  the 
calyx  tube,  and  with  them  is  inserted  a  series 
of  thread-like  processes  in  two  or  more  rows, 
forming  a  compound  fringe,  called  the  crown 
or  ray ;  to  this  the  great  beauty  of  most  of 
these  flowers  is  chiefly  due,  as  aside  from  the 
unusual  appearance  it  imparts,  sometimes  ex- 
tending beyond  the  petals,  and  again  quite 
short,  it  is  often  beautifully  colored  and  marked, 
frequently  in  contrast  with  the  color  of  the 
rest  of  the  flower;  the  real  nature  of  these 
filaments  has  been  much  discussed,  but  Dr.  M. 
T.  Masters,  who  has  given  special  study  to  the 
family,  regards  them  as  abortive  stamens,  a 
view  confirmed  by  the  structure  in  related  gen- 
•era.  The  stamens  are  of  the  same  number  as 
the  calyx  divisions  and  opposite  them ;  their 
filaments  are  united  below  to  form  a  tube 
sheathing,  and  more  or  less  united  to  the  stalk 
which  supports  the  pistil,  but  distinct  above, 
their  free  portions  widely  spreading  and  ter- 
minated by  large  oblong  anthers  hung  by  the 
middle.  In  the  centre  of  the  flower  arises  a 
stalk  or  column  (gynophore),  which  is  a  pro- 
longation of  the  receptacle  and  bears  at  its 
apex  the  pistil,  consisting  of  a  one-celled  ovary, 


with  three  club-shaped  styles,  terminated  by 
large  button- like  stigmas.  The  fruit  is  a  berry, 
with  a  more  or  less  hard  rind,  pulpy  within, 
and  containing  numerous  seeds  on  three  pari- 
etal placentae,  each  seed  surrounded  by  a  pulpy 
covering  {arillus)\   the  fruit  in  many  species 


Passion  Flower,  longitudinal  section. 

is  edible.  From  this  outline  of  the  structure, 
the  origin  of  the  name  passion  flower  will  be 
understood;  in  the  palmate  leaves  of  the  plant 
are  seen  the  hands  of  Christ's  persecutors,  and 
in  the  conspicuous  tendrils  the  scourges ;  the 
ten  parts  of  the  flower  envelope,  calyx  and 
corolla  together,  stand  for  the  disciples,  two 
of  whom,  Peter  and  Judas,  were  absent;  the 
fringe  represents  the  crown  of  thorns,  or  ac- 
cording to  some  the  halo  of  glory;  the  five  an- 
thers are  symbolic  of  the  five  wounds,  and  the 
three  styles  with  their  capitate  stigmas  stand 
for  the  nails,  two  for  the  hands  and  one  for 
the  feet,  with  which  the  body  was  nailed  to 
the  cross. — The  showiest  of  our  native  species, 
passijlora  incarnata,  is  found  as  far  north  as 
Kentucky  and  Virginia,  and  is  especially  abun- 


1.  Seed  surrounded  by  aril.    2.  Transverse  section  of  ovary. 
8.  Fruit. 

dant  further  south,  where  it  often  remains  in 
cultivated  land  as  a  weed;  its  stems,  trailing 
on  the  ground  or  climbing  upon  corn  and  other 
crops,  are  regarded  as  troublesome;  it  has  a 
perennial  root,  and  spreads  widely  by  means  of 
underground  stems ;  its  leaves  are  three-cleft, 


PASSION  FLOWER 


151 


and  the  flower,  2  to  3  in.  broad,  pale  purple 
or  nearly  white,  with  a  purple  or  sometimes 
flesh-colored  crown,  is  sufficiently  handsome 
for  cultivation;  the  fruit,  known  throughout 
the  southern  states  as  "maypops,"  is  about 
the  size  of  a  hen's  egg,  dull  yellow  when  ripe, 
and  edible;  an  extract  of  the  leaves  and  an 
infusion  of  the  root  have  been  used  medicinal- 
ly, particularly  as  a  vermifuge.  This  species, 
especially  if  the  roots  are  covered  with  litter 
during  winter,  is  sometimes  hardy  in  northern 
gardens,  and  is  a  fine  vine  for  a  low  trellis, 
though  its  running  under  ground  makes  it 
troublesome,  as  the  shoots  in  spring  will  often 
appear  a  yard  or  two  away  from  the  place 
where  the  plant  stood  the  season  before.  The 
yellow  passion  flower  (P.  luted),  growing  as 
far  north  as  Pennsylvania  and  Illinois,  is  a 
smaller  plant,  and  its  greenish  yellow  flowers, 


Blue  Passion  Flower  (Passiflora  caeralea). 

scarcely  an  inch  across,  are  more  interesting 
than  beautiful.  Our  other  three  species,  na- 
tives of  Florida,  are  not  showy  or  of  any  known 
use.  P.  suberosa  has  greenish  yellow  flowers 
and  small  purple  fruit;  P.  angustifolia  has 
yellowish  flowers  half  an  inch  across,  and  fruit 
the  size  of  a  pea ;  and  P.  Warei  is  equally  in- 
significant in  appearance.  The  commonest  ex- 
otic species  is  the  blue  passion  flower  (P.  cce- 
rulea)  from  South  America,  which  has  been  in 
cultivation  for  nearly  two  centuries ;  it  is  hardy 
in  parts  of  England  and  on  the  European  con- 
tinent, but  not  in  our  northern  states ;  it  is 
cultivated  in  cool  greenhouses,  and  treated  as 
a  bedding  plant ;  if  planted  out  in  warm 
weather,  it  grows  very  rapidly  and  produces  a 
profusion  of  its  handsome  flowers,  which  are 
very  pale  blue,  with  a  purple  centre  and  a  blue 
crown,  which  has  a  white  band  in  the  middle. 


Something  over  100  named  passion  flowers  are 
in  cultivation,  including  hybrids  and  varieties 
from  seed;  of  these  only  a  few  of  the  more 
common  and  striking  can  be  noticed.  The 
edible  passion  flower  (P.  edulis),  called  with 
several  others  granadilla,  is  a  very  old  green- 
house plant,  and,  where  climbers  are  desired, 
useful  for  its  rapid  growth,  dark  green  abun- 
dant foliage,  and  numerous  white  and  blue, 
sweet-scented  flowers ;  its  purple  fruit,  the  size 
of  a  goose  egg,  is  esteemed  for  dessert.  (See 
Gkanadilla.)  The  winged  (P.  alata)  and 
the  four-angled  (P.  quadrangularis)  passion 
flowers  both  have  four-sided  branches,  the  an- 
gles of  which  are  winged ;  both  are  free-flow- 
ering stove  climbers,  wTith  large,  sweet-scented, 
red  or  crimson  flowers,  in  which  the  crown  is 
variously  colored ;  the  two  species  differ  in  the 
structure  of  the  crown,  and  the  last  named, 
called  the  large  granadilla,  has  an  edible  fruit  6 
or  8  in.  in  diameter ;  a  variety,  P.  Decaisneana, 
with  larger  and  more  showy  flowers  than  either, 
is  supposed  to  be  a  hybrid  between  these  two. 
The  large-fruited  passion  flower  (P.  macro- 
carpa)  has  fruited  in  England,  producing  enor- 
mous berries  weighing  as  much  as  10  lbs.  each. 
Among  the  other  choice  species  and  varieties 
in  cultivation  are  P.  princeps,  Buonapartea, 
Tcermesina,  coccinea,  sanguinolenta,  and  circin- 
nata,  the  last  named  remarkable  for  the  very 
long  and  slender  wavy  rays  to  the  crown. 
Among  those  cultivated  for  their  beauty  of 
foliage  is  P.  trifasciata,  in  which  the  dark 
olive-green  leaves  have  three  broad  bands  of 
greenish  white  corresponding  to  their  three 
lobes,  but  the  flowers  are  small  and  not  showy. 
A  few  species  are  annuals;  among  them  P. 
gracilis,  remarkable  for  the  rapidity  of  the 
movements  of  its  tendrils,  is  one  of  the  species 
observed  by  Darwin  in  studying  the  move- 
ments of  climbing  plants ;  the  internode  car- 
rying the  upper  tendril  made  six  revolutions 
at  an  average  of  1  h.  1  nw ;  a  single  touch  near 
the  tip  of  a  tendril  w'heii  in  its  most  sensitive 
condition  caused  it  to  curve,  and  in  two  min- 
utes it  formed  an  open  helix.  The  genus  tac- 
8onia  (from  tacso,  the  Peruvian  name  for  the 
plants)  differs  from  passiflora  chiefly  in  having 
a  long  calyx  tube,  often  over  3  in.  long ;  their 
habit  of  growth  is  similar,  and  their  flowers 
often  exceedingly  brilliant;  their  horticultu- 
ral uses  are  identical  with  those  of  the  passion 
flowers. — In  cultivation  at  least,  some  passion 
flowers  are  singularly  self-sterile;  though  an 
abundance  of  active  pollen  is  produced,  this 
will  not  fertilize  the  pistils  on  the  same  plant, 
but  it  will  those  on  a  different  species,  and 
the  pistils  which  refuse  to  accept  their  own  pol- 
len readily  become  impregnated  by  that  from 
another  species.  P.  racemosa,  ccerulea,  and 
alata,  in  the  botanic  garden  at  Edinburgh, 
refused  for  many  years  to  bear  fruit,  though 
the  flowers  of  each  frequently  had  their  own 
pollen  applied  to  them  artificially ;  but  when 
these  three  were  crossed  in  various  ways  with 
the  pollen  of  either  of  the  others,  fruit  was 


152 


PASSIONISTS 


PASSPORT 


abundantly  produced.  It  is  probable  that  this 
state  of  things  does  not  exist  among  these 
plants  in  the  wild  state,  but  that,  as  the  repro- 
ductive function  is  often  affected  by  slight  ex- 
ternal eauses,  self-sterility  in  these  plants  has 
been  induced  by  the  unnatural  conditions  of 
cultivation.  This  view  is  supported  by  the  fact 
that  P.  alata  in  some  greenhouses  is  inveter- 
ately  self -sterile,  while  in  other  places  it  fruits 
abundantly  by  the  aid  of  its  own  pollen ;  and 
a  plant  known  to  be  self-sterile  was  by  graft- 
ing upon  another  species  rendered  ever  after- 
ward self -fertile.  But  little  is  certainly  known 
about  the  medicinal  qualities  of  the  passion 
flowers;  the  roots  and  leaves  of  several  are 
employed  in  their  native  countries  as  expec- 
torants, narcotics,  and  anthelmintics ;  the  root 
of  one  of  the  granadillas,  P.  quadrangularis, 
very  common  in  greenhouses,  is  said  to  be 
diuretic,  emetic,  and  so  powerfully  narcotic  as 
to  be  regarded  as  poisonous. — Passion  flowers 
are  increased  with  the  greatest  ease  from  cut- 
tings of  the  young  wood,  and  they  may  also  be 
raised  from  seeds.  If  the  plants  are  not  set 
in  the  ground  of  the  greenhouse,  they  should 
have  very  large  pots  or  boxes,  as  the  roots  re- 
quire much  room. 

PASSIONISTS,  an  order  of  regular  clerks  in 
the  Eoman  Catholic  church,  founded  in  1720 
by  Paolo  Francesco  Danei,  known  as  St.  Paul 
of  the  Cross.  He  was  born  Jan.  3,  1694,  at 
Ovada,  near  Genoa,  and  died  Oct.  18,  1775. 
Having  conceived  the  idea  of  a  body  of  mis- 
sionaries uniting  all  the  austerities  of  a  clois- 
tered life  with  the  active  duties  of  the  pastoral 
ministry,  he  retired  in  1720  to  a  hermitage 
with  a  few  companions.  Their  saintly  life, 
the  good  effected  by  them  among  the  neigh- 
boring population,  and  the  recommendation 
of  the  bishops,  induced  Benedict  XIII.  to  or- 
dain them  priests  in  1727.  The  order,  now 
consisting  of  11  priests,  was  approved  by  Bene- 
dict XIV.  in  1741;  and  in  1746,  under  the 
name  of  "the  Discalceated  Clerks  of  the  Cross 
and  Passion  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,"  Danei 
established  his  first  convent  and  novitiate  on 
the  Celian  hill  in  Rome;  and  this  establish- 
ment continued  to  be  the  mother  house  of  the 
order  till  its  suppression  in  1873.  Twelve  con- 
vents were  also  founded  by  him  in  various 
cities  of  Italy,  which  became  centres  of  home 
missionary  labor,  and  a  Passionist  sisterhood 
was  established  at  Corneto.  The  order  and 
its  constitutions  were  solemnly  confirmed  by 
Pius  VI.,  Sept.  15,  1775.  The  Passionists, 
though  much  esteemed  in  Italy,  did  not  extend 
beyond  it  till  the  present  century.  In  1841 
the  first  house  of  the  order  was  founded  at 
Highgate,  near  London,  by  Father  Ignatius 
(George  Spencer) ;  and  they  multiplied  rapidly, 
extending  to  Ireland  and  Australia.  The  first 
Passionist  convents  in  the  United  States  were 
established  at  Birmingham,  Pa.,  in  1852,  and 
at  West  Hoboken,  N.  J.  They  also  own  estab- 
lishments in  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland.  The 
habit  of  the  Passionists  is  a  cassock  of  coarse 


black  cloth,  a  large  crucifix  borne  in  the  girdle, 
and  an  emblem  of  the  passion  wrought  in  red 
on  the  left  breast.  They  go  barefooted,  rise 
during  the  night  to  sing  the  canonical  hours, 
and  devote  themselves  especially  to  giving 
"  missions  "  or  spiritual  retreats.  Their  found- 
er, Paul  of  the  Cross,  was  beatified  in  1853 
and  canonized  in  1868. 

PASSION  PLAYS.  See  Miracles  and  Morali- 
ties, and  Ober-Ammergau. 

PASSION  WEEK.     See  Holt  Week. 

PASSOVER  (Heb.  peso,  %  from  pasa  %  to  leap 
over,  to  pass  by ;  Aram,  pas  'ha  ;  Sept.  naaxa ; 
Vul.  pascha),  a  Hebrew  festival,  instituted  by 
Moses  in  commemoration  of  the  Israelites  re- 
maining intact  on  the  night  of  the  destruction 
of  the  first  born  in  Egypt,  immediately  pre- 
ceding the  exodus  from  that  country  (Ex.  xii.). 
Originally  it  was  observed  by  sacrificing  pass- 
over  lambs  toward  the  evening  of  the  14th  of 
the  first  Hebrew  spring  month  (now  Nisan), 
and  eating  them  on  the  following  night,  as 
well  as  by  excluding  all  leaven  from  the  meals 
of  that  evening  and  the  following  seven  days, 
the  first  and  last  of  which  were  observed  as 
holy.  Since  the  final  destruction  of  the  temple 
of  Jerusalem,  the  passover  has  been  celebrated 
by  eating  unleavened  bread  during  the  seven 
(out  of  Palestine  during  eight)  days,  by  absti- 
nence from  labor  on  the  first  and  last  (out  of 
Palestine  on  the  first  two  and  last  two),  and 
by  the  observance  on  the  first  evening  (out  of 
Palestine  on  the  first  and  second)  of  various 
domestic  rites  commemorative  of  the  deliver- 
ance from  Egyptian  bondage,  including  the 
recital  of  Scriptural  and  legendary  narratives 
and  familiar  conversation  on  the  same  national 
event,  and  the  chanting  of  psalms. 

PASSOW,  Framz  Ludwig  Karl  Friedrich,  a  Ger- 
man philologist,  born  in  Ludwigslust,  Sept.  20, 
1786,  died  in  Breslau,  March  11,  1833.  He 
studied  theology  and  philology  at  Leipsic,  in 
1807  became  professor  of  Greek  in  the  gymna- 
sium at  Weimar,  and  in  1815  professor  of  an- 
cient literature  in  the  university  of  Breslau. 
His  most  important  work  is  the  "  Dictionary  of 
the  Greek  Language"  (4th  ed.,  Leipsic,  1831). 

PASSPORT,  a  document  given  by  the  author- 
ized officer  of  a  state,  which  permits  a  person 
or  persons  therein  named  to  pass  or  travel 
either  generally,  or  through  a  country  named, 
or  on  certain  routes,  by  land  or  water.  Pass- 
ports must  have  been  used  by  all  civilized  gov- 
ernments to  some  extent  and  in  some  form ; 
but  in  England  and  in  the  United  States  they 
have  not  been  used  within  those  countries, 
though  their  governments  give  them  to  those 
of  their  citizens  who  purpose  to  travel  abroad. 
The  United  States  secretary  of  state  is  charged 
with  the  duty  of  issuing  passports,  and  au- 
thorizing and  regulating  their  issue  by  diplo- 
matic or  consular  agents.  Any  one  who  is- 
sues a  passport  without  authority,  or  who  has 
authority  and  issues  a  passport  to  one  not  a 
citizen,  is  liable  to  punishment  by  fine  and 
imprisonment.     Passports   are  also  given  by 


PASTA 


PATAGONIA 


153 


collectors  of  ports  to  all  vessels  of  the  United 
States,  and  if  any  such  vessel  sails  without  a 
passport  the  master  is  liable  to  a  fine  of  $200. 
Every  passport  gives  the  name,  age,  residence, 
and  occupation  of  the  holder,  with  a  descrip- 
tion of  his  person  and  appearance,  which  is 
intended  to  afford  the  means  of  identifying 
him.  It  is  supposed  to  assure  the  holder  of 
the  support  of  his  own  government,  and  asks 
for  him  and  entitles  him  to  the  protection  of 
all  governments  or  nations  at  peace  with  his 
own.— In  many  of  the  European  states  the 
passport  system  has  until  recently  been  kept 
up,  to  afford  the  authorities  means  of  surveil- 
lance over  suspicious  characters,  and  thereby 
to  prevent  conspiracies  against  the  govern- 
ment, or  provide  the  means  of  detecting  them. 
The  belief  that  passports  have  little  efficacy 
for  this  purpose  has  been  confirmed  by  recent 
experience;  and  the  growing  conviction  that 
they-  are  not  so  useful  as  they  are  inconvenient 
and  oppressive  has  generally  led  to  a  practical 
abandonment  of  their  use.  One  may  now  trav- 
el over  Europe,  with  the  exception  of  Russia, 
without  once  exhibiting  his  passport,  unless 
circumstances  direct  suspicion  toward  him. 

PASTA,  Giuditta,  an  Italian  singer,  of  Jewish 
origin,  born  at  Saronno,  near  Milan,  in  1798, 
died  at  her  villa  near  Lake  Oomo,  April  1, 
1865.  She  received  her  first  musical  educa- 
tion from  Bartolommeo  Leotti,  chapelmaster 
in  the  cathedral  of  Oomo.  At  the  age  of  15 
she  was  admitted  to  the  musical  conservatory 
of  Milan,  and  in  1815  began  her  public  career 
at  the  minor  theatres  in  Leghorn,  Parma,  and 
Brescia.  The  next  year,  appearing  at  the  Ita- 
liens  in  Paris,  she  failed  to  attract  notice ;  she 
was  equally  unsuccessful  in  London,  and  deci- 
ded upon  returning  to  her  native  country  for 
further  study.  When,  in  1819  and  1820,  she 
appeared  in  Venice  and  Milan,  she  was  greet- 
ed with  applause.  Returning  to  Paris  in  1821, 
and  visiting  Yerona  during  the  session  of  the 
European  congress  in  1822,  she  was  remark- 
ably successful.  Her  triumph  in  London  was 
scarcely  less  brilliant,  and  for  several  years 
she  continued  to  sing  alternately  in  Paris  and 
London.  In  1827,  some  business  difficulty 
having  occurred  between  her  and  Rossini,  then 
director  of  the  Italian  opera  in  Paris,  she  ac- 
cepted an  engagement  at  Naples,  where  Pacini 
composed  for  her  his  opera  of  Mole.  Her 
dramatic  powers  did  not  please  the  Neapoli- 
tans, though  they  were  afterward  fully  appre- 
ciated at  Bologna,  Milan,  Trieste,  and  Verona. 
At  Milan  Bellini  wrote  for  her  La  sonnamoula 
and  Norma.  Pasta  won  her  last  triumphs  at 
Vienna  in  1832.  Her  voice,  which  had  always 
been  more  remarkable  for  energetic  than  me- 
lodious qualities,  was  now  impaired ;  and  her 
last  engagement  on  the  Italian  stage  in  Paris, 
in  1833  and  1834,  was  not  on  the  whole  suc- 
cessful. In  1836  she  retired  to  her  villa  on 
the  lake  of  Como.  Her  last  engagement,  from 
which  she  received  $40,000,  was  with  the 
opera  in  St.  Petersburg  in  1840. 


PASTEUR,  Louis,  a  French  chemist,  born  in 
Dole,  Dec.  27,  1822.  He  took  his  degree  in 
1847,  was  professor  of  physical  sciences  at  Di- 
jon from  1848  to  1849,  and  afterward  of  chem- 
istry at  Strasburg  till  1854,  when  he  organized 
the  new  faculty  of  science  at  Lille.  In  1857 
he  went  to  Paris  as  scientific  director  of  the 
normal  school;  subsequently  he  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  institute;  and  toward  the 
end  of  1863  he  assumed  the  chair  of  geology, 
physical  science,  and  chemistry  at  the  school 
of  fine  arts,  and  afterward  that  of  chemistry  at 
the  Sorbonne.  He  acquired  great  celebrity, 
and  received  in  1856  the  Rumford  medal  for 
his  researches  on  the  relation  of  the  polariza- 
tion of  light  with  hemihedrals  in  crystal  and 
other  researches,  a  French  prize  for  his  works 
on  fermentation  in  1859,  and  a  Jecker  prize 
in  1861  for  his  chemical  labors.  In  1873  he 
was  elected  an  associate  member  of  the  acad- 
emy of  medicine,  and  the  government  granted 
him  in  1874  a  pension  of  20,000  francs.  He 
is  most  widely  known  for  his  opposition  to 
the  doctrine  of  spontaneous  generation,  and 
his  researches  in  fermentation.  He  maintains 
that  all  fermentations  are  processes  connected 
with  life,  and  not  of  spontaneous  production, 
but  that  the  living  organism  must  proceed 
from  a  parent  of  the  same  kind.  Therefore 
fermentation  can  never  take  place  if  all  access 
of  germs  to  a  fermentable  substance  is  pre- 
vented. He  has  invented  a  new  process  for 
the  fermentation  of  beer  founded  upon  his 
theories,  a  part  of  which  consists  in  exclu- 
ding atmospheric  air  from  the  fermenting  wort, 
as  he  maintains  that  fermentation  can  be  con- 
ducted without  the  presence  of  free  oxygen, 
and  under  certain  circumstances  proceeds  more 
satisfactorily  in  an  atmosphere  of  carbonic  acid. 
He  discovered  that  glycerine  is  one  of  the  pro- 
ducts of  fermentation.  (See  Feementation.) 
He  also  made  interesting  researches  on  racemic 
acid,  discovering  that  when  racemate  of  am- 
monium is  mixed  with  a  small  quantity  of  beer 
yeast  and  exposed  to  a  temperature  of  85°  F. 
fermentation  takes  place,  and  the  racemic  acid 
is  converted  into  lsevotartaric  acid.  His  prin- 
cipal works,  besides  his  contributions  to  the 
Annales  de  chimie  et  de  physique,  are :  Nouvel 
exemple  de  fermentation  determine  par  des  ani- 
malcules infusoires  pouvant  vivre  sans  oxygene 
More  (Paris,  1863) ;  Mudes  sur  le  vin,  ses  ma- 
ladies, &c.  (1866)  ;  Etudes  sur  le  mnaigre,  &c. 
(1868)  ;  Etudes  sur  la  maladie  des  vers  d  soie 
(2  vols.,  1870)  ;  and  Quelques  reflexions  sur  la 
science  en  France  (1871). 

PASTILLE.     See  Peefume. 

PATAGONIA,  a  territory  of  South  America, 
extending  from  lat.  38°  42'  to  53°  52'  S.,  and 
from  Ion.  63°  9'  to  75°  30'  W.  It  is  bounded 
N.  by  the  Argentine  Republic,  from  which  it 
is  separated  by  the  Rio  Negro,  E.  by  the 
Atlantic,  S.  by  the  straits  of  Magellan,  separa- 
ting it  from  Tierra  del  Fuego,  and  W.  by  the 
Pacific  and  the  republic  of  Chili,  the  dividing 
line  with  which  last  is  the  cordillera  of  the 


154 


PATAGONIA 


Andes.  The  maximum  length  from  N.  to  S. 
is  1,050  m. ;  the  maximum  width  from  E.  to 
W.  near  the  northern  extremity  is  475  m., 
and  near  the  southern  extremity  175  m. ;  area 
about  350,000  sq.  m.  The  coast  line  is  in- 
dented by  numerous  inlets,  particularly  S.  and 
W.,  where  the  seaboard  is  the  most  irregular 
of  any  on  the  South  American  continent. 
The  largest  gulfs  on  the  Atlantic  are  San  Ma- 
tias,  Nuevo,  and  St.  George;  and  the  chief 
ports  are  those  of  San  Antonio,  San  Jose,  De- 
sire, San  Julian,  and  Santa  Cruz.  On  the  Pa- 
cific are  the  gulfs  of  Trinidad,  Penas,  Corco- 
vado,  and  Ancud,  the  two  latter  being  more 
properly  straits  separating  the  island  of  Chiloe 
from  the  mainland.  None  of  the  ports  are 
described  as  being  commodious  for  shipping. 
Islands  are  extremely  rare  on  the  E.  coast; 
but  the  Pacific  coast  is  fringed  by  a  continuous 
chain,  mostly  in  distinct  groups.  "Wellington, 
by  far  the  largest  island,  between  lat.  47°  30' 
and  50°  5',  has  a  maximum  length  of  165  m. 
from  N.  N.  W.  to  S.  S.  E.,  and  a  mean  breadth 
of  nearly  40  m.  To  the  north  of  this  island 
is  the  gulf  of  Penas,  to  the  south  that  of  Trini- 
dad, and  it  is  separated  from  the  mainland  by 
Mersier  channel.-  Others  of  the  larger  islands 
are  Queen  Adelaide,  Hanover,  and  those  of 
the  Ohonos  or  Guaytecas  archipelago.  The 
eastern  shores  of  most  of  the  islands  are  high 
and  rocky,  and  the  western  slopes  covered 
with  a  comparatively  rich  arboreal  vegetation, 
while  the  western  edges  are  bare  and  subject 
to  frequent  storms.  The  only  important  penin- 
sula on  the  Atlantic  is  that  of  Valdes,  some- 
times called  San  Jose  ;  in  the  straits  of  Magel- 
lan is  that  of  Brunswick,  and  on  the  Pacific 
that  of  Taytao.  On  the  E.  coast,  the  more 
prominent  points  and  capes  are  Medano  at  the 
embouchure  of  the  Negro,  Norte  and  Delgada 
on  Valdes  peninsula,  Tres  Puntas  and  Virgins 
at  the  entrance  to  the  straits  of  Magellan,  and 
Cape  Froward  in  Brunswick  peninsula,  the 
southernmost  point  of  the  American  mainland. 
The  capes  on  the  W.  coast,  though  numer- 
ous, are  unimportant. — Patagonia,  in  common 
with  the  remainder  of  the  western  continent 
lying  W.  of  Ion.  62°,  is  traversed  from  S.  to  N. 
by  the  Andes,  which  here  lie  nearer  to  the 
coast  than  almost  anywhere  else  S.  of  the 
isthmus  of  Panama.  From  the  southern  ex- 
tremity of  the  territory  to  Mt.  Burney,  which 
has  an  elevation  of  4,800  ft.,  there  are  few 
summits  above  3,000  ft. ;  but  the  snow  line 
in  this  region  of  short  summers  and  long  win- 
ters being  under  2,000  ft.,  the  character  of  the 
mountains  is  Alpine,  and  glaciers  are  fre- 
quent, at  times  even  down  to  the  sea  level  in 
the  valleys.  Northward  from  Mt.  Burney  the 
Alpine  character  is  more  continuous,  especially 
in  that  part  of  the  cordillera  sometimes  called 
the  Sierra  de  Sarmiento.  According  to  Agas- 
siz,  the  glaciers,  which  here  evidently  had  a 
greater  extension  at  an  earlier  period,  have  left 
indications  of  a  movement  from  S.  to  N.,  and 
were  connected  with  a  polar  ice  sheet  similar 


to  that  the  traces  of  which  are  so  apparent  in 
the  northern  hemisphere.  An  observer  from 
high  summits  is  struck  by  the  number  of  small 
lakes  at  all  elevations,  and  still  more  by  the  slen- 
der cascades  formed  by  the  water  rolling  over 
the  transverse  ridge  by  which  almost  every 
valley  is  barred  at  different  heights.  The  lofti- 
est peaks  are  between  lat.  43°  and  45°  S.,  where 
the  most  conspicuous  eminences  are  Mt.  Cay 
and  the  volcanoes  Yanteles  (8,000  ft.)  and  Corco- 
vado.  The  latter  volcano  was  formerly,  though 
erroneously,  considered  the  loftiest  mountain 
in  the  world  below  lat.  42°  S.  Like  its  neigh- 
bor Minchinmadiva,  however,  about  one  degree 
further  N.,  it  more  properly  belongs  to  Chili 
than  to  Patagonia,  though  commonly  assigned 
to  the  latter.  A  system  of  spurs  detached 
from  the  Andes  in  lat.  41°  S.  curves  north- 
ward to  the  very  banks  of  the  Eio  Negro,  and 
again  bends  S.  E.,  trending  toward  the  Atlantic 
coast,  where  it  forms  a  littoral  zone  extending 
into  the  peninsula  of  Valdes.  Terraced  rocky 
ranges  skirt  the  Atlantic  coast  from  the  pen- 
insula just  named  to  the  southern  extrem- 
ity of  the  continent,  rising  here  and  there  to 
a  considerable  elevation,  as  in  the  peaks  Sala- 
manca (lat.  45°  30'),  Rivers  (47°  30'),  and  Wood 
(48°  20'),  and  the  singularly  shaped  hills  in- 
land from  Possession  bay,  known  as  Mt.  Ay- 
mond  and  the  Asses'  Ears,  supposed  to  be  the 
easternmost  of  a  chain  of  small  extinct  volca- 
noes. The  mountains  of  the  middle  region  of 
the  straits,  comprised  in  Brunswick  peninsula, 
range  from  1,000  to  3,000  ft.  above  the  sea, 
but  without  glaciers,  snow  remaining  only  in 
patches  on  their  summits.  A  low  transverse 
chain,  parallel  to  the  bed  of  the  Santa  Cruz 
river  in  lat.  50°  S.,  unites  in  Mt.  Stokes, 
nearly  100  m.  from  the  Pacific  coast,  with  the 
true  Andine  cordillera.  The  space  comprised 
within  the  mountains  first  traced  embraces  t